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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

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Wilhelm Leibniz
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  9/25/2014Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gottfried_Wilhelm_Leibniz1/31 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Born July 1, 1646Leipzig, Electorate of Saxony,Holy Roman Empire Died  November 14, 1716 (aged 70)Hanover, Electorate of Hanover,Holy Roman Empire Nationality German Era 17th-/18th-century philosophy Region Western Philosophy Main interests Mathematics, metaphysics, logic,theodicy, universal language Notable ideas CalculusMonadsBest of all possible worldsLeibniz formula for πLeibniz harmonic triangleLeibniz formula for determinantsLeibniz integral rulePrinciple of sufficient reasonDiagrammatic reasoning Notation for differentiationProof of Fermat's little theorem Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz  (/ˈlaɪbnɪts/; [4]   German: [ˈɡɔtfʁiːt ˈvɪlhɛlm fɔn ˈlaɪbnɪts] [5]  or [ˈlaɪpnɪts]; [6]  July 1,1646 – November 14, 1716) was a German mathematician and philosopher. He occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of  philosophy.Leibniz developed calculus independently of Isaac Newton, and Leibniz's mathematical notation has been widely used ever since it was published. It was only inthe 20th century that his Law of Continuity andTranscendental Law of Homogeneity found mathematical implementation (by means of non-standardanalysis). He became one of the most pr olific inventorsin the field of mechanical calculators. While working onadding automatic multiplication and division to Pascal'scalculator, he was the first to describe a pinwheelcalculator in 1685 [7]  and invented the Leibniz wheel,used in the arithmometer, the first mass-produced mechanical calculator. He also refined the binary number  system, which is the foundation of  virtually all digitalcom puters.In philosophy, Leibniz is most noted for his optimism, e.g. , his conclusion that our Universe is, in a restrictedsense, the best  possible one that God could have created. Leibniz, along with René Descartes and Baruch Spinoza,was one of the three great 17th century advocates of rationalism. The work of Leibniz anticipated modernlogic and analytic philosophy, but his philosophy also looks back to the scholastic tradition, in whichconclusions are produced by ap plying reason to first  principles or prior definitions rather than to empirical evidence.Leibniz made major contributions to physics andtechnology, and anticipated notions that surfaced muchlater in philosophy, probability theory, biology,medicine, geology, psychology, linguistics, and computer science. He wrote works on philosophy, politics, law,ethics, theology, history, and philology. Leibniz'scontributions to this vast array of subjects were scatteredin various learned journals, in tens of thousands of letters, and in unpublished manuscripts. He wrote in  9/25/2014Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gottfried_Wilhelm_Leibniz2/31 Kinetic energyEntscheidungsproblemASTLaw of ContinuityTranscendental Law of Homogeneity Characteristica universalis Ars combinatoria Calculus ratiocinator  Universalwissenschaft  [1] InfluencesInfluencedSignature several languages, but primarily in Latin, French, andGerman. [8]  There is no complete gathering of thewritings of Leibniz. [9] Contents 1 Biography1.1 Early life1.2 1666–16741.3 House of Hanover, 1676–17162 Death3 Personal life4 Philosopher 4.1 The Principles4.2 The monads4.3 Theodicy and optimism4.4 Symbolic thought4.5 Formal logic5 Mathematician5.1 Calculus5.2 Topology6 Scientist and engineer 6.1 Physics6.1.1 The vis viva 6.2 Other natural science6.3 Social science6.4 Technology6.4.1 Computation6.5 Librarian6.6 Advocate of scientific societies7 Lawyer, moralist7.1 Ecumenism8 Philologist9 Sinophile10 As polymath11 Posthumous reputation    9/25/2014Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gottfried_Wilhelm_Leibniz3/31 11.1 As a mathematician and philosopher 12 Writings and edition12.1 Selected works12.2 Collections13 See also14 Notes15 References15.1 Bibliographies15.2 Primary literature15.3 Secondary literature16 External links Biography Early life Gottfried Leibniz was born on July 1, 1646 (near the 1648 end of the Thirty Years' War), in Leipzig,Saxony, to Friedrich Leibniz and Catharina Schmuck. Friedrich noted in his family journal: 21. Juny am Sontag 1646 Ist mein Sohn Gottfried Wilhelm, post sextam vespertinam 1/4 uff 7 uhr abents zur welt gebohren, im Wassermann. In English: On Sunday 21 June [NS: 1 July] 1646, my son Gottfried Wilhelm is born into the world a quarter after six in the evening, in Aquarius. [10]   [11] His father died when Leibniz was six years old, and from that point on he was raised by his mother. Her teachings influenced Leibniz's philosophical thoughts in his later life.Leibniz's father had been a Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Leipzig and the boy inheritedhis father's personal library. He was given free access to it from the age of seven. While Leibniz'sschoolwork focused on a small canon of authorities, his father's library enabled him to study a wide varietyof advanced philosophical and theological works – ones that he would not have otherwise been able to readuntil his college years. [12]  Access to his father's library, largely written in Latin, also led to his proficiencyin the Latin language, which he achieved by the age of 12. He also composed three hundred hexameters of Latin verse in a single morning for a special event at school at the age of 13. [13] He enrolled in his father's former university at age 15, [14]  and completed his bachelor's degree in philosophy in December 1662. He defended his  Disputatio Metaphysica de Principio Individui , whichaddressed the principle of individuation, on June 9, 1663. Leibniz earned his master's degree in philosophyon February 7, 1664. He published and defended a dissertation Specimen Quaestionum Philosophicarum ex  9/25/2014Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gottfried_Wilhelm_Leibniz4/31 ure collectarum , arguing for both a theoretical and a pedagogical relationship between philosophy andlaw, in December 1664. After one year of legal studies, he was awarded his bachelor's degree in Law onSeptember 28, 1665.In 1666, at age 20, Leibniz wrote his first book, On the Art of Combinations , the first part of which was alsohis habilitation thesis in philosophy. [15]  His next goal was to earn his license and doctorate in Law, whichnormally required three years of study. In 1666, the University of Leipzig turned down Leibniz's doctoralapplication and refused to grant him a doctorate in law, most likely due to his relative youth. [16][17]  Leibnizsubsequently left Leipzig. [18] Leibniz then enrolled in the University of Altdorf, and almost immediately he submitted a thesis, which hehad probably been working on earlier in Leipzig. [19]  The title of his thesis was  Disputatio Inauguralis DeCasibus Perplexis In Jure . Leibniz earned his license to practice law and his Doctorate in Law in November 1666. He next declined the offer of an academic appointment at Altdorf, saying that my thoughts wereturned in an entirely different direction . [20] As an adult, Leibniz often introduced himself as Gottfried von Leibniz . Many posthumously publishededitions of his writings presented his name on the title page as Freiherr G. W. von Leibniz. However, nodocument has ever been found from any contemporary government that stated his appointment to any formof nobility. [21] 1666–1674 Leibniz's first position was as a salaried secretary to an alchemical society in Nuremberg. [22]  He knew fairlylittle about the subject at that time but presented himself as deeply learned. He soon met Johann Christianvon Boyneburg (1622–1672), the dismissed chief minister of the Elector of Mainz, Johann Philipp vonSchönborn. [23]  Von Boyneburg hired Leibniz as an assistant, and shortly thereafter reconciled with theElector and introduced Leibniz to him. Leibniz then dedicated an essay on law to the Elector in the hope of obtaining employment. The stratagem worked; the Elector asked Leibniz to assist with the redrafting of thelegal code for his Electorate. [24]  In 1669, Leibniz was appointed Assessor in the Court of Appeal. Althoughvon Boyneburg died late in 1672, Leibniz remained under the employment of his widow until she dismissedhim in 1674.Von Boyneburg did much to promote Leibniz's reputation, and the latter's memoranda and letters began toattract favorable notice. Leibniz's service to the Elector soon followed a diplomatic role. He published anessay, under the pseudonym of a fictitious Polish nobleman, arguing (unsuccessfully) for the Germancandidate for the Polish crown. The main force in European geopolitics during Leibniz's adult life was theambition of Louis XIV of France, backed by French military and economic might. Meanwhile, the ThirtyYears' War had left German-speaking Europe exhausted, fragmented, and economically backward. Leibniz proposed to protect German-speaking Europe by distracting Louis as follows. France would be invited totake Egypt as a stepping stone towards an eventual conquest of the Dutch East Indies. In return, Francewould agree to leave Germany and the Netherlands undisturbed. This plan obtained the Elector's cautioussupport. In 1672, the French government invited Leibniz to Paris for discussion, [25]  but the plan was soonovertaken by the outbreak of the Franco-Dutch War and became irrelevant. Napoleon's failed invasion of Egypt in 1798 can be seen as an unwitting, late implementation of Leibniz's plan, after the Easternhemisphere colonial supremacy in Europe had already passed from the Dutch to the British.

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Jul 25, 2017
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