1. Chapter 1 2.  Globalization refers to the shift towards a more integrated and interdependent world economy.  Globalization has several facets, including the…
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  • 1. Chapter 1
  • 2.  Globalization refers to the shift towards a more integrated and interdependent world economy.  Globalization has several facets, including the globalization of markets and the globalization of production.
  • 3.  Globalization of markets refers to the merging of historically distinct and separate markets into one huge global marketplace.  Falling barriers to cross-border trade has made it easier to sell internationally.  It has been argued for sometime that the tastes and preferences of consumers in different nations are beginning to converge on some global norms thereby creating a global market.
  • 4.  Consumer products such as Coca Cola, Sony PlayStation, Starbucks coffee and McDonalds Hamburgers are examples of this trend.
  • 5.  Globalization doesn’t means that national differences no longer exist.  Differences still exist among national markets along many relevant dimensions, including consumer tastes and preferences, distribution channels, culture, business systems and legal regulations.
  • 6.  These differences frequently require that marketing strategies, product features and operating practices be customized to best match conditions in a country.  For example automobile companies promote different car models depending on a range of factors such as fuel costs, income levels, traffic congestion and cultural values.
  • 7.  Most global markets currently are not markets for consumer products---- where national differences in tastes and preferences are still important enough to act as a brake on globalization----but markets for industrial goods and materials that serve a universal need the world over.
  • 8.  In many global markets, the same firms frequently confront each other as competitors in nation after nation.  Coca-Cola’s rivalry with PepsiCo is a global one, as are the rivalries between Ford and Toyota, Caterpillar and Komatsu in heavy earthmoving equipment, Sony and Microsoft in video games.
  • 9.  Globalization of Production refers to sourcing goods and services from locations around the globe to take advantages of national differences in the cost and quality of factors of production (such as labor, energy, land and capital).  By doing this, companies hope to lower their overall cost structure and/or to improve the quality or functionality of their product offering.
  • 10.  IBM Thinkpad laptop computer is an example of global web of activities.  Designed in US by IBM engineers.  The keyboard and hard drive were made in Thailand; the display screen and memory were made in South Korea.  The built-in wireless card was made in Malaysia.  Assembled in Mexico.
  • 11.  In each case these components were manufactured in the optimal location that reduced the production and transportation costs.  Dixon pencil manufacturer, takes wood from china, uses lead of US, and assembles in Mexico.  Along with the outsourcing of products the services are also being outsourced.  Through internet U.S physicians outsource radiology work in India.
  • 12.  Two macro factors underlie the trend toward greater globalization.  The first is the decline in barriers to the free flow of goods, services, and capital that has occurred since the end of WW II.  The second factor is technological change.
  • 13.  Declining Trade and Investment Barriers During the 1920s and 30s many of the world’s nation-states erected formidable barriers to internationals trade and FDI.  International Trade occurs when a firm exports goods or services to consumers in another country.  Foreign Direct Investment(FDI) occurs when a firm invests in business activities outside its home country.
  • 14.  Many of the barriers to international trade took the form of high tariffs on imports of manufactured goods.  These tariffs were to protect domestic industries from foreign competition.  Ultimately the depressed world demand contributed to the Great Depression of the 1930’s.
  • 15.  Having learned from this experience the advanced industrial nations of the West committed themselves after World War II (1939-1945) to removing barriers to the free flow of goods, services and capital between nations.  This goal was protected through GATT, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.  Eight rounds of negotiations among member states (now numbering to 148)have worked to lower barriers to the free flow of goods and services.
  • 16.  The Uruguay (yoor-gwi) round further reduced trade barriers; extended GATT to cover services as well as manufactured goods; provided enhanced protection for patents, trademarks and copyrights and established the World Trade Organization (WTO) for international trading system.
  • 17.  The lowering of trade barriers made globalization of markets and production a theoretical possibility, technological change has made it a reality.  The world has seen major advances in communication, information processing and transportation technology including the emergence of internet and world wide web.
  • 18.  Perhaps the single most important innovation has been development of microprocessors that enabled the explosive growth of high power, low cost computing, vastly increasing the amount of information that can be processed by individuals and firms.  Over the last 30 years global communications have been modernized by the development of satellite, optical fiber and wireless technologies and now the internet (dot com world).
  • 19.  These technologies rely on the microprocessors to encode, transmit, and decode vast amount of information that flows along theses electronic highways.  The cost of microprocessors continues to fall while their power increases (known as Moore’s Law)
  • 20.  The rapid growth of the internet and associated world wide web which utilizes the internet to communicate between world wide websites is the latest expression of the development.  In 1990, fewer than 1 million users were connected to the internet. By 1995 the figure had risen to 50 million. In 2004 it grew to about 945 million this number is increasing day by day.
  • 21.  The web makes it much easier for buyers and sellers to find each other, where ever they may be located and whatever their size.  The web allows businesses both small and large, to expand their global presence at lower cost than ever before.
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