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HIST 115: Race, Racisms, and Anti-Racisms in the Modern World

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HIST 115: Race, Racisms, and Anti-Racisms in the Modern World
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 3)'0(&2#E*? +-0 )*.+)0#-1 $3+&* 9') *E*)4'-* $' 2"+2 .* &+- @*22*) (-0*)$2+-0 "'. )+&*F2"#-,#-1 .'),$? @'2" 3+$2 +-0 3)*$*-2< "6,-/8<-./4  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  3)WW+$+2*+6 .4 W1$=)2J ' *1==12 *'(6+ GV'G 3+21(2*+3 GV+ L1I+$ 1W Z$'*+7[ '/12J I)GV )G6 $'*)'/)`+3 I'46 1W 6++)2J '23 6G$(*G($+6% @1L)*'/ *1T+$'J+ I)// 6L'2 '// *1$2+$6 1W GV+ J/1.+7 )2*/(3)2J a$)G')27 GV+ b2)G+3 AG'G+67 cJ4LG7 GV+ A(3'27 D$'2*+7 Y23)'7 &'$G)2)_(+7 >/J+$)'7 d+$='247 ,'L'27 Y6$'+/ef'/+6G)2+7 O(.'7 A1(GV >W$)*'7 '23 O'2'3'% f'$G)*(/'$ 'GG+2G)127 W($GV+$=1$+7 I)// .+ J)T+2 G1 GV+ $1/+6 1W G$'262'G)12'/ =1T+=+2G6 '23 )2G+$2'G)12'/ 1$J'2)`'G)126% ;3M8+/35 $3N-,4   •  f'(/ d1$312 -'($+27 G'.*) +-0 G)*H(0#&*I !"* G'/#2#&$ +-0 J#3/'8+&4 '9 K+&#+/ J#$&)#8#-+2#'-  Ha1(/3+$0 5+6GT)+I f$+667 8FFSK% g>T')/'./+ W1$ L($*V'6+ 'G GV+ O'=L(6 a11R6G1$+h •  &'$4 -422 ?'=L1//'7  = G'&,*2 L(#0* 2' M)#2#-1 #- 7#$2')4 Hi+I j1$R0 a+3W1$37 <98MK% g>T')/'./+ W1$ L($*V'6+ 'G GV+ O'=L(6 a11R6G1$+h F32/6+6O H8-<.>3,4 &( B+-A /3O2/5 -. !"#$H;"7?F $!"PQ"PRS( k #+=126G$'G+ ' I1$R)2J R21I/+3J+ 1W IV'G V)6G1$)'26 G4L)*'//4 =+'2 .4 ZV)6G1$)*'/ GV)2R)2J7[ W1*(6)2J 12 *12*+LG6 6(*V '6 *V$121/1J47 *'(6+ '23 +WW+*G7 *12G+]G7 *12G)2J+2*47 *12G)2()G4 '23 *V'2J+7 '23 V)6G1$)*'/ 6)J2)\)*'2*+% k >*R21I/+3J+ GV+ V)6G1$)'2 '6 ' *$+'G1$ 1W +T)3+2*+;.'6+3 )2G+$L$+G'G)126 '23 '6 L'$G 1W ' 6*V1/'$/4 *1==(2)G4 $'GV+$ GV'2 '6 ' G$'26=)GG+$ 1W W'*G6 1$ Z\)]+3[ R21I/+3J+% k ?+*1J2)`+ GV+ L1G+2G)'/ W1$ V)6G1$)*'/ (23+$6G'23)2J G1 6+$T+ '6 GV+ .'6)6 1W +GV)*'/ '*G)12 '23 *$)G)*'/ P(3J=+2G )2 GV+ I1$/3% D( B+-A /3O2/5 -. !"