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History of Indian Nationalism

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   istory of Indian nationalism Indian nationalism  refers to the many underlying forces that defined the principles of the  Indian independence movement, and strongly continue to influence the  politics of India, as well as being the heart of many contrasting ideologies that have caused ethnic and religious conflict in Indian society. Indian nationalism often imbibes the consciousness of Indians that prior to 1947, India embodied the broader  Indian subcontinent and influenced a  part of Asia, known as  Greater India.  National consciousness in India India has been unified under many emperors and governments in history. Ancient texts mention India under  emperor Bharata and   Akhand Bharat, these regions roughly form the entities of modern day  greater India. Mauryan Empire was the  first to unite all of   India, South Asia, and much of   Persia. In addition, much of India has also been unified under a central  government by empires, such as the  Gupta Empire, Rashtrakuta Empire, Pala Empire, Mughal Empire, Indian Empire  etc.  Conception of Pan-South Asianism India's concept of nationhood is based not merely on territorial extent of its sovereignty. Nationalistic sentiments and expression encompass that India's ancient history, as the birthplace of the  Indus Valley Civilization and   Vedic Civilization, as well as  four major world religions –   Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. Indian nationalists see India stretching along these lines across the  Indian Subcontinent . Ages of war and invasion The extent of   Maratha Empire, without its vassals. The last  Hindu empire of   India.  India today celebrates many kings and queens for combating  foreign invasion and domination , [2]   such as  Shivaji of the  Maratha Empire, Rani  Laxmibai of   Jhansi, Kittur Chennamma, Maharana Pratap of   Rajputana, Prithviraj Chauhan , who combated the  Mahmud of Ghazni and   Tipu Sultan who fought the British. The kings of   Ancient India, such as  Chandragupta Maurya and Emperor  Ashoka the Great of the  Magadha Empire, are also  remembered for their military genius, incredible conquests and remarkable religious tolerance. Muslim kings are also a part of Indian pride . [2]   Akbar the Great was a powerful Mughal emperor who sought to resolve religious differences, and was known to have a good relationship with the Roman Catholic Church as well as with his subjects –   Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs and Jains. He forged familial and  political bonds with Hindu  Rajput kings. Although previous Sultans had been more or less tolerant, Akbar took religious intermingling to new level of exploration. He developed for the  first time in Islamic India an environment of complete religious  freedom. Akbar undid most forms of religious discrimination, and invited the participation of wise Hindu ministers and kings, and even religious scholars to debate in his court. Swaraj In the  Indian rebellion of 1857, rebelling Indian soldiers and regional kings fought the forces allied with the  British Empire  in different parts of India. This event laid the foundation not only   for a nationwide expression, but also future nationalism and conflict on religious and ethnic terms. The Indian desire for complete independence, or Swaraj, was born with  Bal Gangadhar Tilak , whose followers were the first to express the desire for complete independence, an idea that did not catch on until after  World War I. When the  Amritsar Massacre of hundreds of unarmed civilians by British forces took place in the same year, the Indian public was outraged and much of India's  political leaders turned against the British. The Gandhian era Mohandas Gandhi  pioneered the art of   Satyagraha, typified with a strict adherence to  ahimsa (non-violence), and   civil disobedience.  This permitted common individuals to engage the British in revolution, without employing violence or other distasteful means. Gandhi's equally strict adherence to democracy, religious and ethnic equality and brotherhood, as well as activist rejection of caste-based discrimination and   untouchability united people across these demographic lines for the first time in India's history. The masses participated in India's independence struggle for the first
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