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GLOBALIZATION AND THE RISE OF COSMOPOLITAN SHARIAH: THE CHALLENGE AND OPPORTUNITY OF HALAL TOURISM IN INDONESIA

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Globalization is the process of putting the world without being limited by geographic boundaries of a state so multiplicity of linkages and interconnections that transcend the nation states (and by implication the societies) which make up the modern
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  Herald NAMSCA 1, 2018 Suyatno Ladiqi, Baiq Wardhani, Ismail Suardi Wekke, ‘Ainatul Fathiyah Abdur Rahim   904   GLOBALIZATION AND THE RISE OF COSMOPOLITAN SHARIAH: THE CHALLENGE AND OPPORTUNITY OF HALAL TOURISM IN INDONESIA *Suyatno Ladiqi (1),  Baiq Wardhani, Ismail Suardi Wekke, ‘Ainatul Fathiyah Abdur Rahim   ( 1) Faculty of Law & International Relations, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Gong Badak Campus, 21300 Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia *Corresponding author: *Suyatno Ladiqi: Faculty of Law & International Relations, University Sultan Zainal  Abidin, Gong Badak Campus, 21300 Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia  yatno.ladiqi@gmail.com Abstract. Globalization is the process of putting the world without being limited by geographic boundaries of a state so multiplicity of linkages and interconnections that transcend the nation states (and by implication the societies) which make up the modern world system. The influence of globalization also touch the muslim world, in particular the spreading of Shariah. Indonesia is the country with world’s largest Muslim population. Unfortunately, Indonesia has not explored halal tourism. This new concept introduces an islam-friendly culinary, environment, entertainment, cultural activities, and like to a large world citizen, including to non-muslims. Halal tourism is essentially involves a process of taking into account the needs of the Muslim traveller, including halal food, prayer facilities and private areas for men and women. It’s a subcategory of tourism geared towards families who abide by rules of Islam. Furthermore, we explore how globalization influence to halal tourism in Indonesia, not only globalization gives big opportunities but also gives big challenges. We argue, halal tourism will be flourished in Indonesia through globalization process and promotes cosmopolitan shariah.   Keywords: globalisation, cosmopolitan shariah, halal tourism, Indonesia. Introduction. Globalization is the process of putting the world without being limited by geographic  boundaries of a state so multiplicity of linkages and interconnections that transcend the nation states (and by implication the societies) which make up the modern world system. By information, communication and technology (ICT) revolution, globalization encourage the development of many sectors of life in modern world. The influence of globalization also impact for muslim world since globalization gives much opportunity to spread Shariah in particular in country with world’s largest Muslim population, i.e. Indonesia.   One of the development of Shariah is Halal Tourism. The tourism sector has also experienced rapid development since globalization give several opportunities to develop through using ICT sophisticated. The rapid development of the tourism business is one indicator for the success of businesses in the sector. One type tourism which is popular today is halal tourism, which attract not only those among countries with major Muslim populations, but also  by many countries where Muslims are a minority, such as Thailand and Japan. This fact shows that the halal business tourism is one that gives a great advantage.   Halal tourism was srcinally addressed to the Hajj pilgrimage and Umrah to Mecca and Medina. The Hajj is done once a year, while the pilgrimage can be performed anytime. The number of people performing the Hajj and Umrah shows an increasing trends, which provide opportunities for the growth of tourist packages to various destination. The tour packages offered by the tourist providers increasingly varied, not limited to the visits around the Middle East but also to other countries. Seeing this great potential, tourist providers offer tour packages in accordance with Islamic shariah.   Methods. The research literature -  based, which data are obtained from many available sources from the internet, books, and journal. Considering new topics, the availability of resources are limited and related research is not widely observed in Indonesia. The research analyze how globalization impact spreading halal tourism marketing.   