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H.J. van Noorloos (2011). A transnational networked space: tracing residential tourism and its multi-local implications in Costa Rica. International Development Planning Review, 33(4), 429-444.

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H.J. van Noorloos (2011). A transnational networked space: tracing residential tourism and its multi-local implications in Costa Rica. International Development Planning Review, 33(4), 429-444.
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   1  󰁁 󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁳󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁮󰁥󰁴󰁷󰁯󰁲󰁫󰁥󰁤 󰁳󰁰󰁡󰁣󰁥󰀺 󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁣󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁭󰁵󰁬󰁴󰁩󰀭󰁬󰁯󰁣󰁡󰁬 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁬󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁩󰁮 󰁃󰁯󰁳󰁴󰁡 󰁒󰁩󰁣󰁡 󰁆󰁥󰁭󰁫󰁥 󰁶󰁡󰁮 󰁎󰁯󰁯󰁲󰁬󰁯󰁯󰁳 A󰁵󰁴󰁨󰁯󰁲 󰁭󰁡󰁮󰁵󰁳󰁣󰁲󰁩󰁰󰁴 󰁰󰁵󰁢󰁬󰁩󰁳󰁨󰁥󰁤 󰁡󰁳 󰁡󰁲󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁬󰁥 󰁩󰁮 I󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 D󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 P󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁮󰁩󰁮󰁧 R󰁥󰁶󰁩󰁥󰁷 (IDPR), 2011, 33 (4), 󰁰󰁰. 429󰀭444, 󰁨󰁴󰁴󰁰󰁳://󰁤󰁯󰁩.󰁯󰁲󰁧/10.3828/󰁩󰁤󰁰󰁲.2011.22 󰂩 2017. T󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁭󰁡󰁮󰁵󰁳󰁣󰁲󰁩󰁰󰁴 󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁩󰁳 󰁭󰁡󰁤󰁥 󰁡󰁶󰁡󰁩󰁬󰁡󰁢󰁬󰁥 󰁵󰁮󰁤󰁥󰁲 󰁴󰁨󰁥 CC󰀭BY󰀭NC󰀭ND 4.0 󰁬󰁩󰁣󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁥 󰁨󰁴󰁴󰁰://󰁣󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁭󰁯󰁮󰁳.󰁯󰁲󰁧/󰁬󰁩󰁣󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁥󰁳/󰁢󰁹󰀭󰁮󰁣󰀭󰁮󰁤/4.0/   󰁄󰁲. 󰁆󰁥󰁭󰁫󰁥 󰁶󰁡󰁮 󰁎󰁯󰁯󰁲󰁬󰁯󰁯󰁳 I󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 D󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 S󰁴󰁵󰁤󰁩󰁥󰁳, D󰁥󰁰󰁴. H󰁵󰁭󰁡󰁮 G󰁥󰁯󰁧󰁲󰁡󰁰󰁨󰁹 & P󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁮󰁩󰁮󰁧, F󰁡󰁣󰁵󰁬󰁴󰁹 󰁯󰁦 G󰁥󰁯󰁳󰁣󰁩󰁥󰁮󰁣󰁥󰁳, U󰁴󰁲󰁥󰁣󰁨󰁴 U󰁮󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁩󰁴󰁹, T󰁨󰁥 N󰁥󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁤󰁳, H.J.󰁶󰁡󰁮N󰁯󰁯󰁲󰁬󰁯󰁯󰁳@󰁵󰁵.󰁮󰁬  󰁁󰁢󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁣󰁴 T󰁨󰁥 󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁰󰁬󰁥󰁸󰁩󰁴󰁹 󰁯󰁦 󰁲󰁥󰁣󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁧󰁲󰁯󰁷󰁴󰁨 󰁯󰁮 C󰁯󰁳󰁴󰁡 R󰁩󰁣󰁡󲀙󰁳 󰁣󰁯󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁳 󰁣󰁡󰁬󰁬󰁳 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁮󰁥󰁷 󰁡󰁰󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁡󰁣󰁨󰁥󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁡󰁤󰁤󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁰󰁨󰁥󰁮󰁯󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁯󰁮 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁬󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁩󰁮 󰁡 󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁥 󰁭󰁯󰁢󰁩󰁬󰁥 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁳󰀭󰁬󰁯󰁣󰁡󰁬 󰁷󰁡󰁹. I󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁡󰁲󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁬󰁥 󰁯󰁮󰁥 󰁧󰁲󰁯󰁷󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁤󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁩󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁬󰁹󰁳󰁥󰁤 󰁡󰁳 󰁡 󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁳󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁮󰁥󰁴󰁷󰁯󰁲󰁫󰁥󰁤 󰁳󰁰󰁡󰁣󰁥. T󰁨󰁥 󰁦󰁯󰁣󰁵󰁳 󰁩󰁳 󰁯󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁲󰁥󰁥 󰁦󰁬󰁯󰁷󰁳 󰁯󰁲 󰁣󰁯󰁲󰁲󰁩󰁤󰁯󰁲󰁳 󰁷󰁨󰁩󰁣󰁨 󰁨󰁡󰁶󰁥 󰁥󰁮󰁡󰁢󰁬󰁥󰁤 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁧󰁲󰁯󰁷󰁴󰁨 󰁯󰁦 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁴󰁨󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁧󰁨 󰁷󰁨󰁩󰁣󰁨 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁬󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁳󰁰󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁤 󰁩󰁮 󰁳󰁰󰁡󰁣󰁥. T󰁨󰁥󰁳󰁥 󰁦󰁬󰁯󰁷󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁰󰁥󰁯󰁰󰁬󰁥 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁩󰁮󰁶󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁦󰁲󰁯󰁭 N󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁨 A󰁭󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁡, N󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁲󰁡󰁧󰁵󰁡 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁣󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁬 C󰁯󰁳󰁴󰁡 R󰁩󰁣󰁡 󰁨󰁡󰁶󰁥 󰁮󰁯󰁴 󰁢󰁥󰁥󰁮 󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁢󰁬󰁩󰁳󰁨󰁥󰁤 󰁡󰁵󰁴󰁯󰁭󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁬󰁬󰁹: 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁹 󰁢󰁵󰁩󰁬󰁤 󰁯󰁮 󰁡 󰁨󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁹 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁨󰁡󰁶󰁥 󰁢󰁥󰁥󰁮 󰁲󰁥󰁩󰁮󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁣󰁥󰁤. T󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁤󰁯󰁥󰁳 󰁮󰁯󰁴 󰁭󰁥󰁡󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁬󰁯󰁣󰁡󰁬 󰁧󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁰󰁳 󰁡󰁲󰁥 󰁬󰁥󰁦󰁴 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨󰁯󰁵󰁴 󰁯󰁰󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁵󰁮󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁥󰁳; 󰁨󰁯󰁷󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁲, 󰁳󰁯󰁭󰁥 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁭 󰁩󰁮󰁣󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁧󰁬󰁹 󰁥󰁸󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁥󰁮󰁣󰁥 󰁡 󰁤󰁩󰁳󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁮󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁦󰁲󰁯󰁭 󰁭󰁡󰁩󰁮󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁭 󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴. 󰁉󰁮󰁴󰁲󰁯󰁤󰁵󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 R󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁦󰁩󰁧󰁵󰁲󰁥󰁳 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁭󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁬󰁹 󰁡󰁭󰁯󰁮󰁧 󰁣󰁵󰁲󰁲󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁭󰁯󰁢󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁴󰁹 󰁰󰁨󰁥󰁮󰁯󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁡: 󰁢󰁥󰁴󰁷󰁥󰁥󰁮 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁭󰁩󰁧󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮, 󰁴󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁡󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁶󰁩󰁴󰁹 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁴󰁵󰁴󰁥󰁳 󰁡 󰁰󰁡󰁲󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁵󰁬󰁡󰁲󰁬󰁹 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁳󰁵󰁢󰁪󰁥󰁣󰁴 󰁴󰁯 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁥󰁡󰁲󰁣󰁨 󰁰󰁯󰁳󰁴󰀭󰁭󰁯󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁮, 󰁭󰁯󰁢󰁩󰁬󰁥 󰁬󰁩󰁦󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁹󰁬󰁥󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁧󰁬󰁯󰁢󰁡󰁬󰁩󰁳󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󲀘󰁯󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁧󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁮󰁤󲀙. A󰁴 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁳󰁡󰁭󰁥 󰁴󰁩󰁭󰁥, 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁵󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁹, 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁦󰁯󰁣󰁵󰁳 󰁯󰁮 󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁳󰁡󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁵󰁲󰁢󰁡󰁮󰁩󰁳󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁩󰁮󰁣󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁰󰁥󰁮󰁥󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁯 󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁰󰁨󰁥󰁲󰁡󰁬 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁲󰁥󰁧󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁶󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁳 󰁡󰁮 󰁵󰁲󰁧󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁥󰁡󰁲󰁣󰁨 󰁴󰁯󰁰󰁩󰁣 󰁩󰁮 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁳󰁴󰁵󰁤󰁩󰁥󰁳. R󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁥󰁮󰁧󰁥󰁮󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁳 󰁭󰁵󰁬󰁴󰁩󰁰󰁬󰁥 󰁬󰁩󰁮󰁫󰁡󰁧󰁥󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁦󰁲󰁯󰁭 󰁬󰁯󰁣󰁡󰁬 󰁳󰁰󰁡󰁣󰁥: 󰁩󰁴 󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁡󰁩󰁬󰁳 󰁡󰁮 󰁩󰁮󰁦󰁬󰁵󰁸 󰁯󰁦 󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁥󰁩󰁧󰁮 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁳, 󰁳󰁨󰁯󰁲󰁴󰀭󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁭 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁳, 󰁩󰁮󰁶󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁬󰁡󰁢󰁯󰁵󰁲 󰁭󰁩󰁧󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁴󰁳, 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨 󰁡󰁮 󰁡󰁳󰁳󰁯󰁣󰁩󰁡󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁧󰁥 󰁯󰁦 󰁦󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁣󰁵󰁬󰁴󰁵󰁲󰁡󰁬 󰁬󰁩󰁮󰁫󰁡󰁧󰁥󰁳.   