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How Does Political System Affect the Performance of Government

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   HOW DOES POLITICAL SYSTEM AFFECT THE GOVERNMENT PERFORMANCE Generally speaking when we look at the organization of political authority, we find significant variation among democratic states . Electoral procedure and practices that is the ways in which popular participation takes place, will vary. The relation between a central government and those of the nation’ s subdivision will differ, particularly if one nation is organized on the FEDERAL PRINCIPLE , where authority is divided between a CENTRAL GOVERNMENT and GOVERNMENT OF THE NATION’S TERRETORIAL UNITS and another nation is organized on the UNITARY PRINCIPLE , where all authority is vested in the CENTRAL GOVERNMENT. Moreover, the functional allocation of power, whether there is separation of power scheme or not produces many important variation. PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM as we shall see are not at all alike, despite their many similarities. Likewise the UNITED STATES SYSTEM usually depicted as an example of PRESIDENTIAL TYPE OF GOVERNMENT, offers interesting examples of how the mechanics of democracy can vary. This becomes all the more obvious as we look at specific institution, such as the executive , the legislature and the courts. Today the British system can be said to be monarchical in form and democratic in substance. With the rise of Parliament to a position of Supremacy, it was inevitable that Parliament would settle the question of political leadership and determine its conditions. Moreover as the basis of suffrage was widened, the popularly elected house was to eclipse the house of the Lords. And as political parties organized to present alternative program to the electorate, it was inevitable that party government should become synonymous with democratic government. To understand this significant tradition in British government, a brief discussion of the major development is essential. The evolution of responsible government, as the influence of the monarch declined, the meetings of the king in Parliament became increasingly more , formal while the real work of parliament was being done in the two houses sitting separately . Parliament supremacy therefore meant that the monarch would have to govern through ministers who were acceptable to Parliament. During the war with France for example William III experienced difficulties with the those of   Page-2 Commons. Hitherto his ministers had been chosen from both political parties. Between 1693 and 1696 however, he dismissed the Tories and allotted all the great office to the Whigs who had a majority with the house of commons . Heretofore turbulent the house now become docile. For the monarch this was a matter of convenience for political circumstances force him to make used of ministers who could manage the house. By winning its confidence they were able to control it. Political leadership in the British system , therefore evolves in from Parliament or more specifically from the house of Commons, to which it is always responsible for its exercise of that leadership . More precisely , the post of political authority are filled by leaders of that political party which has a majority in the house, of commons. These leaders are held accountable by the house of commons not only for political decision they may make but also the way in which they perform the day to day tasks of governing the nation. Position of the Prime Ministers , owes much to his party , for by choosing him as its leader it in effect decides that he shall be the prime ministers if it comes to power . But once he accept the office from the monarch he is endowed with the power and the prestige, of the office, which no party can give or take away , although he may have difficulties in certain crises, situation. He is the queen’s first ministers and as such he is more than just a first among the equals. His power to appoint, dismiss, or reshuffle his colleagues makes his personal authority great. Position of the Monarch, the monarchy has survived in Britain and has indeed become a recovered institution , because of its successful transition from a position of virtually absolute authority to that of political neutrality . The queen accepts and acts on the advice of her ministers who enjoy confidence of the house of commons. She may seek to influence them in tis advice by pointing out objection s to the course they propose by furnishing them relevant information , or by suggesting an alternative policy. She must be listened to with respect and consideration and her proposal , even if thew prime minister should think them stupid , must be answered respectfully. But in the end the advice of her ministers prevail.  Page-3 Procedure in the house of commons , in every legislative body , although subject to change , in time becomes regularized and the subject of one or more treaties. We are here not concerned with the details of parliamentary procedure but rather with some of its basic principles and with those rules which will throw light on the ways in which the cabinet and the house of commons conduct their  joint business.
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