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Hypocrisy-Identification in American and Soviet Propaganda during the early Cold War

This paper was submitted for a International History Seminar I took last spring. The paper itself is part of my overall work towards my MA History Thesis on American and Soviet Propaganda during the early years of the Cold War. Any and all comments,
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  Ian Sykes May 4, 2015American and Soviet Propaganda from 1947  195!" Identifying #ypocrisy from t$e %r&man 'octrine to t$e #&ngarian (evo)&tion*sta+)is$ed d&ring or)d ar II, t$e fo&nders of t$e -nited .ations $oped t$e ne/ organiation /o&)d prove an effective s&ccessor to its /eaker and )ess effective ancestor, t$e eag&e of .ations3 %$e -nited .ations $arter, a)ong /it$ t$e instit&tions -niversa) 'ec)aration of #&man (ig$ts created t$ree years )ater, proved $e)pf&) to t$e co)onies of *&ropean empires arg&ing for se)fdetermination in t$e /ake of or)d ar II3Indeed t$e ear)y years of t$e o)d ar /itnessed t$e disso)&tion of many *&ropean empires, most nota+)y t$e 6ritis$ *mpire3 Antico)onia)ist sentiment gre/ rapid)y after or)d ar II3 As deco)oniation  +egan and started gat$er speed, t$e Soviet -nion and t$e -nited States so&g$t to press&ret$e ne/)y emerging nations into adopting a specific po)itica) economy" democratic capita)ism or Marismeninism3 %$e -S and t$e -SS( emerged as s&perpo/ers after t$e /ar and proceeded to carve o&t t$eir o/n sp$eres of inf)&ence, &sing propaganda, among many ot$er met$ods, to pers&ade ot$er co&ntries to adopt t$eir respective ideo)ogies and po)itica) economies3 Seeing t$emse)ves as engaged in an ideo)ogica) conf)ict, +ot$ nations )a&nc$ed massive propaganda campaigns intended to /in over t$e $earts and minds of t$e /or)d3 %$is st&dy, at its core, seeks to ans/er one 8&estion" #o/ did t$e -nited States and t$e Soviet -nion &se propaganda to try and /in $earts and minds d&ring t$e ear)y years of t$e o)d ar6ot$ s&perpo/ers t&rned to propaganda to try to /in t$e +att)e of $earts and minds3 '&ring t$e ear)y o)d ar, t$e American and Soviet governments emp)oyed a Sykes 1  n&m+er of tactics in t$eir efforts to /in t$e ideo)ogica) de+ate +&t +y t$e mid1950s,  +ot$ s&perpo/ers $ad deve)oped a strong preference for t$e same tactic" identifying any  potentia) incident capa+)e of +eing stre/n or sp&n as $ypocritica) to t$e opponents  propaganda or fo&nding idea)s3 %$is paper /i)) &se t$e term :$ypocrisyidentification; as s$ort$and for t$is tactic3 %$is st&dy arg&es t$at +et/een 1947 and 195!, American and Soviet propagandists &sed overt $ypocrisyidentification to /in over t$e $earts and mindsof t$e rest of t$e /or)d3:Imperia)ist; /as one of t$e most common ad<ectives attac$ed to t$e -nited States in t$e Soviets propaganda p&+)ication foc&sed on internationa) affairs,  New Times 3 1  %$e -SS(     p&+)is$ed t$e /eek)y  New Times  in many )ang&ages t$ro&g$o&t t$e ear)y o)d ar, inc)&ding *ng)is$, =erman, #&ngarian >stopped after 195!?, Po)is$, @renc$ and more3 2  S&c$ diversity imp)ied t$e Soviets intended it to +e cons&med +y estern >*ng)is$, @renc$, =erman? and *astern 6)oc a&diences3 Its /riters appeared to $ave +een (&ssian +&t on occasion, prominent esterners /$o $ave p&+)ic)y dec)are t$emse)ves to +e socia)ists andBor comm&nists, s&c$ as /riter #o/ard @ast or  +&sinessman yr&s *aton, contri+&ted artic)es3 C  (ecent $istoriograp$y foc&sed )arge)y on t$e American propaganda d&ring t$e ear)y o)d ar3 Sc$o)ars re)egated t$e Soviet side of t$e +att)e for $earts and minds to t$e perip$ery or t$e +ackgro&nd, typica))y presenting Soviet propaganda as a &nified and mono)it$ic criti8&e of t$e -nited States3 Additiona))y, fe/ sc$o)ars $ave mined arc$ives of Soviet propaganda p&+)ications, fi)ms, etc3 Indeed a ma<ority of t$e endnotes for /ritings on Soviet propaganda cited secondary )iterat&re3 @ina))y, fe/ sc$o)ars $ave so&g$t to &nderstand perceptions and attit&des American and Soviet Propagandists $ad of Sykes 2  eac$ ot$ers nations and of t$e nations of t$e /or)d as revea)ed +y tropes of materia)s t$ey distri+&ted3 4  %$is essay engages /it$ primary so&rces of Soviet foreign affairs propaganda from t$e era, materia)s distri+&ted in *ng)is$ in t$e p&+)ication  New Times 3 (ecent $istorians $ave )arge)y ignored t$is p&+)ication, /it$ most of t$e fe/ primary so&rces of Soviet Propaganda t$ey engage /it$ coming from  Pravda 3 %$e inc)&sion of  New Times $e)ps comp)icate t$e recent trend to depict Soviet propaganda as presenting a &nified and mono)it$ic criti8&e of America3 Dne of t$e s&+t$eses of t$is essay is t$at  New Times  propaganda s$o/ed t$e portraya) of America in Soviet propaganda eisted in a state of f)& d&ring t$ese ear)y years +&t t$at it a)so rested on a firm fo&ndation3 Dn t$e Americanside, t$is st&dy dra/s primari)y from secondary )iterat&re +&t a)so eamines some domestic fi)ms, and in a vein simi)ar >t$o&g$ to no/$ere near as m&c$ dept$? to  New Times , eamines an American propaganda <o&rna) )arge)y ignored +y recent $istorians,  Problems with Communism 3%$e recent $istoriograp$y presented American propaganda and propagandists d&ring t$is time as a seeming)y dysf&nctiona) gro&p of peop)e operating at different )eve)sof c$aos at any given time3 5  (ecent sc$o)ars a)so treated Soviet AntiAmerican  propaganda as mono)it$ic, !  as dynamic 7 , or as somet$ing t$e genera) pop&)ace of t$e Soviet -nion )arge)y ignored3 E  %$is st&dy seeks to comp)icate +ot$ of t$ese arg&ments +y identifying $ypocrisyidentification as a g&iding t$eme for -S and Soviet Propaganda3 9 Part 1: Soviet Propaganda '&ring t$e s&mmer of 1947, propagandists at  New Times endeavored to associate t$e %r&man 'octrine /it$ more t$an <&st imperia)ism, +&t /it$ epansionism as /e))3 In Sykes C  May 1947  New Times  p&+)is$ed an artic)e tit)ed FAmerican *pansion, Past and Present3; 10  In t$e artic)e, t$e a&t$or asserted t$at t$e American government fostered t$e notion t$at Ft$e -nited States attained its present mig$t ec)&sive)y +y peacef&) means3; 11 %$e a&t$or f&rt$er c)aimed t$at officia) government propaganda, a po/erf&) and inf)&entia) press, ed&cation, and $istory tet+ooks a)) served to reinforce t$is notion /$ic$ $e )a+e)ed :A Pio&s egend3; 12  %$e a&t$or stated t$at American citiens /ere to)d t$at t$eir nation never resorted to con8&est once in its $istory3 1C  @ina))y, t$e a&t$or c)aims t$at Americans /ere to)d t$at t$e -nited States did interfere in t$e affairs of ot$er nations, did so on)y in t$e interests of t$ose nations and /it$ on)y t$e motives of $&manity, civi)iation, and peace3 14  %$e a&t$ors :Pio&s egend; narrative constit&ted one of t$e first epansionistimperia)ism criti8&es  New Times )a&nc$ed against t$e -nitedStates after t$e %r&man 'octrine /as anno&nced3%$e artic)e proceeded to cata)og t$e territoria) epansion of t$e -nited States, specifica))y territories p&rc$ased from ot$er co&ntries3 15  Immediate)y after t$is t$e a&t$or c)aimed  Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army contained a )ist of 114 /ars fo&g$t +y t$e -nited States in 17753 1!  %ypica) of Soviet eaggerations of America /i)) to&rism, t$e a&t$or distorted t$e statistics given +y t$e )ist $e referenced3 @or eamp)e, if one co&nted every sing)e event on t$is )ist as a /ar, t$e tota) came o&t to 109 not 1143 17  In addition to $is /i))f&) distortion, t$e a&t$or eposed $is o/n )ack of kno/)edge a+o&t -nited States $istory +y co&nting )isted events s&c$ as t$e 6&rr onspiracy and a+or Strikes as /ars3 (egard)ess of t$e a&t$ors distortions, t$e artic)e constit&ted one of t$e first epansionistimperia)ism arg&ments made +y t$e Soviet -nionSykes 4  t$at s&mmer3 6et/een t$e p&+)is$ing of t$is artic)e and t$e start of t$e Gorean ar in 1950,  New Time  p&+)is$ed fe/ artic)es direct)y disc&ssing -S mi)itary $istory3 %$e May C0 t$  artic)e /as t$e part on of a t/o part piece on t$e $istory of American *pansionism3 1E  #o/ever, in )ate H&)y t$e same a&t$or p&+)is$ed anot$er t/o part artic)e on American *pansionism and, instead of t$e $istory, t$e a&t$or foc&sed on /$at $e considered its economic fo&ndations3 19  %$e May and H&ne pieces tit)es and content contained more s&+t)ety and a more vei)ed arg&ment of greeddriven imperia)ism /$i)e t$e H&)y artic)es tit)e and content constit&ted more overt dec)arations3 20  %$e difference +et/een t$e tit)e of t$e first piece and t$at of t$e second piece em+odied t$e s/itc$ from vei)ed propaganda to overt propaganda3 21  %$e first tit)e, :American *pansion, Past and Present,; o+sc&red t$e pieces overa)) arg&ment  imperia)ism as t$e  prod&ct of t$e a)) Street o)igarc$ys insatia+)e p&rs&it of more profits  +y s&ggesting a $istory of Americas epansion to its c&rrent sie3 %$e second tit)e, :%$e *conomic @o&ndations of American *pansionism,; stated t$e arg&ment ep)icit)y and set t$e overt and direct tone t$at c$aracteried t$e prose of t$e piece3In t$eir fre8&ent acc&sations of imperia)ism, t$e /riters at  New Times occasiona))y inc)&ded acc&sations t$at initiatives )ike :aidF programs >s&c$ as %r&mans @o&r Points? /ere motivated +y sinister intentions and more t$an <&st epressions of imperia)ism3 In an Apri) 1949 iss&e of t$e  New Times one propagandist asserted t$at s&c$ programs /ere :imperia)ist programs for t$e ens)avement and ro++ery of &nderdeve)opedco&ntries +y a)) Street mi))ionaires and +i))ionaires3; 22  #ere t$e a&t$or acc&sed t$e -3S3 of a n&m+er of t$ings +eyond imperia)ism in t$e a+ove 8&ote, /$ic$ act&a))y /as a+o&t of %r&mans @o&r Points program3 2C  %$is concise 8&ote em+odied t$e main contin&ity of Sykes 5
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