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Ice-Rafted Erratics and Bergmounds from Pleistocene Outburst Floods, Rattlesnake Mountain, Washington, USA

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E&G Quternry Science Jurnl Vlume 63 / Number 1 / 214 / / DOI /eg GEOZON SCIENCE MEDIA ISSN Ice-fted Errtics nd Bergmunds frm Pleistcene Outburst Flds,
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E&G Quternry Science Jurnl Vlume 63 / Number 1 / 214 / / DOI /eg GEOZON SCIENCE MEDIA ISSN Ice-fted Errtics nd Bergmunds frm Pleistcene Outburst Flds, ttlesnke Muntin, Wshingtn, USA Bruce N. Bjrnstd Hw t cite: Abstrct: Bjrnstd, B. N. (214): Ice-fted Errtics nd Bergmunds frm Pleistcene Outburst Flds, ttlesnke Muntin, Wshingtn, USA. E&G Quternry Science Jurnl, 63 (1): DOI: /eg Extic ice-rfted debris frm the brekup f ice-dmmed glcil lkes Missul nd Clumbi is cmmn in slckwter res lng the 1,1-km rute fr utburst flds in the nrthwestern US. A detiled nlysis ws perfrmed t ttlesnke Muntin, which ly beynd the limit f the frmer ice sheet, where n exceptinlly high cncentrtin f ice-rfted debris exists midwy lng the flds pth. Here fldwters temprrily rse t 38 m elevtin (frming shrt-lived Lke Lewis) behind the first substntil hydrulic cnstrictin fr the utburst flds ner Wllul Gp. Within the 6 km 2 study re mre thn 2,1 errtic isltes nd clusters, s well s bergmunds were recrded. Three qurters f errtic bulders re f n extic grnitic cmpsitin, which stnd in strk cntrst t drk Clumbi iver bslt, the sle bedrck in the regin. Other extics include Prterzic qurtzite nd rgillite s well s gneiss, dirite, schist nd gbbr, ll nce in direct cntct with the Crdillern Ice Sheet t the nrth. Mst ice-rfted debris is cncentrted between 2 nd 3 m elevtin. Fr fewer errtics nd bergmunds lie bve 3 m elevtin becuse f the prepndernce f less-thn-mximum flds. Plus, lrger deep-rted icebergs were frced t grund frther wy frm the ncient shrelines f trnsient Lke Lewis. As fldwters mved crss the uneven surfce f ttlesnke Muntin, mny errtic-bering icebergs cngregted int pre-existing gullies tht trend crsswise t fld flw. Eisverfrchtete Findlinge und Bergmunds us Ausbruchsflutwellen im Pleistzän, ttlesnke Muntin, Wshingtn, USA Kurzfssung: Keywrds: Eisverfrchteter Schutt findet sich häufig im Stuwsserbereich der 1.1 km weit reichenden gigntischen Ausbruchsflutwellen us den eiszeitlichen Missul- und Clumbi-Seen im Nrdwesten der USA. Eine detillierte Anlyse erflgte m ttlesnke Muntin. Drt ist eine ußergewöhnlich hhe Knzentrtin dieses Schutts in der Mitte des Gerinnebettbdens zu finden. Zeitweilig bildete der Flschenhls des Wllul Gp die erste wesentliche hydrulische Verengung und ließ die Gletscherflut vrübergehend uf 38 m Seehöhe nsteigen, wdurch kurzzeitig der Lewis See gebildet wurde. Auf einer Fläche vn 6 km 2 wurden mehr ls 2.1 Findlinge, Ansmmlungen vn errtischen Felsbrcken und Bergmunds registriert. Im Gegenstz zum lkl vrkmmenden dunklen Clumbi iver Bslt bestehen drei Viertel der Findlinge us grnitrtigem Mteril. Auch Schutt vn dem ehemls im Nrden verlufenden Eisgebirgszug wie sedimentärer Qurzit us dem Prterzikum, Tnschiefer, Gneisgestein, Dirit, Schiefer und Pulitfels wurden hier gefunden. Ein Grßteil des eis-verfrchteten Schutts befindet sich uf 2 3 m Seehöhe. Weit weniger Findlinge und Bergmunds sind über 3 m Seehöhe nzutreffen, d es überwiegend Fluten vn sub-mximlen Ausmßen gb. Außerdem liefen größere Eisberge ufgrund ihres Tiefgngs weit vn der Küstenlinie des vrübergehend bestehenden Lke Lewis uf Grund. Bei der Flutbewegung über den unebenen Untergrund des ttlesnke Muntin blieben viele Findlinge in bereits vrhndenen, quer zur Flutrichtung verlufenden Wsserrinnen hängen. ice-rfted debris, errtic, bergmund, Missul flds, Wllul Gp, Lke Lewis, glcil Lke Missul, Wiscnsin