#$H;"7?F GT"UGP7GS k Y3+2G)W47 /1*'G+7 +T'/('G+7 '2'/4`+7 '23 +WW+*G)T+/4 (6+ ' T'$)+G4 1W W1$=6 1W V)6G1$)*'/ +T)3+2*+7 )2*/(3)2J 61($*+6 'T')/'./+ 12 GV+ Y2G+$2+G7 )2 3)J)G'/ 1$ =(6+(= *1//+*G)1267 )2 GV+ b2)T+$6)G4 -).$'$47 '23 )2 /1*'/ '$*V)T+6 HIV+$+ 'LL$1L$)'G+K% k c]L/')2 GV+ +GV)*'/ 3)=+26)126 )2T1/T+3 )2 GV+ +T'/('G)12 1W +T)3+2*+ '23 GV+ L$13(*G)12 1W V)6G1$)*'/ R21I/+3J+% V( B+-A /3O2/5 -. !"#$H;"7?F ?;RW1GP$?$"HPS k O1=L'$+7 *12G$'6G7 '23 '2'/4`+ V)6G1$)*'/ '$J(=+2G6 .4 /11R)2J7 W1$ +]'=L/+7 'G P1($2'/ '$G)*/+6 1$ =121J$'LV6l 'G V1I V)6G1$)'26 /)2R +T)3+2*+ G1 '$J(=+2G'G)12l '23 'G GV+ 3)WW+$+2G 'LL$1'*V+6 V)6G1$)'26 V'T+ G'R+2 G1I'$3 G1L)*6 (23+$ 6G(34% k f$'*G)*+ (6)2J +T)3+2*+ G1 3+T+/1L GV+)$ 1I2 V)6G1$)*'/ '$J(=+2G6% X( B+-A /3O2/5 -. !"#$H;"7?F B;"$"PR ?PU 7H11WP"7?$"HP #Q"FF#S k >LL/4 GV+)$ R21I/+3J+ 1W IV'G *126G)G(G+6 I+// J$1(23+3 V)6G1$)*'/ '2'/46)6 )2 ' T'$)+G4 1W W1$=60 */'66 3)6*(66)1267 1$'/ L$+6+2G'G)1267 <  '23 $+J(/'$ I$)G)2J '66)J2=+2G6% k #+=126G$'G+ ='6G+$4 1W GV+ =+*V'2)*6 1W ' J113 V)6G1$4 L'L+$7 )2*/(3)2J +WW+*G)T+ GV+6)6 _(+6G)126 '23 6G'G+=+2G6 '6 I+// '6 L$1L+$ J$'=='$7 6G4/+7 *)G'G)12 L$'*G)*+67 '23 W1$='GG)2J% k f$'*G)*+ '*'3+=)* V12+6G4% '( B+-A /3O2/5 -. -A3 7HP$GP$ HC $!G"; #YG7"C"7 #G7$"HP((( k #+=126G$'G+ R21I/+3J+ 1W GV+ *1($6+ *12G+2G% k #+=126G$'G+ R21I/+3J+ 1W GV+ 61($*+67 =+GV131/1J)+67 '23 GV+1$)+6 V)6G1$)'26 V'T+ (6+3 G1 'LL$1'*V GV+ G1L)*% k >6 'LL$1L$)'G+ W1$ GV+ *1($6+ *12G+2G7 $+*1J2)`+ GV'G L'6G '23 L$+6+2G 61*)'/ $+/'G)126V)L6 '$+ GV+ L$13(*G6 1W *1=L/+] V)6G1$)*'/ W1$*+6 GV'G GV+ 3)6*)L/)2+ 1W V)6G1$4 *'2 V+/L (6 (23+$6G'23 )2 3)6G)2*G)T+ I'46% ZP.-34   C2+98/3 -. ,8[>+- 260 .I -A3 2,,+O6>36-, ./ 3N2>, L+99 /3,89- +6 2 J+629 O/253 .I X\ ./ 9.L3/ % >// *1($6+ '66)J2=+2G6 I)// .+ '66+66+3 'J')26G GV+ b2)T+$6)G4 1W A'6R'G*V+I'2 J$'3)2J 6*'/+7 IV)*V *'2 .