Results. The revolution of ICT is referred by Mebrahtu, Crossley, and Johnson 1 . actually stimulates the forces of globalization. It facilitates exchanges, speeding up production, and allowing the sharing of ideas, goods, and services worldwide. This is the reason why shariah ideas have also opportunity to be developed globally. One of the big issue is the spreading of shariah become cosmopolitan issue that able influence to tourism sector, i.e. halal tourism. The concept of halal, meaning permissible in Arabic, is not just being applied to food, but it includes any Shari’ah compliant products ranging from bank dealings to cosmetics, vaccines and in this case, tourism. This means offering tour packages and destinations that are particularly designed to cater for Muslim considerations and address Muslim needs 2 . Halal tourism is this concept involves a process of taking into account the needs of the Muslim traveler, including halal food, prayer facilities and private areas for men and women. Halal tourism is one type of tourism that aimed for Muslim travelers. But its development is not only popular among Muslim consumers but also non - muslim ones. Vegetarian lifestyle is one of today's modern lifestyle. In culinary terms halal tourism is also enjoyed by vegetarians who do not consume meat. The Halal criteria are not automatically only for Muslim. Non - Muslim people 1  Mebrahtu, T., Crossley, M., & Johnson, D. (Eds.). Globalization, educational transformation and societies in transition. UK: Symposium Books. 2000. p.23.   2   Noersanty, Eko. n.d. Halal Tourism, The New Product in Islamic Leisure Tourism and  Architecture.https://www.academia.edu/2218300/Halal_Tourism_The_New_Product_In_Islamic_Leisure_Tourism_And_  Architecture.  Accessed 2/4/2017.    Herald NAMSCA 1, 2018 Suyatno Ladiqi, Baiq Wardhani, Ismail Suardi Wekke, ‘Ainatul Fathiyah Abdur Rahim   905   travel to gain knowledge, learn about history of other people, and widen their perspective about life and their understanding of human civilization.   Another interesting fact is that the halal tourism business is able to develop in the middle of the thick issue of terrorism and radicalism, as if the two things go together and does not interfere with each other. While large countries like the United States, France and Australia give travel warning to countries potentially become terrorist targets, other countries too aggressively develop halal tourism business. Kamili 3 , asserts, although the halal and haram in food and entertainment are not new, halal awareness as a market phenomenon and its implications for international tourism, trade and finance are relatively recent, and much of it seems to have emerged, oddly enough, after the 9/11 attacks which were by no means Islam - friendly nor were at all meant to encourage Islamic tourism. Halal tourism businesses have the opportunity to rapidly develop along with the trend going in the Islamic world, such as sharia dress / muslim fashion, muslim culinary, and the like. Many suggest, among them is Healy 4  that halal tourism is travelling in the right direction. As she puts it, in 2030 muslim population are expected to increase from 1.6 billion to 2.2 billion. This huge number is too important to be missed out, and thus this projections suggest that halal _travel will outpace the growth of any other tourism sector within the next four years. Healy cited the MasterCard - Crescent_ Rating Global Muslim Travel Index (GMTI) 2015, while the sector was worth US$145 billion (Dh532.6bn) last year, it’s expected to grow to $200bn by 2020. Business of halal tourism will get a huge benefit and could develop a visible global market. As MasterCard - Crescent_ Rating Global Muslim Travel Index (GMTI) Abu Dhabi -  based event director Andy Buchanan asserts, “It’s becoming a hugely competitive market now as tourism bodies realise the potential of attracting this high - spending market.” Emerging muslim middle - class around the world demand alternative destination of tourism. This brings opportunities for many business to provide services that abide Islamic shariah.   