2 R󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁳 󰁣󰁡󰁮 󰁢󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁯󰁵󰁧󰁨󰁴 󰁯󰁦 󰁡󰁳 󰁢󰁥󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁯󰁮 󰁡 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁵󰁵󰁭 󰁢󰁥󰁴󰁷󰁥󰁥󰁮 󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁭󰁡󰁮󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁭󰁩󰁧󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 (H󰁡󰁬󰁬 󰁡󰁮󰁤 W󰁩󰁬󰁬󰁩󰁡󰁭󰁳, 2002). A 󰁭󰁡󰁩󰁮 󰁦󰁥󰁡󰁴󰁵󰁲󰁥 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁤󰁩󰁦󰁦󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁮󰁣󰁥 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨 󰁳󰁨󰁯󰁲󰁴󰀭󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁭 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁩󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁳 󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁢󰁬󰁩󰁳󰁨 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁭󰁳󰁥󰁬󰁶󰁥󰁳 󰁴󰁥󰁭󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁡󰁲󰁩󰁬󰁹 󰁯󰁲 󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁭󰁡󰁮󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁬󰁹 󰁩󰁮 󰁡󰁮󰁯󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁣󰁯󰁵󰁮󰁴󰁲󰁹 󰁯󰁲 󰁲󰁥󰁧󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁢󰁹 󰁢󰁵󰁹󰁩󰁮󰁧 (󰁯󰁲 󰁳󰁯󰁭󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁭󰁥󰁳 󰁲󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁧) 󰁡 󰁰󰁲󰁩󰁶󰁡󰁴󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁣󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲󰁥. F󰁵󰁲󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁥, 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁳 󰁤󰁩󰁦󰁦󰁥󰁲 󰁩󰁮 󰁭󰁡󰁮󰁹 󰁷󰁡󰁹󰁳 󰁦󰁲󰁯󰁭 󰁬󰁡󰁢󰁯󰁵󰁲 󰁭󰁩󰁧󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁴󰁳 󰁴󰁯󰁯, 󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁣󰁥 󰁬󰁥󰁩󰁳󰁵󰁲󰁥, 󰁬󰁩󰁦󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁹󰁬󰁥 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁣󰁯󰁳󰁴 󰁯󰁦 󰁬󰁩󰁶󰁩󰁮󰁧 (󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁮 󰁬󰁡󰁢󰁯󰁵󰁲) 󰁡󰁲󰁥 󰁫󰁥󰁹 󰁦󰁡󰁣󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁳 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁩󰁲 󰁭󰁩󰁧󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁹 (B󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁯󰁮 󰁡󰁮󰁤 O󲀙R󰁥󰁩󰁬󰁬󰁹, 2009). 1  T󰁨󰁥 󰁬󰁩󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁵󰁲󰁥 󰁯󰁮 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁨󰁡󰁳 󰁬󰁥󰁤 󰁴󰁯 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁡󰁮󰁴 󰁵󰁮󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁮󰁤󰁩󰁮󰁧󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁲󰁥󰁬󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁹 󰁮󰁥󰁷 󰁰󰁨󰁥󰁮󰁯󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁯󰁮, 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁥󰁸󰁡󰁭󰁰󰁬󰁥 󰁯󰁮 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁬󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁬󰁯󰁣󰁡󰁬   󰁳󰁯󰁣󰁩󰁯󰀭󰁥󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁯󰁭󰁩󰁣 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁰󰁯󰁷󰁥󰁲 󰁲󰁥󰁬󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁤󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁡󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁳 (A󰁬󰁥󰁤󰁯, 2008; M󰁣E󰁬󰁲󰁯󰁹 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁤󰁥 A󰁬󰁢󰁵󰁱󰁵󰁥󰁲󰁱󰁵󰁥, 1992; R󰁯󰁭󰃡󰁮, 2008; M󰁣W󰁡󰁴󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁳, 2009; C󰁡󰃱󰁡󰁤󰁡, 2010; J󰁡󰁮󰁯󰁳󰁣󰁨󰁫󰁡, 2009). H󰁯󰁷󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁲, 󰁷󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁳󰁥󰁥󰁭󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󰁢󰁥 󰁭󰁩󰁳󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁣󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁤󰁥󰁢󰁡󰁴󰁥 󰁩󰁳 󰁡 󰁳󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁥 󰁯󰁦 󰁨󰁯󰁷 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭, 󰁢󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁳 󰁢󰁥󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁩󰁮 󰁩󰁴󰁳󰁥󰁬󰁦 󰁡󰁮 󰁥󰁸󰁰󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁳󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁯󰁦 󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁰󰁬󰁥󰁸 󰁣󰁵󰁲󰁲󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁭󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁭󰁯󰁢󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁴󰁹 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁳󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬󰁩󰁴󰁹, 󰁡󰁬󰁳󰁯 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁤󰁵󰁣󰁥󰁳 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁦󰁯󰁵󰁮󰁤 󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁳󰀭󰁬󰁯󰁣󰁡󰁬 󰁥󰁦󰁦󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁳   󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁡󰁲󰁥 󰁮󰁯󰁴 󰁬󰁩󰁭󰁩󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁴󰁯 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁤󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁡󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁳. D󰁥󰁳󰁰󰁩󰁴󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁣󰁥󰁮󰁴 󲀘󰁭󰁯󰁢󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁴󰁹 󰁴󰁵󰁲󰁮󲀙 󰁩󰁮 󰁳󰁯󰁣󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁳󰁣󰁩󰁥󰁮󰁣󰁥, 󰁩󰁮 󰁷󰁨󰁩󰁣󰁨 󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁣 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁥󰁡󰁲󰁣󰁨 󰁯󰁢󰁪󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁳 󰁭󰁡󰁫󰁥 󰁷󰁡󰁹 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁬󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁰󰁡󰁴󰁨󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁭󰁯󰁢󰁩󰁬󰁥 󰁬󰁩󰁦󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁹󰁬󰁥󰁳 (U󰁲󰁲󰁹, 2007), 󰁳󰁴󰁵󰁤󰁩󰁥󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁲󰁡󰁲󰁥󰁬󰁹 󰁡󰁰󰁰󰁬󰁹 󰁳󰁵󰁣󰁨 󰁭󰁯󰁢󰁩󰁬󰁥 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁭󰁵󰁬󰁴󰁩󰀭󰁬󰁯󰁣󰁡󰁬 󰁡󰁰󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁡󰁣󰁨󰁥󰁳. S󰁯󰁭󰁥 󰁩󰁮󰁳󰁩󰁧󰁨󰁴󰁳 󰁦󰁲󰁯󰁭 󲀘󰁳󰁨󰁯󰁲󰁴󰀭󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁭 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭󲀙 󰁬󰁩󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁵󰁲󰁥 󰁡󰁲󰁥 󰁵󰁳󰁥󰁦󰁵󰁬 󰁨󰁥󰁲󰁥. T󰁯󰁲󰁲󰁥󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 M󰁯󰁭󰁳󰁥󰁮 (2005) 󰁡󰁲󰁧󰁵󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁡󰁮 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁯󰁲󰁴 󰁳󰁵󰁣󰁨 󰁡󰁳 C󰁡󰁮󰁣󰃺󰁮 󰁣󰁡󰁮 󰁢󰁥󰁳󰁴 󰁢󰁥 󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁬󰁹󰁳󰁥󰁤 󰁡󰁳 󰁡 󲀘󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁳󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁳󰁰󰁡󰁣󰁥󲀙. H󰁥󰁮󰁣󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁹 󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁬󰁹󰁳󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁥󰁦󰁦󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁳 󰁯󰁦 C󰁡󰁮󰁣󰃺󰁮󲀙󰁳 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁮󰁯󰁴 󰁯󰁮󰁬󰁹 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁭󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁬󰁯󰁣󰁡󰁬 󰁳󰁯󰁣󰁩󰁯󰀭󰁳󰁰󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁥󰁦󰁦󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁳, 󰁢󰁵󰁴 󰁡󰁬󰁳󰁯 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁭󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁮󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󰁤󰁩󰁦󰁦󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁡󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁧󰁨 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁤󰁵󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰀭󰁲󰁥󰁬󰁡󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁳󰁵󰁭󰁰󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰀭󰁲󰁥󰁬󰁡󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁭󰁩󰁧󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁦󰁬󰁯󰁷󰁳. A 󰁭󰁵󰁬󰁴󰁩󰀭󰁳󰁣󰁡󰁬󰁡󰁲 󰁶󰁩󰁥󰁷 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁳󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁩󰁳 󰁰󰁬󰁡󰁹󰁥󰁤 󰁯󰁵󰁴 󰁩󰁮 C󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁵󰁮, 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨 󰁭󰁵󰁬󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁦󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁨󰁩󰁳󰁥 󰁡󰁧󰁲󰁥󰁥󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁳, 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁴 󰁦󰁬󰁯󰁷󰁳, 󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁧󰁯󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁮󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁥󰁧󰁩󰁥󰁳, 󰁤󰁯󰁭󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁣 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁵󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁹 󰁩󰁮󰁶󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴, 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁭󰁩󰁧󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰀭󰁲󰁥󰁬󰁡󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁬󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁩󰁨󰁯󰁯󰁤 󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁥󰁧󰁩󰁥󰁳 󰁡󰁴 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁨󰁯󰁵󰁳󰁥󰁨󰁯󰁬󰁤 󰁬󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬 󰁡󰁬󰁬 󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁴󰁯󰁧󰁥󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲. T󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁩󰁳 󰁥󰁸󰁰󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁳󰁥󰁤 󰁬󰁯󰁣󰁡󰁬󰁬󰁹 󰁩󰁮 󰁡 󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁳󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁮󰁥󰁴󰁷󰁯󰁲󰁫󰁥󰁤 󰁳󰁰󰁡󰁣󰁥 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨 󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁰󰁬󰁥󰁸 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁦󰁯󰁵󰁮󰁤󰁬󰁹 󰁵󰁮󰁥󰁱󰁵󰁡󰁬 󰁳󰁰󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁡󰁲󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁧󰁥󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁳. H󰁯󰁷󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁲, 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭󲀙󰁳 󰁥󰁦󰁦󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁳 󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁣󰁨 󰁦󰁡󰁲 󰁢󰁥󰁹󰁯󰁮󰁤 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁢󰁯󰁵󰁮󰁤󰁡󰁲󰁩󰁥󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁤󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁩󰁴󰁳󰁥󰁬󰁦.   