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    Kufic [edit]   9th century Qur'an, an early kufic example from the  Abbasid period.  Kufic  is the oldest form of the Arabic script. The style emphasizes rigid and angular strokes, which appears as a modified form of the old Nabataean script. The Archaic Kufi consisted of about 17 letters without diacritic dots or accents. Afterwards,   dots and accents were added to help readers with pronunciation, and the set of Arabic letters rose to 29. [4]  It is developed around the end of the 7th century in the areas of  Kufa, Iraq, from which it takes its name. [5]  The style later developed into several varieties, including floral, foliated, plaited or interlaced, bordered, and squared kufi. It was the main script used to copy Qur'ans from the 8th to 10th century and went out of general use in the 12th century when the flowing naskh style become more practical, although it continued to be used as a decorative element to contrast superseding styles. [6]    There were no set rules of using the Kufic script; the only common feature is the angular, linear shapes of the characters. Due to the lack of methods, the scripts in different regions and countries and even down to the individuals themselves have different ways to write in the script creatively, ranging from very square and rigid forms to flowery and decorative. [5]  Common varieties includes: [5]  1. Maghribi  (Moroccan or western) kufic is a slight modification of early Kufic. It features a significant amount of   curves and loops as opposed to the srcinal Arabic kufic script. loops for the characters such as the Waw and the Meem are pronounced and perhaps more exaggerated. 2. Fatimi  (or eastern) kufic is prevalent in the North African region, particularly in Egypt. The stylized and decorative form was mainly used in the decoration of buildings. 3. Murabba  (or square) kufic is absolutely straight with no decorative accents or curves. Due to this rigidity, this type of script can be created using square tiles or bricks. In Iran, entire buildings may be covered with tiles spelling sacred names like those of God, Muhammad and Ali in square Kufic, a technique known as  banna'i  . [7]  Contemporary calligraphy using this style is also popular in modern decorations. Decorative kufic inscriptions are often imitated into pseudo-kufics in Middle age  And Renaissance Europe. Pesudo-kufics is   especially common in Renaissance depictions of people from the Holy Land. The exact reason for the incorporation of   pseudo-Kufic is unclear. It seems that Westerners mistakenly associated 13  – 14th century Middle-Eastern scripts as being identical with the scripts current during Jesus's time, and thus found natural to represent early Christians in association with them. [8]   Naskh [edit]     Naskh script in a 14th-century Qur'an from the Mamluk dynasty.  [ disambiguation needed  ]  The use of cursive script coexisted with kufic, but because in the early stages of their development they lacked discipline and elegance, cursive were usually used for informal purposes. [9]  With the rise of Islam, new script was needed to fit the  pace of conversions, and a well defined cursive called  naskh  first appeared in the 10th century. The script is the most ubiquitous among other styles, used in Qur'ans, official decrees, and private correspondence. [10]  It become the basis of modern Arabic print. Standardization of the style was pioneered by Ibn Muqla (886-940 A.D.) and later expanded by  Abu Hayan at-Tawhidi (died   1009 A.D.) and Muhammad Ibn Abd ar-Rahman (1492  – 1545 A.D.). Ibn Muqla is highly regarded in Muslim sources on calligraphy as the inventor of the naskh style, although this seems to be erroneous. However, Ibn Muqla did establish systematic rules and proportions for shaping the letters, which use 'alif as the x-height. [11]     Variation of the naskh includes: 1. Thuluth  is developed as a display script to decorate particular scriptural objects. Letters have long vertical lines with broad spacing. The name reference to the x-height, which is one third of the 'alif . [3]  2. Riq'ah  is a handwriting style derived from naskh and thuluth, first appeared in the 9th century. The shape is simple   with short strokes and little flourishes. [3]  3. Muhaqqaq  is a majestic style used by accomplished calligrapher. It was considered one of the most beautiful   script, as well as one of the most the difficult to execute. It is commonly used during the mamluk era, but the use become largely restricted to short phrases, such as basmallah, from the 18th century onward. [12]   Regional [edit]     Nasta'liq calligraphy by Mir Emad Hassani, perhaps the most celebrated Persian calligrapher. With the spread of Islam, the  Arabic script was established in a vast geographic area with many regions developing their   own unique style. From the 14th century onward, other cursive styles began to developed in Turkey, Persia, and China. [10]    1. Nasta'liq  is a cursive style srcinally devised to write the Persian language for literary and non-Qur'anic   works. [5]  Nasta'liq is thought to be a latter development of the naskh and the earlier ta'liq script used in Iran. [13]  The name ta'liq  means 'hanging', and refers to the slightly steeped lines of which words run in, giving the script a hanging appearance. Letters have short vertical strokes with broad and sweeping horizontal strokes. The shapes are deep, hook-like, and have high contrast. [5]   A variant called  Shikasteh  is used in a more informal contexts. 2. Diwani  is a cursive style of Arabic calligraphy developed during the reign of the early Ottoman Turks in the 16th and early 17th centuries. It was invented by Housam Roumi and reached its height of popularity under Süleyman I   the Magnificent (1520  – 1566). [14]  Spaces between letters are often narrow, and lines ascend upwards from right to   left. Larger variation called djali   are filled with dense decorations of dots and diacritical marks in the space between, giving it a compact appearance. Diwani is difficult to read and write due to its heavy stylization, and became ideal script for writing court documents as it insured confidentiality and prevented forgery. [5]  3. Sini  is a style developed in China. The shape is greatly influenced by Chinese calligraphy, using a horsehair brush   instead of the standard reed pen. A famous modern calligrapher in this tradition is Hajji Noor Deen Mi   Guangjiang. [15]     Gallery  [edit]   Kufic [edit]      Kufic script in a 11th-century Qur'an.    Maghribi kufic script in a 13th-century Qur'an.   
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