Cosmopolitan Shariah. The term ‘cosmopolitan’ is derived from two words: kosmos (means universe or world) and politês (citizen). One of the earliest known textual accounts of the term “cosmopolitan” can be found in the account of the life of Diogenes of Sinope, or Diogenes the Cynic: “Asked where [Diogenes] came from, he replied, ‘I am a citizen of the world (kosmopolitês)’” 5  (Diogenes 1925: 71). In the modern world today, the idea of cosmopolitanism is popularized by Immanuel Kant, whose retained the idea of membership to humanity as a whole by insisting on the importance of ‘knowledge of man as a citizen of the world 6 . Furthermore, according to Gannaway 7 , “cosmopolitanism is the belief that everyone exists in a globally constructed ethical -  political order.” Many forms of cosmopolitanism today come from a Kantian liberal perspective, basing their conceptions of cosmopolitanism on Kant’s articulation of the term. The processes of globalization bring people into new relationships with those beyond their national borders. Such a principle is essential to understanding cosmopolitanism in a global era. Today we do live in a global era where cosmopolitan principles are gaining increasing salience. The term kosmos reflects a philosophical understanding of the world as harmoniously ordered, all pieces fitting together to form a balanced whole under a principle of unity in diversity. Cosmpolitanism encouraged the principle of unity in diversity, articulated in the elaborate image of the kosmos, implies that an effective unified order must account for, promote, and protect difference and diversity. The development of halal tourism is a cosmopolitan in practice. The idea of cosmopolitanism does not usually referred to a certain religion, in particular when this philosophy is to be put back in its very srcin meaning. However, to label shariah in the philosophy bears a new approach that does not contradict each other. Even though shariah is an Islamic word, it applies to any religious belief because in this regard, shariah is a friendly conception that would be receptive to any civilization. Halal tourism in line with the spirit of cosmopolitanism that promotes inclusiveness. Information technology has opened up a vast knowledge for the Islamic teaching, especially for non - Muslims who wants to know what Islam is about. Thanks to technology, hostility towards Islam as a result of a Variety of radicalism in the name of Islam can be reduced. Many non - Muslims began to familiarise themselves about Islam. In relation to that, Islamic revivalism has increased awareness on various aspects of halal tourism is an important driver for the growth of halal tourism business as the business flourish. Atmosphere of cosmopolitanism of halal tourism business, for example, can be felt in a variety of Malaysian shops in the heart of London city. Shops run by Malaysian diasporic in London, in the which they provide halal cuisine reserved for Muslims and non - Muslims of various ethnic groups in the world. The shops ran by Chinese and Indian muslims, which indicates the nature of multiculturalism Malaysia. Trans - nationalization nature of halal  business is growing at such a global city of London indicates that the halal business can coexist with global capitalism. 3  Kamali, Mohammad Hashim. Tourism and Halal Industry: a Global Shariah Perspective. Paper presented to the World Islamic Tourism Forum 2011, jointly organised by the Global Islamic Tourism Organisation (GITO) Malaysia and the International Institute of Advanced Islamic Studies (IAIS) Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 12-13 July 2011: 2001.   4  Healy, Melinda. 2015. How halal tourism is travelling in the right direction. http://www.thenational.ae/arts-lifestyle/travel/how-halal-tourism-is-travelling-in-the-right-direction. Accessed 2/4/2016. 5  Diogenes Lae rtius. ‘Diogenes.’ in Lives of the Eminent  Philosophers, vol. 2, ed. Jeffrey Henderson. Cambridge, MA, pp. 23-85: 1925.   6  Cheah, Pheng. Cosmopolitanism. Theory Culture Society 23: 486-496.DOI: 10.1177/026327640602300290. Available from http://tcs.sagepub.com/content/23/2-3/486: 2006. Accessed 2/4/2017.   7  Gannaway, Adam. What is Cosmopolitanism? MPSA Conference Paper .2009.  Herald NAMSCA 1, 2018 Suyatno Ladiqi, Baiq Wardhani, Ismail Suardi Wekke, ‘Ainatul Fathiyah Abdur Rahim   906   This phenomenon suggests the development of the spirit of cosmopolitanism with greater acceptance among different civilization.   Halal Tourism in Indonesia. Halal tourism began to be known since the implementation of the activities Indonesia Halal Expo (INDHEX) 2013 & Global Halal Forum held on October 30 to November 2, 2013. This concept offers one form of tourism that carry the labels of Islam to the global community and offering a distinctive shape with Islamic values. Many are aware of the opportunities within this concept, following the global trend flourishing in the Islamic world.   