F󰁯󰁲 󰁡 󰁤󰁥󰁴󰁡󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁤 󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁬󰁹󰁳󰁩󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁧󰁬󰁯󰁢󰁡󰁬󰀭󰁬󰁯󰁣󰁡󰁬 󰁮󰁥󰁸󰁵󰁳 R󰁥󰁮󰃩 󰁶󰁡󰁮 󰁤󰁥󰁲 D󰁵󰁩󰁭󲀙󰁳 󰁷󰁯󰁲󰁫 󰁯󰁮 󰁡󰁣󰁴󰁯󰁲󰀭󰁮󰁥󰁴󰁷󰁯󰁲󰁫󰁳 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁩󰁳 󰁡󰁬󰁳󰁯 󰁵󰁳󰁥󰁦󰁵󰁬. H󰁥 󰁡󰁲󰁧󰁵󰁥󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁧󰁬󰁯󰁢󰁡󰁬󰁩󰁳󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁩󰁳 󰁮󰁯󰁴 󰁡󰁮 󰁡󰁵󰁴󰁯󰁭󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁣 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁵󰁮󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁲󰁵󰁰󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁦󰁬󰁯󰁷 󰁡󰁦󰁦󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁬󰁯󰁣󰁡󰁬󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁥󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁧󰁨 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭: 󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲, 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁡 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁪󰁥󰁣󰁴 󰁯󰁲 󰁤󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁴󰁯 󰁥󰁭󰁥󰁲󰁧󰁥, 󰁳󰁰󰁥󰁣󰁩󰁦󰁩󰁣 󰁭󰁥󰁴󰁨󰁯󰁤󰁳 󰁡󰁲󰁥 󰁮󰁥󰁥󰁤󰁥󰁤 󰁴󰁯 󰁢󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁴󰁯󰁧󰁥󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁥󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁡󰁣󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁡󰁲󰁥 󰁳󰁯󰁭󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁭󰁥󰁳 󰁲󰁡󰁤󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁬󰁬󰁹 󰁤󰁩󰁦󰁦󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁯󰁲 󰁤󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁮󰁴. T󰁨󰁥󰁳󰁥 󰁡󰁲󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁣󰁥󰁳󰁳󰁥󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁳󰁬󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 (V󰁡󰁮 󰁤󰁥󰁲 D󰁵󰁩󰁭, 2005, 2007). O󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁷󰁯󰁲󰁫󰁳 󰁯󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁥󰁴󰁨󰁮󰁯󰁧󰁲󰁡󰁰󰁨󰁹 󰁯󰁦 󰁧󰁬󰁯󰁢󰁡󰁬󰁩󰁳󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁨󰁡󰁶󰁥 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁴󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁩󰁮 󰁡 󰁳󰁩󰁭󰁩󰁬󰁡󰁲 󰁷󰁡󰁹 󰁴󰁯 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁵󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁡󰁮 󰁥󰁬󰁡󰁢󰁯󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁥 󰁶󰁩󰁥󰁷 󰁯󰁦 󰁧󰁬󰁯󰁢󰁡󰁬󰀭󰁬󰁯󰁣󰁡󰁬 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁮󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳: A󰁮󰁮󰁡 T󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁧󲀙󰁳 󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁡 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁡󰁳󰁰󰁩󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁧󰁬󰁯󰁢󰁡󰁬 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁮󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁥 󰁴󰁯 󰁬󰁩󰁦󰁥 󰁩󰁮 󰁦󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮, 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁧󰁲󰁩󰁰 󰁯󰁦 󰁷󰁯󰁲󰁬󰁤󰁬󰁹 󰁥󰁮󰁣󰁯󰁵󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲, 󰁩󰁳 󰁵󰁳󰁥󰁦󰁵󰁬 󰁨󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁴󰁯󰁯 (T󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁧, 2005). 1  A󰁳 󰁡 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁵󰁬󰁴 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁦󰁵󰁳󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁡󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁮󰁤 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁤󰁥󰁦󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮, 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁬󰁩󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁵󰁲󰁥 󰁤󰁩󰁦󰁦󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁬󰁡󰁢󰁥󰁬󰁳 󰁨󰁡󰁶󰁥 󰁢󰁥󰁥󰁮 󰁡󰁤󰁯󰁰󰁴󰁥󰁤: 󰁬󰁩󰁦󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁹󰁬󰁥 󰁭󰁩󰁧󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁴󰁳, 󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁲󰁥󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁭󰁩󰁧󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁴󰁳, 󰁡󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁩󰁴󰁹 󰁭󰁩󰁧󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁴󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁳󰁥󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁤󰀭󰁨󰁯󰁭󰁥 󰁯󰁷󰁮󰁥󰁲󰁳 (B󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁯󰁮 󰁡󰁮󰁤 O󲀙R󰁥󰁩󰁬󰁬󰁹, 2009; M󰁣I󰁮󰁴󰁹󰁲󰁥, 2009). I 󰁷󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁨󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁵󰁳󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁭 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭, 󰁦󰁩󰁲󰁳󰁴󰁬󰁹 󰁴󰁯 󰁡󰁣󰁣󰁯󰁵󰁮󰁴 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁥 󰁯󰁦 󰁮󰁯󰁴 󰁯󰁮󰁬󰁹 󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁲󰁥󰁥󰁳 󰁢󰁵󰁴 󰁡󰁬󰁳󰁯 󰁹󰁯󰁵󰁮󰁧󰁥󰁲 󰁭󰁩󰁧󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁴󰁳; 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁳󰁥󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁤󰁬󰁹 󰁩󰁮 󰁯󰁲󰁤󰁥󰁲 󰁴󰁯 󰁦󰁯󰁣󰁵󰁳 󰁡󰁴󰁴󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁯󰁮 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁣󰁬󰁯󰁳󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁬󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁰 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨 󰁳󰁨󰁯󰁲󰁴󰀭󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁭 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭.   3  I󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁡󰁲󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁬󰁥 I 󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁣󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁲󰁥󰁥 󰁭󰁡󰁩󰁮 󰁦󰁬󰁯󰁷󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁰󰁥󰁯󰁰󰁬󰁥 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁣󰁡󰁰󰁩󰁴󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁨󰁡󰁶󰁥 󰁥󰁮󰁡󰁢󰁬󰁥󰁤 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁯󰁦 󰁡 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁤󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁩󰁮 C󰁯󰁳󰁴󰁡 R󰁩󰁣󰁡, 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁦󰁵󰁮󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁡󰁳 󲀘󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁣󰁯󰁲󰁲󰁩󰁤󰁯󰁲󰁳󲀙 󰁴󰁨󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁧󰁨 󰁷󰁨󰁩󰁣󰁨 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁥󰁦󰁦󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁳 󰁡󰁲󰁥 󰁣󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁬󰁩󰁳󰁥󰁤 󰁴󰁯 󰁯󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁡󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁳. I 󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁬󰁹󰁳󰁥 󰁨󰁯󰁷 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁳󰁥 󰁦󰁬󰁯󰁷󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁮󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁷󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁢󰁬󰁩󰁳󰁨󰁥󰁤 󰁴󰁨󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁧󰁨 󰁳󰁰󰁥󰁣󰁩󰁦󰁩󰁣 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁡󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁩󰁭󰁡󰁧󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁲󰁩󰁥󰁳. B󰁡󰁳󰁥󰁤 󰁯󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁳󰁥 󲀘󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁣󰁯󰁲󰁲󰁩󰁤󰁯󰁲󰁳󲀙, I 󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁬󰁹󰁳󰁥 󰁨󰁯󰁷 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁬󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁡󰁲󰁥 󰁭󰁵󰁬󰁴󰁩󰀭󰁬󰁯󰁣󰁡󰁬, 󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁬󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁤󰁩󰁦󰁦󰁵󰁳󰁥, 󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁮 󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁣 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁬󰁯󰁣󰁡󰁬. T󰁨󰁥 󰁧󰁥󰁯󰁧󰁲󰁡󰁰󰁨󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁬 󰁦󰁯󰁣󰁵󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁰󰁡󰁰󰁥󰁲 󰁩󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁥 C󰁯󰁳󰁴󰁡 R󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁮 󰁮󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁨󰁷󰁥󰁳󰁴 󰁣󰁯󰁡󰁳󰁴 (G󰁵󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁥 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁶󰁩󰁮󰁣󰁥), 󰁷󰁨󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁨󰁡󰁳 󰁥󰁸󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁥󰁮󰁣󰁥󰁤 󰁮󰁯󰁴󰁡󰁢󰁬󰁥 󰁧󰁲󰁯󰁷󰁴󰁨 󰁦󰁲󰁯󰁭 󰁡󰁢󰁯󰁵󰁴 2002 󰁵󰁰 󰁴󰁯 2008, 󰁭󰁡󰁩󰁮󰁬󰁹 󰁤󰁩󰁲󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁢󰁹 󰁴󰁨󰁥 N󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁨 A󰁭󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁮 󰁭󰁡󰁲󰁫󰁥󰁴. T󰁨󰁥 󰁦󰁩󰁲󰁳󰁴 󰁦󰁬󰁯󰁷 󰁩󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁮 󰁢󰁥󰁴󰁷󰁥󰁥󰁮 N󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁨 A󰁭󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁡 󰁡󰁮󰁤 G󰁵󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁥: 󰁡 󰁤󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁥 󰁦󰁬󰁯󰁷 󰁯󰁦 󰁩󰁮󰁶󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁨󰁵󰁭󰁡󰁮 󰁭󰁯󰁢󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁴󰁹 󰁦󰁲󰁯󰁭 󰁴󰁨󰁥 US 󰁡󰁮󰁤 C󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁤󰁡 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁯 G󰁵󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁥 󰁨󰁡󰁳 󰁢󰁥󰁥󰁮 󰁡󰁴 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁲󰁯󰁯󰁴 󰁯󰁦 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴. S󰁥󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁤, 󰁴󰁨󰁥 N󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁲󰁡󰁧󰁵󰁡󲀓G󰁵󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁥 󰁦󰁬󰁯󰁷 󰁷󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁢󰁥 󰁤󰁥󰁡󰁬󰁴 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨: 󰁨󰁵󰁭󰁡󰁮 󰁭󰁯󰁢󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁴󰁹 󰁡󰁬󰁯󰁮󰁧 󰁴󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁣󰁯󰁲󰁲󰁩󰁤󰁯󰁲 󰁨󰁡󰁳 󰁢󰁥󰁥󰁮 󰁡󰁮 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁡󰁮󰁴 󰁥󰁮󰁡󰁢󰁬󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁦󰁡󰁣󰁴󰁯󰁲 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁵󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁹, 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁥󰁦󰁦󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁳 󰁡󰁲󰁥 󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁳󰁦󰁥󰁲󰁲󰁥󰁤 󰁢󰁡󰁣󰁫 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁯 N󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁲󰁡󰁧󰁵󰁡. L󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁬󰁹, 󰁡󰁮 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁦󰁬󰁯󰁷 󰁩󰁮 C󰁯󰁳󰁴󰁡 R󰁩󰁣󰁡 󰁷󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁢󰁥 󰁤󰁥󰁡󰁬󰁴 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨: 󰁴󰁨󰁥 C󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁬 V󰁡󰁬󰁬󰁥󰁹󲀓G󰁵󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁥 󰁤󰁯󰁭󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁣 󰁣󰁯󰁲󰁲󰁩󰁤󰁯󰁲. E󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁯󰁭󰁩󰁣 󰁬󰁩󰁮󰁫󰁡󰁧󰁥󰁳 󰁡󰁬󰁯󰁮󰁧 󰁴󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁣󰁯󰁲󰁲󰁩󰁤󰁯󰁲 󰁨󰁡󰁶󰁥 󰁢󰁥󰁥󰁮 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁩󰁦󰁩󰁥󰁤 󰁢󰁹 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭, 󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁰󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁢󰁹 󰁨󰁵󰁭󰁡󰁮 󰁭󰁩󰁧󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮; 󰁡󰁳 󰁳󰁵󰁣󰁨, 󰁴󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁦󰁬󰁯󰁷 󰁩󰁳 󰁡󰁬󰁳󰁯 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁡󰁮󰁴 󰁩󰁮 󰁡󰁳󰁳󰁥󰁳󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁡󰁣󰁴󰁳. 2  B󰁥󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁥 󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁬󰁹󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁣󰁯󰁲󰁲󰁩󰁤󰁯󰁲󰁳 I 󰁷󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁤󰁥󰁳󰁣󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁥 󰁳󰁯󰁭󰁥 󰁢󰁡󰁳󰁩󰁣 󰁣󰁨󰁡󰁲󰁡󰁣󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁩󰁮 C󰁯󰁳󰁴󰁡 R󰁩󰁣󰁡. 󰁒󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁩󰁮 󰁃󰁯󰁳󰁴󰁡 󰁒󰁩󰁣󰁡 I󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁦󰁩󰁲󰁳󰁴 󰁤󰁥󰁣󰁡󰁤󰁥 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 21 󰁳󰁴  C󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁵󰁲󰁹 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁩󰁮 C󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁬 A󰁭󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁡 󰁥󰁸󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁥󰁮󰁣󰁥󰁤 󰁤󰁲󰁡󰁭󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁣 󰁧󰁲󰁯󰁷󰁴󰁨, 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨 C󰁯󰁳󰁴󰁡 R󰁩󰁣󰁡, P󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁭󰁡 󰁡󰁮󰁤 M󰁥󰁸󰁩󰁣󰁯 󰁦󰁩󰁧󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁡󰁭󰁯󰁮󰁧 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁭󰁯󰁳󰁴 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁭󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁤󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳, 󰁷󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁥 󰁯󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁣󰁯󰁵󰁮󰁴󰁲󰁩󰁥󰁳 󰁳󰁵󰁣󰁨 󰁡󰁳 N󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁲󰁡󰁧󰁵󰁡 󰁨󰁡󰁶󰁥 󰁢󰁥󰁥󰁮 󰁧󰁲󰁯󰁷󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁩󰁮 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁥. C󰁯󰁳󰁴󰁡 R󰁩󰁣󰁡 󰁨󰁡󰁳 󰁢󰁥󰁥󰁮 󰁡 󰁰󰁯󰁰󰁵󰁬󰁡󰁲 󰁲󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁣󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁤󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁦󰁯󰁲 US 󰁡󰁮󰁤 C󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁤󰁩󰁡󰁮 󰁣󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁺󰁥󰁮󰁳 󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁣󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 1970󰁳, 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨 󰁦󰁬󰁯󰁷󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁴󰁯 󰁦󰁯󰁣󰁵󰁳 󰁭󰁡󰁩󰁮󰁬󰁹 󰁯󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁵󰁲󰁢󰁡󰁮 󰁣󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁬 󰁶󰁡󰁬󰁬󰁥󰁹 󰁡󰁲󰁥󰁡 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁣󰁯󰁵󰁮󰁴󰁲󰁹. S󰁩󰁮󰁣󰁥 󰁡󰁢󰁯󰁵󰁴 2002, 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁣󰁯󰁵󰁮󰁴󰁲󰁹󲀙󰁳 P󰁡󰁣󰁩󰁦󰁩󰁣 󰁣󰁯󰁡󰁳󰁴 󰁨󰁡󰁳 󰁥󰁸󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁥󰁮󰁣󰁥󰁤 󰁡 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁢󰁯󰁯󰁭, 󰁭󰁡󰁫󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁰󰁨󰁥󰁮󰁯󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁯󰁮 󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁥 󰁳󰁰󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬󰁬󰁹 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁣󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁶󰁩󰁳󰁩󰁢󰁬󰁥. H󰁯󰁷󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁲, 󰁦󰁲󰁯󰁭 2008 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁦󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁣󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁩󰁳 󰁨󰁡󰁳 󰁰󰁵󰁴 󰁡 󰁨󰁡󰁬󰁴 󰁯󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁢󰁯󰁯󰁭, 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁲󰁥󰁣󰁯󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁹 󰁨󰁡󰁳 󰁢󰁥󰁥󰁮 󰁳󰁬󰁯󰁷. O󰁦󰁦󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁰󰁯󰁰󰁵󰁬󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁮󰁵󰁭󰁢󰁥󰁲󰁳 󰁨󰁡󰁲󰁤󰁬󰁹 󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁥 󰁣󰁬󰁯󰁳󰁥 󰁴󰁯 󰁱󰁵󰁡󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁦󰁹󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭, 󰁡󰁳 󰁴󰁥󰁭󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁡󰁲󰁹 󰁰󰁯󰁰󰁵󰁬󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁡󰁲󰁥 󰁬󰁥󰁦󰁴 󰁯󰁵󰁴; 󰁢󰁵󰁴 󰁡󰁣󰁣󰁯󰁲󰁤󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁴󰁯 󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁧󰁨 󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁭󰁡󰁴󰁥󰁳, 50,000 N󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁨 A󰁭󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁮 󰁣󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁺󰁥󰁮󰁳 (󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁭󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁡󰁢󰁯󰁵󰁴 1% 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬  󰁰󰁯󰁰󰁵󰁬󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮) 󰁷󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁭󰁡󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁴󰁯 󰁨󰁡󰁶󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁩󰁲 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁣󰁥 󰁩󰁮 C󰁯󰁳󰁴󰁡 R󰁩󰁣󰁡 󰁩󰁮 2010 (󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁳.󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁭. ARCR C󰁯󰁳󰁴󰁡 R󰁩󰁣󰁡), 󰁷󰁨󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁳 󰁩󰁮 2009 󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁭󰁡󰁴󰁥󰁳 󰁷󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁢󰁥󰁴󰁷󰁥󰁥󰁮 30,000 󰁡󰁮󰁤 40,000 (J󰁡󰁮󰁯󰁳󰁣󰁨󰁫󰁡, 2009). I󰁮 C󰁯󰁳󰁴󰁡 R󰁩󰁣󰁡 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁥󰁮󰁨󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁥󰁤 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁥 󰁯󰁦 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁬 󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁴󰁥 󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁵󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁹 󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁥 󰁧󰁥󰁮󰁥󰁲󰁡󰁬󰁬󰁹 󰁩󰁳 󰁲󰁥󰁦󰁬󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁩󰁮 󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁥󰁩󰁧󰁮 󰁤󰁩󰁲󰁥󰁣󰁴 󰁩󰁮󰁶󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 (FDI): 󰁷󰁨󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁳 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁬 󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁴󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁰󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁹 󰁭󰁡󰁤󰁥 󰁵󰁰 15 󰁰󰁥󰁲 2  T󰁨󰁥 󰁥󰁭󰁰󰁩󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁬 󰁭󰁡󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁴󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁡󰁲󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁬󰁥 󰁷󰁡󰁳 󰁣󰁯󰁬󰁬󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁤󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁴󰁷󰁯 󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁯󰁤󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁥󰁴󰁨󰁮󰁯󰁧󰁲󰁡󰁰󰁨󰁩󰁣 󰁦󰁩󰁥󰁬󰁤󰁷󰁯󰁲󰁫 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁡󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁳 󰁯󰁦 T󰁡󰁭󰁡󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁯 󰁡󰁮󰁤 P󰁬󰁡󰁹󰁡󰁳 󰁤󰁥󰁬 C󰁯󰁣󰁯, C󰁯󰁳󰁴󰁡 R󰁩󰁣󰁡: 󰁩󰁮 M󰁡󰁹󰀭D󰁥󰁣󰁥󰁭󰁢󰁥󰁲 2008, 󰁡󰁮󰁤 S󰁥󰁰󰁴󰁥󰁭󰁢󰁥󰁲󰀭N󰁯󰁶󰁥󰁭󰁢󰁥󰁲 2009. T󰁨󰁥󰁳󰁥 󰁩󰁮󰁣󰁬󰁵󰁤󰁥󰁳 󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁮 50 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁶󰁩󰁥󰁷󰁳 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨 󰁩󰁮󰁨󰁡󰁢󰁩󰁴󰁡󰁮󰁴󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁤󰁩󰁦󰁦󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁯󰁲󰁩󰁧󰁩󰁮󰁳 󰁡󰁳 󰁷󰁥󰁬󰁬 󰁡󰁳 󰁬󰁥󰁡󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁯󰁲󰁧󰁡󰁮󰁩󰁳󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁡󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁶󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁳; 󰁩󰁮 󰁡󰁤󰁤󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮, 󰁰󰁡󰁲󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁰󰁡󰁮󰁴 󰁯󰁢󰁳󰁥󰁲󰁶󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁷󰁡󰁳 󰁵󰁳󰁥󰁤, 󰁥.󰁧. 󰁤󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁡󰁳󰁳󰁯󰁣󰁩󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳󲀙 󰁭󰁥󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁧󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁩󰁮󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁭󰁡󰁬 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮. B󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁥󰁭󰁰󰁩󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁬 󰁭󰁡󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁡󰁬, 󰁴󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁡󰁲󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁬󰁥 󰁵󰁳󰁥󰁳 󰁳󰁥󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁤󰁡󰁲󰁹 󰁳󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁣󰁥󰁳 󰁦󰁲󰁯󰁭 󰁡󰁣󰁡󰁤󰁥󰁭󰁩󰁣󰁳, 󰁡󰁲󰁣󰁨󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁳, 󰁭󰁥󰁤󰁩󰁡 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁮󰁥󰁴 󰁢󰁬󰁯󰁧 󰁳󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁣󰁥󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁣󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁤󰁩󰁦󰁦󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁦󰁬󰁯󰁷󰁳 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁯 G󰁵󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁥..   4 󰁣󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁡󰁮󰁤 5 󰁰󰁥󰁲 󰁣󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁩󰁮 2003, 󰁢󰁹 2007 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁳󰁥 󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁣󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁡󰁧󰁥󰁳 󰁨󰁡󰁤 󰁩󰁮󰁣󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁳󰁥󰁤 󰁴󰁯 17 󰁰󰁥󰁲 󰁣󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁡󰁮󰁤 34 󰁰󰁥󰁲 󰁣󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁬 󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁴󰁥 (BCCR, 2008). I󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁴󰁷󰁯 󰁭󰁡󰁩󰁮 󰁭󰁩󰁣󰁲󰁯󰀭󰁲󰁥󰁧󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁩󰁮 G󰁵󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁥 (󰁴󰁨󰁥 T󰁡󰁭󰁡󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁯 󰁡󰁲󰁥󰁡 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁴󰁨󰁥 P󰁬󰁡󰁹󰁡󰁳 󰁤󰁥󰁬 C󰁯󰁣󰁯 󰁡󰁲󰁥󰁡), 󰁡 󰁴󰁯󰁴󰁡󰁬 󰁯󰁦 145 󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁰󰁬󰁥󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁪󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁳 󰁷󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁦󰁩󰁥󰁤 󰁩󰁮 2010 (󰁶󰁡󰁮 N󰁯󰁯󰁲󰁬󰁯󰁯󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 Z󰁯󰁯󰁭󰁥󰁲󰁳, 2010), 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨 󰁡 󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁹 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁳󰁥󰁲󰁶󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁶󰁥 󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁭󰁡󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁴󰁯󰁴󰁡󰁬 󰁯󰁦 󰁡󰁬󰁭󰁯󰁳󰁴 8,000 󰁰󰁬󰁯󰁴󰁳, 󰁨󰁯󰁵󰁳󰁥󰁳 󰁯󰁲 󰁡󰁰󰁡󰁲󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁳. T󰁨󰁥 󰁭󰁡󰁪󰁯󰁲󰁩󰁴󰁹 󰁷󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁬󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁹 󰁳󰁭󰁡󰁬󰁬 󰁡󰁰󰁡󰁲󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁰󰁬󰁥󰁸󰁥󰁳, 󰁢󰁵󰁴 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁷󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁡󰁬󰁳󰁯 󰁥󰁩󰁧󰁨󰁴 󰁬󰁡󰁲󰁧󰁥 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁪󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁮 200 󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁥󰁳. I󰁮 󰁡󰁤󰁤󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮, 45 󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁥 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁪󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁳 󰁷󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁡󰁮󰁮󰁯󰁵󰁮󰁣󰁥󰁤  󰁢󰁵󰁴 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁩󰁲 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁵󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁷󰁡󰁳 󰁨󰁡󰁬󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁯󰁲 󰁨󰁡󰁤 󰁮󰁯󰁴 󰁹󰁥󰁴 󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁲󰁴󰁥󰁤 (󰁯󰁦󰁴󰁥󰁮 󰁤󰁵󰁥 󰁴󰁯 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁰󰁯󰁳󰁴󰀭2008 󰁦󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁣󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁩󰁳); 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁳󰁥 󰁩󰁮󰁣󰁬󰁵󰁤󰁥󰁤 󰁳󰁯󰁭󰁥 󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁹 󰁬󰁡󰁲󰁧󰁥 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁪󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁳. I󰁮󰁶󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁬 󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁴󰁥 󰁷󰁡󰁳 󰁭󰁯󰁳󰁴󰁬󰁹 󰁯󰁦 󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁥󰁩󰁧󰁮 󰁯󰁲󰁩󰁧󰁩󰁮: 󰁡󰁬󰁭󰁯󰁳󰁴 75 󰁰󰁥󰁲 󰁣󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁪󰁥󰁣󰁴 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁳 󰁷󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁡󰁴 󰁬󰁥󰁡󰁳󰁴 󰁰󰁡󰁲󰁴󰁬󰁹 󰁯󰁦 N󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁨 A󰁭󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁮 󰁯󰁲󰁩󰁧󰁩󰁮, 󰁷󰁨󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁳 35  󰁰󰁥󰁲 󰁣󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁷󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁡󰁴 󰁬󰁥󰁡󰁳󰁴 󰁰󰁡󰁲󰁴󰁬󰁹 󰁯󰁦 C󰁯󰁳󰁴󰁡 R󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁮 󰁯󰁲󰁩󰁧󰁩󰁮. C󰁯󰁭󰁢󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁢󰁯󰁴󰁨 󰁷󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁡󰁬󰁳󰁯 󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁭󰁯󰁮. T󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁲󰁥󰁦󰁬󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁳 󰁨󰁯󰁷 C󰁯󰁳󰁴󰁡 R󰁩󰁣󰁡󲀙󰁳 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁵󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁹 󰁭󰁡󰁩󰁮󰁬󰁹 󰁣󰁡󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁳 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁴󰁨󰁥 N󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁨 A󰁭󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁮 󰁭󰁡󰁲󰁫󰁥󰁴: 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁥󰁸󰁡󰁭󰁰󰁬󰁥,  