Globalization and the Nature of War

Antulio J. Echevarria II has written a monograph exploring the nature of war, and how it has changed as a result of globalization. He uses the Clausewitzian model of war’s trinity (political guidance, chance, and enmity) as a framework for
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  GLOBALIZATION AND THE NATURE OF WARLTC Antulio J. Echevarria IIMarch 2003  ***** TheviewsexpressedinthisreportarethoseoftheauthoranddonotnecessarilyreflecttheofficialpolicyorpositionoftheDepartmentofthe Army,theDepartmentof Defense,ortheU.S. Government.This reportis cleared for public release; distribution is unlimited. ***** Comments pertaining to this report are invited and should beforwarded to: Director, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army WarCollege,122ForbesAve.,Carlisle,PA17013-5244.Copiesofthisreportmaybe obtainedfromthePublicationsOfficebycalling(717)245-4133,FAX (717) 245-3820, or be e-mail at ***** Most 1993, 1994, and all later Strategic Studies Institute (SSI)monographs are available on the SSI Homepage for electronicdissemination. SSI’s Homepage address is: ***** The Strategic Studies Institute publishes a monthly e-mailnewslettertoupdatethenationalsecuritycommunityontheresearchof our analysts, recent and forthcoming publications, and upcoming conferencessponsoredbytheInstitute.Eachnewsletteralsoprovidesastrategic commentary by one of our research analysts. If you areinterested in receiving this newsletter, please let us know by e-mail at  or by calling (717) 245-3133. ISBN 1-58487-118-0ii  FOREWORD Perhaps the single most important phenomenon of the21st century is globalization. It is clearly redefining theinternational security environment, as well as many otheraspects of human affairs. Yet, while analysts and scholarscontinue to study (and debate) its economic, social, andpolitical effects, they have done comparatively little workconcerning its impact on war, in particular the nature of war. Inanefforttofillthisgap,LieutenantColonelAntulioJ. Echevarria II has written a monograph exploring thenature of war, and how it has changed as a result of globalization. He uses the Clausewitzian model of war’strinity (political guidance, chance, and enmity) as aframework for understanding the nature of war, a conceptthat has been only vaguely represented in defenseliterature. Hethenanalysestheglobalwaronterrorismviathat framework. Lieutenant Colonel Echevarria concludesthat the Clausewitzian trinity is alive and well.Globalization is strengthening the role that politicalguidance is playing in war, it may well increase theelements of chance and uncertainty, and it is clearlyexacerbating basic feelings of enmity among differentcultures. It is this last area that Lieutenant ColonelEchevarriaseesasthemostcriticalinthewaronterrorism.Ifthereisacenterofgravityinthisconflict,itisintheideasthat have fueled radical Islam.TheStrategicStudiesInstituteispleasedtopublishthiscontribution to the debate on globalization’s effect on war.DOUGLAS C. LOVELACE, JR.DirectorStrategic Studies Instituteiii  BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF THE AUTHOR  ANTULIO J. ECHEVARRIA II, a lieutenant colonel in theU.S.Army,iscurrentlyassignedastheDirectorofStrategicResearch at the Strategic Studies Institute. He graduatedfromtheU.S.MilitaryAcademyin1981,wascommissionedas an armor officer, and has held a variety of command andstaff assignments in Germany and Continental UnitedStates; he has also served as an assistant professor of European history at the U.S. Military Academy; SquadronS3 of 3/16 Cavalry; Chief of BN/TF and Bde Doctrine at theU.S. Army Armor Center at Fort Knox; as an action officerattheArmyAfterNextprojectatHQTRADOC,Ft.Monroe, VA; and as a speechwriter for the U.S. Army Chief of Staff.He is a graduate of the U.S. Army’s Command and GeneralStaff College, the U.S. Army War College, and holds M.A.andPh.D.degreesinHistoryfromPrincetonUniversity.Hehas published articles in a number of scholarly andprofessional journals to include the  Journal of StrategicStudie s,  JournalofMilitaryHisto ry, WarinHistory,War&Socie ty,  Parameter s,  Joint Force Quarter ly,  Military Revi ew, and  Airpower Journal . His book,  After Clausewitz:German Military Thinkers before the Great Wa r, waspublishedbytheUniversityPressofKansasinthespringof 2001.iv  SUMMARY  Just a few years into the new millennium, and it isalready a truism to say that globalization—the spread of information and information technologies, along withgreater public participation in economic and politicalprocesses—is transforming every aspect of human affairs.What is not yet clear, however, are the impacts of thesetrends, especially how they might affect the nature of war.Understandingthenatureofwarisimportantformorethanacademic reasons; the nature of a thing tends to define howitcanandcannotbeused,which,inthecaseofwar,makesitextremely important to both political and military leaders.Toanswerthequestionofwar’snature,onemustturntothefamous Prussian philosopher of war, Carl von Clausewitz(1780-1831),whodevotedmoretimethanperhapsanyothermilitarytheorist(contemporaryorotherwise)tothistopic. The Clausewitzian Nature of War. The most important aspect of Clausewitz’s concept of war is that war has a dual nature, not in the bi-polar sensewhere wars can be limited or unlimited, but in the sensethatderivesfromGermanphilosophicaltraditionsinwhichphenomena are considered to have objective and subjectivenatures. The objective nature of war includes thoseelements—such as violence, friction, chance, anduncertainty—that all wars have in common. Conflicts canrange in kind from an all-out attack to a war of observation(peacekeeping), for instance, but each will have all of theseelementspresenttoonedegreeoranother. Bycontrast,thesubjective nature of war encompasses those elements—such as military forces, their doctrines, weapons, as well asthe environments (land, sea, air, and danger) in which theyfight—that make each war unique. Under Clausewitz’sconcept,theobjectiveandsubjectivenaturesofwarinteractcontinuously. As a result, the nature of war cannot bev
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