Human Geography OPTIONAL NOTES

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  GEOGRAPHYOPTIONAL by SHAMIM ANWER PREP SUPPLEMENT 8826506054, 8826506099 | Off : 57/17 1st Floor, Old Rajender Nagar| Above Dr. Batra’s Delhi - 110060  Also visit us on | PAPER - I PART - B HUMAN GEOGRAPHY PERSPECTIVES IN HUMANGEOGRAPHY  Page 1   PREP – SUPPLEMENT GEOGRAPHY OPTIONAL PAPER - I SECTION - HUMAN GEOGRAPHY SYLLABUS   Perspectives in Human Geography:  Areal differentiation; regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; radical,  behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development index. Previous year questions asked from this section: 1.   “Areal differentiation forms the core theme in geography”. Explain. (150 words 16/10) 2.   Elaborate the idea of ‘Compage’. (16/10) 3.   Trace the srcin and progress of Quantitative Revolution in geography and bring out its merits and demerits. (16/15) 4.   Discuss the relevance of stop and go determinism in present day context. (16/15) 5.   Theissean polygon. (2016) 6.   The welfare face of geography makes it an inter-disciplinary subject. Elaborate. (15/10) 7.   “Regional synthesis is the crux of geographical studies.” Elaborate. (15/10) 8.   Discuss the approaches to the study of behavioural geography. (15/15) 9.   Elaborate the concept of mental map. (14/10) 10.   Discuss the contribution of geographers in the development of radical geography. (14/15) 11.   Giving suitable examples, describe the importance of system analysis in geographical studies. (14/20) 12.   Indo-Gangetic hearth is considered to be one of the world’s richest cultural realms.” Examine. (14/15) 13.   “Ellen Churchill Semple is an ardent supporter of Determinism.” Explain. (13/10) 14.   Explain the parameters for assessment and the spatial pattern of Human Development Index in the world. (13/15) 15.   Systems approach to landform analysis. (12/10) 16.   Welfare approach in human geography. (11/12) 17.   Discuss the impact of positivism in paradigm shift in geography. (11/20) 18.   Discuss the system approach and its application in geography. (11/30) 19.    Neo determinism. (10/12) 20.   Occidental cultural realm. (10/12) 21.   Critically examine the method of deriving human development index. (10/30) 22.   Critically examine the changing perspective on the concept of areal differentiation. (10/30)  Page 2   Before delving into, Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development index, let us struggle with the issues of Areal differentiation; regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches, in geography. Pretext of relevant issues lies somewhere in the glimpses or bird's eye view of geographical thought, so it is better to start with it. Geography is what geographers do ; is more than a cliche. It expresses the making of geography through daily praxis; so the topics like Areal differentiation; regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; have been introduced in the syllabus. In such processes of the making of geography through practice, a leading role is played by histories and philosophies of the discipline. At its best, the philosophy of geography is that system of general ideas concerned with the direction and content of geographical work which  practitioners elaborate during praxis. So being front runner for upsc, open your mind, take a deep breath, expand your wings and focus on the contemporary relevance of the topics, which is nothing more than praxis. I can assure only a better understanding of topics through developing your familiarity with the roots of the concepts, as for example dualism in its formal and theoretical perspective starts with Varenius, but it has its roots in the history of geographical thought, every new beginning whether concepts of region, mathematization of geography and its reactionary isms have some roots in the past. So for a better understanding of geography and its praxis, we should give some time to its history, which is nothing but a system of general ideas concerned with the direction and content of geographical work which practitioners elaborate during praxis. The philosophy of geography basically concerns the main themes of a group of practitioners, the fascination of a time and place among people thinking about similar topics. It is an arena where geographers meet to discuss their practice in general ways, to put it simplify. At its worst, the philosophy of geography is where those who have read philosophy in general and disciples of more advanced ideas in other disciplines; exercise ideological power over those who remains with  practical concerns. Even so, the philosophy of a discipline constantly interacts with  philosophy as a discipline and thus with the current ideas in general. Yet this interaction is most productive when geographers interpret philosophies to interpret philosophies to apply its summarized knowledge in furthering the system of ideas formed through contemplating discrete forms of theoretical practice. Then too the philosophy of geography has a dynamic structure of its own represented by history of geographical thought that is the temporal sequence of general notions about the contents and themes of a study. Areal differentiation addresses the question of how one area differs from another. Areal differentiation has remained at or near the centre of most debates about the core theme of geography since the turn of the 20th century. Its most influential adherent was Richard Hartshorne, who reinterpreted the tradition of geography in light of the concept in his seminal work The Nature of Geography  (1939).  Page 3   PREP – SUPPLEMENT So it focuses on spatial distribution of physical and human phenomena as they relate to one another in regions (a homogeneous area with physical and cultural characteristics distinct from those of neighbouring areas, like climatic region, industrial region etc; sometimes it may be use synonymously with area, spatial units) and other spatial units. This approach sometimes referred to as chorology or chorography; along with landscape analysis* and spatial analysis approaches* often regarded as three main conceptions of human geography.... *Spatial analysis:  Spatial analysis is a type of geographical analysis which seeks to explain  patterns of human behavior and its spatial expression in terms of mathematics and geometry, that is, locational analysis. Examples include nearest neighbor analysis and Thiessen  polygons  .  Many of the models are grounded in micro-economics and predict the spatial  patterns which should occur, in, for example, the growth of networks and urban systems, given a number of preconditions such as the isotropic plain,   movement minimization, and  profit maximization. It is based on the tenet that economic man is responsible for the development of the landscape, and is therefore subject to the usual criticisms of that concept, such as the lack of free will. New methodologies of spatial analysis include geocomputation and spatial statistical theory. *Landscape analysis:  A landscape  is the visible features of an area of land, its landforms and how they integrate with natural or man-made features. Excluding man, landscape analysis is domain of geomorphologist, when the landscape is viewed in integration with man it becomes cultural landscape. The cultural landscape, the imprint of people and groups on the land, has long been of interest to geographers. Geographers such as Carl Sauer and Peirce Lewis believe that most of our marks on the land could be considered unconscious or subliminal. More recently, however, landscape scholars such as Don Mitchell have proposed that human action on the land is quite purposeful and controlling in an effort to convey  particular messages. The initial 20th-century Sauerian approach to landscape studies  focused mostly on description of rural areas and was centered around cultural products (artifacts), rather than the processes that created those products. The social movements of 1960s and 1970s, however, brought about a change in the way geographers studied the landscape because of the highly urbanized nature of society. Scholars realized that urban areas now held as many or more clues to modernizing culture as did rural ones. It was also during this time that representational cultural geography emerged in an era where sign, symbol, and meaning in the landscape and the processes of cultural landscape creation became important considerations. Furthermore, the study of cultural landscapes was deemed an interdisciplinary pursuit. The post-1960s era was also the beginning of the cultural turn away from positivist empiricism. Beginning in the mid- to late 1990s, cultural geography experienced another shift, this time toward nonrepresentational approaches to studying  people and place. This shift emphasized the importance of practices and experiences rather than things and called for a consideration of social reproduction and context in the process of landscape analysis. Scholars who criticized the nonrepresentational approach for assuming experiences could be isolated from images proposed the representational approach, where things, theories, and experiences are all considered equally. These shifts, however, were anything but seamless. Each shift came with arguments contesting new ideas and rethinking old ones. Today, scholars of the cultural landscape consider both the theories of landscape creation, the physical objects in the landscape, and how issues of power, inequality, and social justice play out in the landscape. Furthermore, it is assumed that one
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