󰁢󰁥󰁴󰁷󰁥󰁥󰁮 2004 󰁡󰁮󰁤 2007, 55.2 󰁰󰁥󰁲 󰁣󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁯󰁦 FDI 󰁩󰁮 󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁬 󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁴󰁥 󰁩󰁮 C󰁯󰁳󰁴󰁡 R󰁩󰁣󰁡 󰁷󰁡󰁳 󰁦󰁲󰁯󰁭 󰁴󰁨󰁥 US, 󰁦󰁯󰁬󰁬󰁯󰁷󰁥󰁤 󰁢󰁹 C󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁤󰁡 (7.5 󰁰󰁥󰁲 󰁣󰁥󰁮󰁴) 󰁡󰁮󰁤 G󰁥󰁲󰁭󰁡󰁮󰁹 (4.8 󰁰󰁥󰁲 󰁣󰁥󰁮󰁴) (BCCR, 2008). A 󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁢󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁯󰁦 󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁩󰁶󰁩󰁤󰁵󰁡󰁬 󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁨󰁯󰁵󰁳󰁥 󰁳󰁡󰁬󰁥 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁭󰁡󰁮󰁹 󰁤󰁩󰁦󰁦󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁴󰁹󰁰󰁥󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁥 󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁭󰁡󰁬 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁰󰁲󰁥󰀭󰁡󰁲󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁧󰁥󰁤 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁪󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁳 󰁭󰁡󰁫󰁥󰁳 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁡 󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁰󰁬󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁵󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁹. 󰁔󰁨󰁥 󰁎󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁨 󰁁󰁭󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁡 󲀓 󰁇󰁵󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁥 󰁣󰁯󰁲󰁲󰁩󰁤󰁯󰁲 R󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁨󰁡󰁳 󰁢󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁧󰁨󰁴 󰁮󰁥󰁷 󰁦󰁬󰁯󰁷󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁨󰁵󰁭󰁡󰁮 󰁭󰁩󰁧󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮, 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁩󰁮󰁶󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁴󰁯 󰁴󰁨󰁥 C󰁯󰁳󰁴󰁡 R󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁮 󰁮󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁨󰁷󰁥󰁳󰁴 󰁣󰁯󰁡󰁳󰁴, 󰁭󰁡󰁩󰁮󰁬󰁹 󰁦󰁲󰁯󰁭 󰁴󰁨󰁥 US 󰁡󰁮󰁤 C󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁤󰁡. T󰁨󰁥 N󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁨 A󰁭󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁡󰀭G󰁵󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁥 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁮󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁩󰁳 󰁮󰁯󰁴 󰁮󰁥󰁷, 󰁨󰁯󰁷󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁲. A󰁬󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁤󰁹 󰁢󰁹 󰁴󰁨󰁥 1880󰁳 󰁡 󰁦󰁥󰁷 US 󰁣󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁺󰁥󰁮󰁳 󰁡󰁣󰁱󰁵󰁩󰁲󰁥󰁤 󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁹 󰁬󰁡󰁲󰁧󰁥 󰁬󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁣󰁫 󰁨󰁡󰁣󰁩󰁥󰁮󰁤󰁡󰁳 󰁩󰁮 G󰁵󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁥 (E󰁤󰁥󰁬󰁭󰁡󰁮, 1992). U󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁬 󰁴󰁨󰁥 1970󰁳, 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁷󰁡󰁳 󰁡 󰁬󰁡󰁲󰁧󰁥 󰁢󰁥󰁥󰁦 󰁥󰁸󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴 󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁵󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁹 󰁦󰁲󰁯󰁭 G󰁵󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁥 󰁴󰁯 󰁴󰁨󰁥 US, 󰁡󰁮󰁤  N󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁨 A󰁭󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁮󰁳 󰁩󰁮󰁶󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁨󰁵󰁧󰁥 󰁡󰁭󰁯󰁵󰁮󰁴󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁭󰁯󰁮󰁥󰁹 󰁩󰁮 󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁩󰁮 G󰁵󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁥. P󰁲󰁯󰁣󰁥󰁳󰁳󰁥󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁥󰁩󰁧󰁮 󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁡󰁣󰁱󰁵󰁩󰁳󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁨󰁩󰁧󰁨 󰁰󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁥󰁳, 󰁴󰁯󰁧󰁥󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨 󰁯󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁦󰁡󰁣󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁳, 󰁭󰁡󰁤󰁥 G󰁵󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁥 󰁡 󰁳󰁰󰁡󰁣󰁥 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁳󰁰󰁥󰁣󰁵󰁬󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮, 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁣󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁳󰁵󰁢󰁵󰁴󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁳󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁯󰁦 󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁤 (E󰁤󰁥󰁬󰁭󰁡󰁮, 1992). T󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁡󰁬󰁳󰁯 󰁨󰁡󰁤 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁥󰁦󰁦󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁳 󰁩󰁮 󰁣󰁯󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁬 󰁡󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁳 󰁯󰁦 G󰁵󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁥, 󰁷󰁨󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁦󰁩󰁲󰁳󰁴 󰁳󰁰󰁥󰁣󰁵󰁬󰁡󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁩󰁮󰁶󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁳, 󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁥󰁩󰁧󰁮 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬, 󰁢󰁯󰁵󰁧󰁨󰁴 󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 1970󰁳, 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁢󰁵󰁹󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁩󰁦󰁩󰁥󰁤 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 1980󰁳. 3  T󰁨󰁥󰁳󰁥 󰁩󰁮󰁶󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁳 󰁷󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁡󰁬󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁤󰁹 󰁭󰁡󰁤󰁥 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨 󰁡 󰁶󰁩󰁥󰁷 󰁴󰁯 󰁦󰁵󰁴󰁵󰁲󰁥 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁵󰁲󰁢󰁡󰁮 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴, 󰁡󰁳 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁷󰁡󰁳 󰁧󰁲󰁯󰁷󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁩󰁮 󰁷󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁷󰁡󰁳 󰁢󰁹 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁮 󰁡󰁮 󰁥󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁯󰁭󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁬󰁬󰁹 󰁤󰁥󰁰󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁳󰁥󰁤 󰁡󰁲󰁥󰁡. T󰁨󰁥 C󰁯󰁳󰁴󰁡 R󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁮 󰁧󰁯󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁮󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁷󰁡󰁳 󰁱󰁵󰁩󰁣󰁫 󰁴󰁯 󰁲󰁥󰁣󰁯󰁧󰁮󰁩󰁳󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁧󰁩󰁯󰁮󲀙󰁳 󰁰󰁯󰁴󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁡󰁴󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁥󰁩󰁧󰁮 󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁲󰁥󰁥󰁳, 󰁢󰁵󰁴 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁩󰁮󰁣󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁰󰁯󰁬󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁥󰁳 󰁩󰁴 󰁰󰁵󰁴 󰁩󰁮 󰁰󰁬󰁡󰁣󰁥 󰁤󰁩󰁤 󰁮󰁯󰁴 󰁨󰁡󰁶󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁮󰁤󰁥󰁤 󰁥󰁦󰁦󰁥󰁣󰁴 󰁩󰁮 󰀳   F󰁯󰁲 󰁥󰁸󰁡󰁭󰁰󰁬󰁥, 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁡󰁲󰁥󰁡 󰁯󰁦 P󰁬󰁡󰁹󰁡 G󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁤󰁥 󰁷󰁡󰁳 󰁢󰁯󰁵󰁧󰁨󰁴 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 1970󰁳 󰁢󰁹 R󰁯󰁢󰁥󰁲󰁴 V󰁥󰁳󰁣󰁯, 󰁡 N󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁨 A󰁭󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁮. T󰁨󰁥 󰁡󰁲󰁥󰁡 󰁯󰁦 P󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁬󰁬󰁡 󰁷󰁡󰁳 󰁢󰁯󰁵󰁧󰁨󰁴 󰁩󰁮 1974 󰁢󰁹 H󰁯󰁯󰁶󰁥󰁲 G󰁯󰁲󰁤󰁯󰁮 P󰁡󰁴󰁴󰁩󰁬󰁬󰁯, 󰁡 N󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁨 A󰁭󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁮 󰁩󰁮󰁶󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁲 󰁷󰁨󰁯 󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁲󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁩󰁴 󰁡󰁳 󰁡 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁭󰁵󰁮󰁩󰁴󰁹 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 1990󰁳. A 󰁭󰁵󰁬󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁧󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁰 󰁯󰁦 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁳 󰁢󰁯󰁵󰁧󰁨󰁴 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁦󰁯󰁲 R󰁥󰁳󰁥󰁲󰁶󰁡 C󰁯󰁮󰁣󰁨󰁡󰁬 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 1980󰁳. N󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁨 A󰁭󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁮 󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁬 󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁴󰁥 󰁢󰁲󰁯󰁫󰁥󰁲󰁳 󰁨󰁡󰁶󰁥 󰁢󰁥󰁥󰁮 󰁡󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁶󰁥 󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁣󰁥 󰁥󰁡󰁲󰁬󰁹 󰁹󰁥󰁡󰁲󰁳: C󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁵󰁲󰁹 21 󰁷󰁡󰁳 󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁢󰁬󰁩󰁳󰁨󰁥󰁤 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁡󰁲󰁥󰁡 󰁩󰁮 1977.   5 G󰁵󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁥. 