Indonesia is known as the country with the largest number of Muslim population in the world. But the concept of halal tourism has not yet developed as a promising tourism potential in the country. Indonesia has great potential to accommodate and attract Muslim tourists from around the world. In contrast with Malaysia, which had already been doing it. Malaysia has built the concept of sharia travel since 2006, and established the Directorate General of Islamic Tourism since 2009, creating their program of sharia travel more integrated and well - coordinated. Malaysia is currently among the three major world halal tourist destination together with Turkey and the United Arab Emirates 8 .   Indonesia has great potential in halal tourism development, giving a fact that most people are Muslim and their supporting factors such as the availability of halal products. The number of Muslims in the world, which reached 1.6  billion, approximately 25% of the world population. Not only that, the Global Islamic Economy Report in 2013 stated that there were at least US $ 140 billion potential that can be gained from the Muslim traveler. To support the development of halal tourism, the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy sets the nine sharia tourist destinations in Indonesia. The nine destinations, including West Sumatra, Riau, Lampung, Jakarta, Banten, West Java, East Java, Lombok, and Makassar. There is a strong hope that Indonesia will be friendly destination for Muslim tourists. Not just a tourist destination, facilities that support it must conform Halal standards of the Indonesian Ulema Council (MUI). Travel sharia is also promoting halal products which is safe to consume by both Muslims and non - Muslims tourist 9 .   According to Director General of Tourism Marketing, Esthy Reko Astuti, to meet the needs of halal tourism demand, the government is trying to develop and promote business services in hotels, restaurants, travel agencies, and spas in many tourist destinations of halal tourist, among others are Aceh, West Sumatra, Riau, Lampung, Banten, Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, Yogyakarta, East Java, West Nusa Tenggara and South Sulawesi. Based on data from the UNWTO Tourism Highlights 2014, there were approximately 1 billion tourists in the world and is expected to rise to 1.8 billion in 2030 10 .   Three awards have been achieved by Indonesia in the event the World Halal Travel Award 2015 in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), late last October. Indonesia asked as the winner of the World's Best Halal Tourism Destination (Lombok), World's Best Honeymoon Destination Halal (Lombok), and the World's Best Family Friendly Hotel (Sofyan Hotel). The awards confirm Indonesia's determination to become a world - class halal tourist destination. For the Minister of Tourism Arief Yahya, the achievement was becoming the new ammunition for Indonesia to continue to promote the tourism potential of the country, which is so abundant 11 . Many places that have been established as halal tourist destination prepare themselves to receive a number of tourists. Infrastructures have been built and rebuilt to cater the demand of touritst. Lombok, for example, has established itself as a destination of World Best Halal Tourism and World Best Halal Honeymoon received from world competition The World Halal Travel Summit/exhibition which was announced in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in 2015 ago. According to West Nusa Tenggara Governor Zainul Majdi TGH Lombok is prepared to facing Indonesia’s  biggest competitor in halal toirism, which is Thailand, not Malaysia nor Brunei, not n terms of religion, but purely on market share 12 . Conclusion. It can be said that globalization also give challenges through rapid development of ICT. Halal tourism get impact through using ICT to see how market share in the world can be taken as opportunities or challenges. If tourism stakeholders in Indonesia can optimize ICT development, such as spread of promotion, build good infrastructure and safety place, so it means the are opportunities of halal tourism can be reached succesfully. The rise of challenges depend on how stakeholders manage and sustain halal tourism. Globalization can inform many things related to halal tourism operational through ICT development toward entire world. Image of halal tourism can be informed not only by capture of media but also from tourist. So sustainability vision by stakeholders is pivotal things to keep halal tourism on the right track.   