+ W1(23 'G0 VGGL0eeIII%(6'6R%*'e*'/+23'$e+]'=6mJ$'3+6eJ$'3)2J646G+=e  792,, C./>2-4 @V)6 *1($6+ =++G6 GV$++ H:K G)=+6 ' I++R7 I)GV GI1 H<K /+*G($+6 '23 12+ H8K 6+=)2'$ I++R/4% k  N*&2()*$  )2G$13(*+ =')2 GV+=+6 '23 L$1T)3+ ' 6G$(*G($+ W$1= IV)*V G1 *126)3+$ GV+ V)6G1$4 1W )3+'6 '23 *(/G($+% k  5*8#-+)$ )2G$13(*+ ' W1*(6+3 6+G 1W $+'3)2J6 '23 $')6+ 6L+*)\)* _(+6G)126 '.1(G V1I G1 )2G+$L$+G V)6G1$)*'/ =+'2)2J6% @V+4 I)// '/61 W1*(6 12 $+\)2)2J 6R)//6 *$)G)*'/ G1 GV+ 3)6*)L/)2+ 1W X)6G1$4% AG(3+2G6 I)// .+ +]L+*G+3 G1 V'T+ $+'3 GV+ 6+/+*G)126 )2 '3T'2*+ '23 *1=+ G1 */'66 L$+L'$+3 G1 *$)G)*'//4 +2J'J+ I)GV GV+ G1L)*6 L$+6+2G+3%  ?,,+O6>36-,4 8%  Y2/-+<+]2-+.6 0 j1( '$+ +]L+*G+3 G1 L'$G)*)L'G+ )2 +'*V 1W GV+ 6*V+3(/+3 6+=)2'$% @V+6+ 6+=)2'$6 I)// *126)6G 1W J$1(L 3)6*(66)126 1W GV+ '66)J2+3 $+'3)2J6 '23 I1$R6V1L6 3+6)J2+3 G1 )=L$1T+ V)6G1$)*'/ 6R)//6% j1($ +T'/('G)12 )2 GV+6+ 6+66)126 I)// .+ .'6+3 12 ' *1=.)2'G)12 1W 'GG+23'2*+ +-0   L'$G)*)L'G)12% j1(   GT?FW?$"HP f'$G)*)L'G)12 8Mn H6++ +]L/'2'G)12 .+/1IK?+6+'$*V f/'2 89n 5+3% 89 o*G1.+$ <98E&)3;@+$= <Mn &12% << o*G1.+$ <98E?+6+'$*V f'L+$ <9n &12% 8F i1T+=.+$ <98E@'R+;X1=+ D)2'/ c]'= :9n @(+63'4 88 #+*+=.+$ <98E :  I)// .+ +]L+*G+3 G1 $+'3 GV+ '66)J2+3 *V'LG+$6 1$ 6+*G)126 )2 '3T'2*+ '23 L'$G)*)L'G+ )2 GV+ J$1(L 3)6*(66)12% f'$G)*)L'G)12 +]G+236 .+4123 'GG+23'2*+% i1 6+=)2'$ *'2 W(2*G)12 +WW+*G)T+/4 )W 6G(3+2G6 31 21G $+'3 GV+ ='G+$)'/ '23 '$$)T+ L$+L'$+3 G1 3)6*(66 )G% ?+J(/'$ 'GG+23'2*+ '23 '*G)T+ L'$G)*)L'G)12 '$+ ='23'G1$4% <%  ;3,32/<A Y926 0 @V)6 '66)J2=+2G )6 3+6)J2+3 G1 V+/L 6G(3+2G6 1$J'2)`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 1W 6)] HSK 6+*123'$4 61($*+6 W$1= GV+ /).$'$4% O126(/G'G)12 I)GV +)GV+$ 41($ @%>% 1$ =46+/W L$)1$ G1 6+/+*G)2J 41($ G1L)* )6 "#1"/4   +2*1($'J+3% :%  1+5@$3/> 0 @V)6 '66)J2=+2G I)// .+ *1=L/+G+3 )2 */'66 12  1.6520 H<-.[3/ DD65= D)&E % AG(3+2G6 I)// .+ J)T+2 ' 8+6#8(8  1W \)WG4 HM9K =)2(G+6 G1 '26I+$ \)T+ 1(G 1W +)JVG HMeEK )3+2G)\)*'G)12 _(+6G)126% O+&" +-$.