4  U󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁬 󰁴󰁨󰁥 1990󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁷󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁯󰁮󰁬󰁹 󰁡 󰁳󰁭󰁡󰁬󰁬 󰁮󰁵󰁭󰁢󰁥󰁲 󰁯󰁦 󰁥󰁸󰁰󰁬󰁯󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁹 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁳, 󰁳󰁯󰁭󰁥 󰁯󰁦 󰁷󰁨󰁯󰁭 󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁢󰁬󰁩󰁳󰁨󰁥󰁤 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁭󰁳󰁥󰁬󰁶󰁥󰁳 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁡󰁲󰁥󰁡. H󰁯󰁷󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁲, 󰁢󰁹 2002 󰁴󰁨󰁥 G󰁵󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁥 󰁣󰁯󰁡󰁳󰁴 󰁨󰁡󰁤 󰁢󰁥󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁥 󰁡󰁮 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁤󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨 󰁡 󰁤󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁥 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁣󰁬󰁵󰁳󰁴󰁥󰁲 (H󰁥󰁩󰁮, 2002): 󰁨󰁯󰁴󰁥󰁬󰁳 󰁩󰁮 󰁡󰁬󰁬 󰁤󰁩󰁦󰁦󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁧󰁥󰁳, 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁵󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁴󰁳, 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲 󰁯󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁳, 󰁧󰁵󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁳, 󰁳󰁯󰁵󰁶󰁥󰁮󰁩󰁲 󰁳󰁨󰁯󰁰󰁳, 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁳󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁰󰁡󰁮󰁩󰁥󰁳. M󰁡󰁮󰁹 󰁢󰁵󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳󰁳 󰁯󰁷󰁮󰁥󰁲󰁳 󰁷󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁥󰁩󰁧󰁮. T󰁨󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁬 󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁴󰁥 󰁭󰁡󰁲󰁫󰁥󰁴 󰁷󰁡󰁳 󰁡󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁶󰁥 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁡 󰁮󰁵󰁭󰁢󰁥󰁲 󰁯󰁦 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁭󰁵󰁮󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁥󰁳 󰁨󰁡󰁤 󰁢󰁥󰁥󰁮 󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁢󰁬󰁩󰁳󰁨󰁥󰁤. B󰁵󰁴 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁰󰁡󰁣󰁥 󰁯󰁦 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁧󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁷󰁡󰁳 󰁡󰁢󰁯󰁵󰁴 󰁴󰁯 󰁥󰁸󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁥󰁮󰁣󰁥 󰁷󰁡󰁳 󰁵󰁮󰁰󰁲󰁥󰁣󰁥󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁤. I󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁮󰁥󰁸󰁴 󰁦󰁥󰁷 󰁹󰁥󰁡󰁲󰁳, 󰁡 󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁬 󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁴󰁥 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁢󰁯󰁯󰁭 󰁷󰁯󰁵󰁬󰁤 󰁢󰁥 󰁣󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁴󰁥󰁤, 󰁡󰁮󰁤 G󰁵󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁥󲀙󰁳 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁮󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁴󰁯 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁩󰁮󰁶󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁳, 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁳, 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁳, 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁭󰁩󰁧󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁴󰁳, 󰁰󰁡󰁲󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁵󰁬󰁡󰁲󰁬󰁹 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 US 󰁡󰁮󰁤 C󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁤󰁡, 󰁷󰁯󰁵󰁬󰁤 󰁢󰁥 󰁧󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁴󰁬󰁹 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁩󰁦󰁩󰁥󰁤. T󰁨󰁥 󰁳󰁵󰁣󰁣󰁥󰁳󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁰󰁲󰁩󰁶󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁳󰁴 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁬󰁡󰁩󰁳󰁳󰁥󰁺 󰁦󰁡󰁩󰁲󰁥󰀭󰁴󰁹󰁰󰁥 󲀘󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁲󰁥󰁧󰁩󰁭󰁥󲀙 󰁩󰁮 󰁡󰁴󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁥 󰁦󰁬󰁩󰁧󰁨󰁴󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁢󰁥󰁴󰁴󰁥󰁲 󰁡󰁩󰁲󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴 󰁩󰁮󰁦󰁲󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁵󰁣󰁴󰁵󰁲󰁥 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁰󰁵󰁴󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁧󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁯󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁭󰁡󰁰, 󰁷󰁡󰁳 󰁡 󰁭󰁡󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁲󰁩󰁧󰁧󰁥󰁲 󰁩󰁮 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁧 G󰁵󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁥 󰁣󰁯󰁡󰁳󰁴 󰁡󰁳 󰁡 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁬󰁡󰁲󰁧󰁥󰀭󰁳󰁣󰁡󰁬󰁥 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁤󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 (J󰁡󰁮󰁯󰁳󰁣󰁨󰁫󰁡, 2009; M󰁯󰁲󰁡󰁬󰁥󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 P󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁴, 2010). N󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁨 A󰁭󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁮 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁬 󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁴󰁥 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁩󰁮󰁶󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁳 󰁳󰁥󰁣󰁵󰁲󰁥󰁤 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁩󰁲 󰁩󰁮󰁶󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁳, 󰁯󰁦󰁴󰁥󰁮 󰁩󰁮 󰁣󰁯󰁬󰁬󰁡󰁢󰁯󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨 󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁩󰁮󰁶󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁳, 󰁴󰁨󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁧󰁨 󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁧󰁯󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁮󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁳󰁵󰁰󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴. 5  I󰁮 󰁡󰁤󰁤󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁴󰁯 󰁡 󰁦󰁥󰁷 󰁬󰁡󰁲󰁧󰁥 󲀘󰁰󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁥󰁥󰁲󲀙 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁳, 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁷󰁡󰁳 󰁡󰁬󰁳󰁯 󰁡 󰁣󰁨󰁡󰁯󰁴󰁩󰁣 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁬󰁩󰁦󰁥󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁯󰁦 󰁯󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁳 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁬 󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁴󰁥 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁵󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁵󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁹: 󰁡󰁰󰁡󰁲󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁰󰁬󰁥󰁸󰁥󰁳, 󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁵󰁲󰁢󰁡󰁮󰁩󰁳󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳, 󰁶󰁡󰁣󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁨󰁯󰁭󰁥 󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁰󰁬󰁥󰁸󰁥󰁳, 󰁬󰁵󰁸󰁵󰁲󰁹 󰁨󰁯󰁭󰁥 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁪󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁳. M󰁯󰁳󰁴 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁳󰁥 󰁷󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁡󰁬󰁳󰁯 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁥󰁤 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁢󰁯󰁵󰁧󰁨󰁴 󰁢󰁹 N󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁨 A󰁭󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁮󰁳 (V󰁡󰁮 N󰁯󰁯󰁲󰁬󰁯󰁯󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 Z󰁯󰁯󰁭󰁥󰁲󰁳, 2010). A󰁮󰁯󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁡󰁮󰁴 󰁰󰁵󰁳󰁨 󰁴󰁯󰁷󰁡󰁲󰁤󰁳 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁷󰁡󰁳 󰁣󰁡󰁵󰁳󰁥󰁤 󰁢󰁹 󰁩󰁮󰁮󰁯󰁶󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁵󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁹 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁷󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁢󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁧󰁨󰁴 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁯 C󰁯󰁳󰁴󰁡 R󰁩󰁣󰁡: 󰁩󰁮󰁶󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁨󰁯󰁴󰁥󰁬 󰁣󰁨󰁡󰁩󰁮󰁳, 󰁭󰁯󰁳󰁴󰁬󰁹 󰁦󰁲󰁯󰁭 󰁴󰁨󰁥 US 󰁡󰁮󰁤 S󰁰󰁡󰁩󰁮, 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁲󰁯󰁤󰁵󰁣󰁥󰁤 󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁢󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁳󰁨󰁯󰁲󰁴󰀭󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁭 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁬 󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁴󰁥/󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁤󰁵󰁣󰁴󰁳. T󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁳 󰁡󰁲󰁥 󰁡  󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁦󰁥󰁣󰁴 󰁴󰁡󰁲󰁧󰁥󰁴 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁬 󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁴󰁥 󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁵󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁹 󰁴󰁯 󰁢󰁵󰁹 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁴󰁹: 