The halal industry, whether within or outside the tourism sector, has seen eye - cacthing developments in recent years and has rapidly become a lucrative business. Visualising the rules of Shariah on halal and haram side by side with scientific advancements of concern to food and medicine, recreation, cosmetics and the like, one can see that the Shariah rules need to evolve in response to new developments and issues. Cosmopolitan shariah would be widely accepted and attract people from different civilization. It means there are big opportunity for shariah can be spread 8  http://www.tourism.gov.my/media/view/tourism-malaysia-goes-all-out-to-promote-halal-tourism-in-abu-dhabi. Tourism Malaysia Goes all out to Promote Halal Tourism in Abu Dhabi. Accessed 2/4/2017. 9  Ikhsan, Arby. No date. https://www.academia.edu/5841658/Wisata_Syariah_Halal_Tourism. Accessed 2/4/2016. 10  ibid   11   Soepardi, Hanni Sofia. 2015. Indonesia raih tiga penghargaan destinasi halal dunia. http://www.antaranews.com/berita/524722/indonesia-raih-tiga-penghargaan-destinasi-halal-dunia. Accessed 2/4/2017.   12  http://wartakapital.com/?p=1761 Thailand Rival Terpenting Wisata Halal Indonesia. Accessed 2/4/2017.    Herald NAMSCA 1, 2018 Suyatno Ladiqi, Baiq Wardhani, Ismail Suardi Wekke, ‘Ainatul Fathiyah Abdur Rahim   907   globally and able to avoid negative image label of shariah as islamic fundamental law repression by terrorist activities. The halal tourism is a smart branding for Indonesia to bear people in the world awareness about Indonesia that was dubbed as “a haven of terrorists”. The promotion of halal tourism as a form of cosmopolitan shariah, is a strategic measure to restore Indonesia’s image among Islamophobias around the world. The philosophy of cosmopolitan is significant because the marketing focus of halal tourism will be more on lifestyle than religious affairs. Even though a tardy, compared to neighbouring Malaysia and Thailand, halal tourism offers optimism after the country took home three trophies from an international halal tourism awards during the World Halal Travel Summit event in Dubai in 2015.   References   1.   Asia Euorope Institute, University of Malaya. Islam and Multiculturalism .  University of Malaya and Waseda University. 2013  2.   Cheah, Pheng. Cosmopolitanism. Theory Culture Society 23: 486 - 496.DOI: 10.1177/026327640602300290. Available from http://tcs.sagepub.com/content/23/2 - 3/486: 2006. Accessed 2/4/2017.  3.   Diogenes Laertius. ‘Diogenes.’ in Lives of the Eminent Philosophers, vol. 2, ed. Jeffrey Henderson. Cambridge, MA, pp. 23 - 85: 1925.  4.   Gannaway, Adam. What is Cosmopolitanism? MPSA Conference Paper.2009. 5.   Healy, Melinda. How halal tourism is travelling in the right direction. http://www.thenational.ae/arts - lifestyle/travel/how - halal - tourism - is - travelling - in - the - right - direction. 2015. Accessed 2/4/2016. 6.   http://wartakapital.com/?p=1761 Thailand Rival Terpenting Wisata Halal Indonesia. Accessed 2/4/2017.  7.   http://www.tourism.gov.my/media/view/tourism - malaysia - goes - all - out - to -  promote - halal - tourism - in - abu - dhabi. Tourism Malaysia Goes all out to Promote Halal Tourism in Abu Dhabi. Accessed 2/4/2017. 8.   Ikhsan, Arby. No date. https://www.academia.edu/5841658/Wisata_Syariah_Halal_Tourism. Accessed 2/4/2016. 9.   Kamali, Mohammad Hashim. Tourism and Halal Industry: a Global Shariah Perspective. Paper presented to the World Islamic Tourism Forum 2011, jointly organised by the Global Islamic Tourism Organisation (GITO) Malaysia and the International Institute of Advanced Islamic Studies (IAIS) Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 12 - 13 July 2011: 2001.  10.   Mebrahtu, T., Crossley, M., & Johnson, D. (Eds.). Globalization, educational transformation and societies in transition. UK: Symposium Books. 2000. p.23.  11.   Mohagheghi, M. Djavad. Halal and Tayyeb: A quality standard only for Muslim? Halal World Germany Icric Representative in Germany Granada, HTC. 2014 12.   Mathew, Vloreen Nity. Ardiana Mazwa Raudah binti Amir Abd. and Siti Nurazizah binti Mohamad Ismail. Acceptance on  Halal   Food among Non - Muslim.  Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences  121, 262 - 271:2012  13.    Noersanty, Eko. n.d. Halal Tourism, The New Product in Islamic Leisure Tourism and Architecture.https://www.academia.edu/2218300/Halal_Tourism_The_New_Product_In_Islamic_Leisure_Tourism_And_Architecture. Accessed 2/4/2017. 14.   Soepardi, Hanni Sofia. Indonesia raih tiga penghargaan destinasi halal dunia. http://www.antaranews.com/berita/524722/indonesia - raih - tiga -  penghargaan - destinasi - halal - dunia. 2015. Accessed 2/4/2017.  
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