*) $"'(/0 +00)*$$ C#E* ,*4 &'83'-*-2$I ."'P ."*)*P ."4P ."*-P +-0 "'.P U%  ;3,32/<A Y2]3/ 0 j1($ $+6+'$*V L'L+$ *'2 +]L/1$+ '24 6(.P+*G I)GV)2 GV+ .$1'3 6*1L+ 1W 8'E*8*-2$ +1+#-$2 )+&#$8 #- 2"* 8'0*)- *)+ % YG =(6G .+ 6)] HSK L'J+67 31(./+;6L'*+37 '23 (6+ L$1L+$/4;$+W+$+2*+3 W11G21G+6% Y2 '33)G)127 L/+'6+ .+ 6($+ G1 */+'$/4 )3+2G)G4 41($ =')2 GV+6)6 .4 (23+$/)2)2J )G )2 41($ L'L+$% M%  $2^3@!.>3 C+629 GN2> 0 @V)6 \)2'/ +]'=pIV)*V I)// .+ V'23+3 1(G 12 GV+ \)2'/ 3'4 1W */'66pI)// $+_()$+ 6G(3+2G6 G1 '26I+$ GV$++ H:K /12J +66'4 _(+6G)126% c'*V '26I+$ =(6G .+ GI1 H<K L'J+6 /12J% >26I+$6 8($2   (G)/)`+3 .1GV /+*G($+ 21G+6 '23 '66)J2+3 $+'3)2J6% AG(3+2G67 W($GV+$=1$+7 8($2   6(.=)G GV+ '66)J2=+2G G1 =+ )2 L+$6127 'G =4 1W\)*+7 @*2.**- Q+8 +-0 RS38 7 12 $83,520 U3<3>[3/ &&-A= D)&E % N+2* $(@8#$$#'- .#// -'2 @* +&&*32*0  %  ZP.-34 >// '66)J2=+2G6 =(6G .+ G4L+37 31(./+;6L'*+37 6G'L/+37 '23 )2 8<;W12G O'=.$)'% f/+'6+ +26($+ GV'G '// L'J+6 '$+ L$1L+$/4 2(=.+$+3% c'*V '66)J2=+2G =(6G '/61 *12G')2 6G'23'$3 ='$J)26pGV'G )67 12+ )2*V W1$ +'*V GV+ /+WG '23 $)JVG ='$J)27 '6 I+// '6 GV+ V+'3+$ '23 W11G+$%   ?55+-+.629 "6I./>2-+.64 N*&2()* O2#T(*22* Y '6R GV'G '// *+//LV12+6 .+ 6+G 12 T).$'G+ 1$ 6)/+2G 3($)2J /+*G($+6% @+]G)2J7 W($GV+$=1$+7 )6 6G$)*G/4 L$1V).)G+3% @V+ 6'=+ 'LL/)+6 G1 +2J'J+=+2G I)GV '// W1$=6 1W 12/)2+ 61*)'/ 2+GI1$R)2J H)+0 D'*+.11R7 @I)GG+$7 +G*%K% D')/($+ G1 '.)3+ .4 GV+6+ $(/+6 ='4 $+6(/G )2 =+ L1/)G+/4 '6R)2J 41( G1 /+'T+ GV+ */'66$11=%   M)#22*- M'), U N+2* 5(@8#$$#'-$ Y I)// '**+LG /'G+ '66)J2=+2G6 12/4 W1$ 6+T+2 HBK 3'46 .+4123 GV+ 3(+ 3'G+% @V+ L+2'/G4 W1$ 41($ 3+/'4 )6 89n L+$ 3'4 1W /'G+2+66 W$1= GV+ T'/(+ 1W GV+ '66)J2=+2G7 U  )2*/(3)2J I++R+23 3'467 IV+2 '66)J2=+2G6 *'2 .+ 6(.=)GG+3 +/+*G$12)*'//4% YW 41( 6(.=)G +/+*G$12)*'//4 ' /'G+ '66)J2=+2G7 41( 6G)// V'T+ G1 6(.