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁴󲀙󰁳 󰁤󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁲󰁥 󰁴󰁯 󰁥󰁸󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁥󰁮󰁣󰁥 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁧󰁡󰁺󰁥 󰁡󰁴 󰁤󰁩󰁦󰁦󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁴󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁧󰁳 (U󰁲󰁲󰁹, 1990) 󰁩󰁳 󰁥󰁡󰁳󰁩󰁬󰁹 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁯 󰁡 󰁤󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁲󰁥 󰁴󰁯 󰁯󰁷󰁮. O󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁯󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁨󰁡󰁮󰁤, 󰁦󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁥 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁩󰁮󰁶󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁮󰁥󰁷 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁭󰁵󰁮󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁥󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁶󰁡󰁣󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁨󰁯󰁭󰁥 󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁰󰁬󰁥󰁸󰁥󰁳 󰁣󰁡󰁮 󰁢󰁥 󰁡󰁴󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁣󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁰󰁡󰁲󰁴󰁬󰁹 󰁦󰁲󰁯󰁭 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁨󰁯󰁭󰁥 󰁢󰁵󰁹󰁥󰁲󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁭󰁳󰁥󰁬󰁶󰁥󰁳, 󰁷󰁨󰁩󰁣󰁨 󰁬󰁯󰁷󰁥󰁲󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁮󰁥󰁥󰁤 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁯󰁷󰁮 󰁩󰁮󰁶󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴. 6  H󰁯󰁷󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁲, 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁳󰁥 󰁦󰁡󰁣󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁳 󰁲󰁥󰁬󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁴󰁯 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁲󰁥󰁧󰁩󰁭󰁥 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁣󰁨󰁡󰁮󰁧󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁯󰁦󰁦󰁥󰁲 󰁡󰁲󰁥 󰁮󰁯󰁴 󰁳󰁵󰁦󰁦󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁴󰁯 󰁥󰁸󰁰󰁬󰁡󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁢󰁯󰁯󰁭 󰁩󰁮 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭. H󰁯󰁷 󰁤󰁩󰁤 G󰁵󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁥 󰁭󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁧󰁥 󰁴󰁯 󰁡󰁴󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁣󰁴 󰁳󰁯 󰁭󰁡󰁮󰁹 N󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁨 A󰁭󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁮 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁳, 󰁩󰁮󰁶󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁳󰁰󰁥󰁣󰁵󰁬󰁡󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁳? W󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁡󰁲󰁥 󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁵󰁲󰁡󰁬󰁬󰁹 󰁡 󰁮󰁵󰁭󰁢󰁥󰁲 󰁯󰁦 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁡󰁮󰁴 󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁵󰁣󰁴󰁵󰁲󰁡󰁬 4  I󰁮󰁣󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁳 󰁩󰁮󰁣󰁬󰁵󰁤󰁥󰁤 󰁴󰁨󰁥 1964 󰁳󰁰󰁥󰁣󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁰󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁤󰁯 󰁬󰁡󰁷 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁯󰁦󰁦󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁤 󰁡󰁤󰁶󰁡󰁮󰁴󰁡󰁧󰁥󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁥󰁩󰁧󰁮 󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁲󰁥󰁥󰁳 󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁢󰁬󰁩󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁩󰁮 C󰁯󰁳󰁴󰁡 R󰁩󰁣󰁡, 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁴󰁨󰁥  󰁰󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁮󰁥󰁤 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁩󰁮 1978 󰁯󰁦 󰁡 󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁯󰁲󰁴 󰁩󰁮 G󰁵󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁥, 󰁴󰁨󰁥 P󰁡󰁰󰁡󰁧󰁡󰁹󰁯 G󰁵󰁬󰁦 T󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 P󰁯󰁬󰁥. T󰁨󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁯󰁲󰁴 󰁦󰁡󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁤 󰁴󰁯 󰁭󰁥󰁥󰁴 󰁥󰁸󰁰󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁩󰁮 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁦󰁩󰁲󰁳󰁴 󰁴󰁷󰁯 󰁤󰁥󰁣󰁡󰁤󰁥󰁳, 󰁡󰁳 󰁭󰁯󰁳󰁴 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁣󰁥󰁳󰁳󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁷󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁮󰁯󰁴 󰁵󰁳󰁥󰁤 (S󰁡󰁬󰁡󰁳 R󰁯󰁩󰁺, 2010). 5  T󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁳󰁵󰁰󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴 󰁷󰁡󰁳 󰁧󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁮, 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁥󰁸󰁡󰁭󰁰󰁬󰁥, 󰁴󰁨󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁧󰁨 󰁤󰁥 󰁦󰁡󰁣󰁴󰁯 󰁰󰁯󰁬󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁥󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁣󰁯󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁬 󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁰󰁲󰁩󰁶󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁳󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 (󰁥.󰁧. 󰁧󰁯󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁮󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁧󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁮 󰁯󰁵󰁴 󰁭󰁵󰁬󰁴󰁩󰁰󰁬󰁥 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁣󰁥󰁳󰁳󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁣󰁯󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁬 󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁴󰁯 󰁡 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁥󰁲; 󰁮󰁯󰁴 󰁯󰁮󰁬󰁹 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 P󰁡󰁰󰁡󰁧󰁡󰁹󰁯 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁪󰁥󰁣󰁴 󰁢󰁵󰁴 󰁩󰁮 󰁧󰁥󰁮󰁥󰁲󰁡󰁬); 󰁴󰁵󰁲󰁮󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁡 󰁢󰁬󰁩󰁮󰁤 󰁥󰁹󰁥 󰁯󰁮 󰁥󰁮󰁶󰁩󰁲󰁯󰁮󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁡󰁬 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁯󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁩󰁲󰁲󰁥󰁧󰁵󰁬󰁡󰁲󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁥󰁳 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁪󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁳; 󰁡󰁰󰁰󰁬󰁹󰁩󰁮󰁧 󲀘󰁤󰁥󰁣󰁬󰁡󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁴󲀙 󰁴󰁯 󰁣󰁥󰁲󰁴󰁡󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁭 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁪󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󰁢󰁹󰁰󰁡󰁳󰁳 󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁴 󰁥󰁮󰁶󰁩󰁲󰁯󰁮󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁡󰁬 󰁲󰁥󰁧󰁵󰁬󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳; 󰁳󰁵󰁰󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁡 󰁮󰁥󰁷 󰁬󰁡󰁷 󰁯󰁮 󰁥󰁡󰁳󰁩󰁥󰁲 󰁡󰁰󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁶󰁡󰁬 󰁯󰁦 󰁭󰁡󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁳; 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁢󰁬󰁩󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁡 󰁰󰁵󰁢󰁬󰁩󰁣󰀭󰁰󰁲󰁩󰁶󰁡󰁴󰁥 󰁰󰁡󰁲󰁴󰁮󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁰 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁷󰁡󰁴󰁥󰁲  󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁶󰁩󰁳󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁴󰁯 G󰁵󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁥 󰁣󰁯󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁬 󰁡󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁳 (󰁶󰁡󰁮 N󰁯󰁯󰁲󰁬󰁯󰁯󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 Z󰁯󰁯󰁭󰁥󰁲󰁳, 2010). 6  O󰁦󰁴󰁥󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁡󰁰󰁡󰁲󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁨󰁯󰁵󰁳󰁥󰁳 󰁡󰁲󰁥 󰁳󰁵󰁢󰁳󰁥󰁱󰁵󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁬󰁹 󰁵󰁳󰁥󰁤 󰁡󰁳 󰁶󰁡󰁣󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁲󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁡󰁬 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁴󰁩󰁥󰁳 (󰁴󰁨󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁧󰁨 󰁡 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁴󰁹 󰁭󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁧󰁥󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁰󰁡󰁮󰁹), 󰁴󰁨󰁵󰁳 󰁦󰁵󰁮󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁡󰁳 󰁡 󰁳󰁯󰁲󰁴 󰁯󰁦 󰁨󰁯󰁴󰁥󰁬, 󰁢󰁵󰁴 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨󰁯󰁵󰁴 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁳󰁡󰁭󰁥 󰁮󰁥󰁥󰁤 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁩󰁮󰁶󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴. I󰁮 󰁡󰁤󰁤󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮, 󰁡󰁮󰁯󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁩󰁮󰁣󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁧󰁬󰁹 󰁰󰁯󰁰󰁵󰁬󰁡󰁲 󰁦󰁥󰁡󰁴󰁵󰁲󰁥 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁦󰁲󰁯󰁭 󰁴󰁨󰁥 US 󰁡󰁲󰁥 󰁴󰁩󰁭󰁥󰁳󰁨󰁡󰁲󰁥 󰁡󰁲󰁲󰁡󰁮󰁧󰁥󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁰󰁡󰁲󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁯󰁷󰁮󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁰..  
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