=)G ' L'L+$ *1L4 'G GV+ 6G'$G 1W GV+ W1//1I)2J */'66 =++G)2J% c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b2)T+$6)G4 -+'$2)2J O+2G$+ Hb-OK 1WW+$60 k D$++ q3$1L;)2q G(G1$)2J G1 '// b 1W A 6G(3+2G6% r)6)G &($$'4 8U< H&')2 -).$'$47 \)$6G \/11$K% &123'4 G1 @V($63'4 W$1= 8<099;<099% i1 'LL1)2G=+2G )6 2+*+66'$4% k D$++ q12/)2+q G(G1$)2J )6 '/61 'T')/'./+7 B 3'46 ' I++R0 III%(6'6R%*'e(/*e12/)2+I$)G)2JV+/L k AG(3+2G6 312sG V'T+ G1 L$13(*+ ' 3$'WG G1 $+*+)T+ 3$1L;)2 1$ 12/)2+ G(G1$)2J^ V+/L *'2 .+ $+*+)T+3 'G '24 6G'J+ 1W GV+ I$)G)2J L$1*+667 W$1= (23+$6G'23)2J '2 '66)J2=+2G L$1=LG G1 )=L$1T)2J L$11W$+'3)2J 6R)//6% >// G(G1$6 '$+ b 1W A J$'3('G+ 6G(3+2G6% @(G1$)2J )6 W$++7 *12\)3+2G)'/ '23 W$)+23/4% AG(3+2G6 *'2 $+*+)T+ V+/L GI)*+ W1$ '24 J)T+2 '66)J2=+2G% k D1$ =1$+ )2W1$='G)127 L/+'6+ *12G'*G -)T &'$R+27 5$)G)2J X+/L O11$3)2'G1$ HI$)G)2JV+/LQ(6'6R%*'K 1$ T)6)G GV+ b-O 5$)G)2J X+/L V1=+ L'J+0 III%(6'6R%*'e(/*eI$)G)2JVGGL0eeIII%(6'6R%*'e(/*eI$)G)2J  =&+0*8#& 7'-*$24    A*V1/'$6V)L )6 L$+=)6+3 12 '*'3+=)* V12+6G4 '23 )2G+J$)G4% >(GV1$6 =(6G L$1L+$/4 '*R21I/+3J+ GV+ L$)='$4 '23 6+*123'$4 61($*+6 (L12 IV)*V GV+4 .'6+ GV+)$ )3+'6 '23 '$J(=+2G6 61 GV'G 1$)J)2'/ *12G$).(G)126 '$+ $+'3)/4 )3+2G)\)'./+% D')/($+ G1 31 61 )6 (2+GV)*'/ '23 *126G)G(G+6 L/'J)'$)6=% YG )6 '/61 (2+GV)*'/ G1 6(.=)G GV+ 6'=+ +66'4 G1 GI1 3)WW+$+2G */'66+67 (2/+66 41( V'T+ ='3+ ' 6L+*)'/ '$$'2J+=+2G I)GV GV+ )26G$(*G1$6 1W .1GV */'66+6% f/'J)'$)6= )6 GV+ L$+6+2G'G)12 1W GV+ I1$R 1$ )3+' 1W '21GV+$ )2 6(*V ' I'4 '6 G1 J)T+ 1GV+$6 GV+ )=L$+66)12 GV'G )G )6 GV+ I1$R 1$ )3+' 1W GV+ L$+6+2G+$% >3+_('G+ 'GG$).(G)12 )6 $+_()$+3% 5V'G )6 +66+2G)'/ )6 GV'G '21GV+$ L+$612 V'T+ 21 31(.G IV)*V I1$36 1$ $+6+'$*V $+6(/G6 '$+ GV+ 6G(3+2Gt6 1I2 '23 IV)*V '$+ 3$'I2 W$1= 1GV+$ 61($*+6% D(// +]L/)*)G '*R21I/+3J+=+2G 1W GV+ 61($*+ 1W GV+ ='G+$)'/ )6 $+_()$+3% c]'=L/+6 1W L/'J)'$)6= )2*/(3+0 M
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