Glcitin, Clumbi iver bslt Address f uthr: Bruce N. Bjrnstd, P.O. Bx 999, MSIN K6-81, Pcific Nrthwest Ntinl Lbrtry, ichlnd, Wshingtn E-Mil: 1 Intrductin nd Bckgrund Chrcteristics nd distributin ptterns f ice-rfted debris (errtics nd bergmunds) cn prvide insight int the flw dynmics s well s pssible surce(s), timing, nd frequency f Ice Age fld events. Errtics in the Pcific Nrthwest hve lng been recgnized in res dwnstrem f the mximum extent f glcil ice (Bretz 1919, 1923, 1923b, 193, 1969; Allisn 1933, 1935; Bretz et l. 1956; Fecht & Tllmn 1978; Minervini et l. 23). Multiple ctclysmic utburst flds, mstly frm ice-dmmed glcil Lke Missul (Figure 1), re nw generlly ccepted s the surce fr errtics beynd the limits f the Crdillern Ice Sheet (Bretz et l. 1956; Bretz 1969; Bker 1978; Bker & Bunker 1985; Allen et l. 29; Smith 1993; Witt 198, 1985). Other surces fr Ice Age flds in the re include t lest ne fld frm ice-dmmed glcil Lke Clumbi (Atwter 1987; Witt 1994; Witt et l. 29), Lke Bnneville (O Cnnr 1993) nd pssibly frm ne r mre subglcil utbursts frm beneth the Crdillern Ice Sheet itself (Shw et l. 1999). The Crdillern Ice Sheet never dvnced suth int the mid-clumbi Bsin where much ice-rfted debris cme t rest. Therefre, the nly plusible explntin fr high-elevtin errtic debris beynd the ice frnt is frm flting icebergs crried during utburst-fld events. Althugh the lrgest Missul flds drined within sev- 44 E&G / Vl. 63 / N. 1 / 214 / / DOI /eg / Authrs / Cretive Cmmns Attributin License Crdillern Ice Sheet C s c d e M u n t i n s Wentchee Vntge Ykim Okngn Lbe Glcil Clumbi Lbe Lke Clville Lbe Clumbi Spkne Ice Dm c k y M u n t i n s Glcil Lke Missul Missul Study Are 46 Fig. 2 Clumbi. Grge Wllul Gp B l u e M u n t i n s WA O ID ID MT N Pleistcene lke Pluse less ( 1m thick) Higher-Energy Fld Depsits Slckwter Fld Depsits 1 mi. 1 km Fig. 1: Ice Age glcil nd fld fetures ver prtin f the nrthwestern United Sttes. Abb. 1: Eigenschften vn Gletschern und Gletscherleufen im Nrdwesten der USA. Kennzeichen eiszeitlicher Gletscher und Überflutungen im Nrdwesten der USA erl dys, up t three weeks were required fr the fldwters t cmpletely pss thrugh severl hydrulic cnstrictins lng rute (Witt et l. 29; Denlinger & O Cnnell 21). The first mjr cnstrictin fr the utburst flds ws t Wllul Gp where, fter spreding ut crss 16 km-wide trct f the Chnneled Scblnd, fldwters were frced thrugh single, nrrw pening nly 3 km wide (Bjrnstd et l. 27). During the lrgest flds Wllul Gp nd the Clumbi iver Grge dwnstrem culd trnsmit nly prtin (1 +/ 2.5 millin m 3 /sec) f ll the fldwter entering the Psc Bsin (O Cnnr & Bker 1992; Benit & O Cnnr 23). Subsequently, huge temprry lke (Lke Lewis shwn in Figure 2) bcked up t mximum elevtin f ~38 m (1,25 feet) behind this bedrck cnstrictin (Bretz 1923). Ice-rfted debris flting in Lke Lewis ws sequestered in slckwter res lng bsin mrgins nd bckflded vlleys (Figures 2 nd 3). The strnded icebergs eventully melted, frever leving behind their pylds f extic detritus (Figures 4 nd 5). Mximum heights fr the flds re indicted by strndlines, scrped hills, ice-rfted errtics, nd divide crssings (Bker 1978). The upper limit f the ice-rfted debris descends dwnstrem in stir-step fshin s fldwters pssed thrugh series f cnstrictins en rute (Bker 1978; Benit & O Cnnr 23). Wter-surfce prfiles f flds were reltively flt within bsins but steepened in bedrck-cnstrined reches between bsins like Wllul Gp nd the Clumbi iver Grge (Figure 1). The erliest flds ccurred during ne f mny previus glcil cycles 78, yr g in the erly Pleistcene (Pttn & Bker 1978; Bjrnstd et l. 21; Pluhr et l. 26; Bjrnstd 26). The lst perid f flding ccurred during the Lte Wiscnsin Glcitin between 2, 15, cl yers BP (O Cnnr & Benit 29) when s mny s 1 discrete fld events my hve ccurred (Atwter 1986; Witt et l. 29). Mny f these flds were prprtinlly smll ( few millin m 3 /sec) reltive t dischrge fr the lrgest ( 17.5 millin m 3 /sec) Lte Wiscnsin utburst fld(s) frm glcil Lke Missul (O Cnnr & Bker 1992). The mjrity f errtics, which cnsist f light-clred plutnic nd metmrphic rcks, stnd ut in shrp cntrst t the drk, Micene, Clumbi iver Bslt Grup the nly bedrck ntive t suthestern Wshingtn Stte (Figure 6). Mst ice-rfted debris ppers derived frm the brekup f the Purcell Trench Lbe f the Crdillern Ice Sheet tht temprrily dmmed glcil Lke Missul (Figure 1). Ice-rfted debris my ls be sscited with the finl brekup f the Okngn Lbe tht blcked glcil Lke Clumbi until the end f the Wiscnsin Glcitin. The detiled study f the nture nd distributin f icerfted errtics nd bergmunds prvides vluble dt sets t test vrius hyptheses regrding the histry nd rel- E&G / Vl. 63 / N. 1 / 214 / / DOI /eg / Authrs / Cretive Cmmns Attributin License 45 Othell Fig. 3 Ykim M ttles un n ti ke n N ichlnd Wllul Gp Wll Wll Fig. 2: Mximum extent (up t 38 m elevtin) f bck flding (Lke Lewis in blue) behind hydrulic cnstrictin t Wllul Gp during the lrgest utburst fld(s). Abb. 2: Grösstes Ausmss (bis zu 38 m Höhe) der Überschwemmungen (Lke Lewis in blu) vr Wllul Gp. Mximle Ausdehnung der ückstuflut (bis zu 38 m Seehöhe) hinter der hydrulischen Verengung des Wllul Gp (blue Mrkierung: Lewis-See) ' Slckwter Are 46 4' 46 3' t tle sn k e 46 2' M tn. ichlnd 46 1' N 1 mi 1 km Wllul Gp Fig. 3: Shded-relief mp shwing vrible flw f fldwters thrugh the Psc Bsin. White res were bve mximum fld level ( 38 m elevtin). Sizes f rrws re pprximtely prprtinl t flw velcity. Stippled pttern signifies slckwter res tht received the gretest quntities f ice-rfted debris. The ttlesnke Muntin study re is lcted t center. Abb. 3: Schttierte eliefkrte zur Drstellung der Flussvriblen der Fluten im Psc-Becken. Weiße Bereiche zeigen mximlen Wsserstnd ( 38 m Seehöhe). Ds Pfeilmß ändert sich prprtinl zur Strömungsgeschwindigkeit. Dignle Linien bezeichnen Stuwsserbereiche mit den größten Mengen vn eisverfrchtetem Schutt. Ds Untersuchungsgebiet ttlesnke Muntin befindet sich im Zentrum. 46 tive sizes f Ice Age flds. Only few previus studies exist fr errtics emplced by utburst flds. These include study by Allisn (1935) within the Prtlnd Bsin nd lter expnded upn by Minervini et l. (23). Anther study by Krlsn (26) ws perfrmed in the Ginkg Petrified Frest Stte Prk, lcted 8 km nrthwest f ttlesnke Muntin ner Vntge. The present study gthered n exhustive set f dt including lithlgy, size, rundness, shpe, nd wethering chrcteristics f mre thn 2, individul errtics, lng with their lctins nd elevtins (Bjrnstd et l. 27). 2 Study Are A cmprehensive nlysis f ice-rfted debris ws perfrmed in 6 km2 re lng the nrth flnk f ttlesnke Muntin the tllest segment f n elngted nrthwestsuthest trending nticlinl ridge (Ykim Fld) f Clumbi iver bslt (Figure 6) tht rises t 1,75 m elevtin. During the lrgest utburst flds, wter rse t within 7 m f the summit, mking ttlesnke Muntin lng peninsulr lnd bdy during flding (Figure 2). The study re is lcted lng the lw-relief nrthestern flnk f the ridge where fldwter flwed frm the nrthwest t the suthest (Figure 3). The upper third f the study re cnsists f gentle (~2), nrthest-dipping surfce (Iw Flts) tht reflects the surfce n the underlying bslt bedrck. Only few metres f relief exist within smll gullies crss Iw Flts. Dwnslpe f Iw Flts ephemerl strems re mre entrenched int the bslt displying s much s 25 m relief between the tps nd bttms f gullies. Althugh bslt my be expsed t the bttms f gullies, inter-fluvil res re cvered with up t severl metres f mstly mssive, fine-grined depsits f Quternry-ge less, slpewsh, r slckwter-fld sediment. E&G / Vl. 63 / N. 1 / 214 / / DOI /eg / Authrs / Cretive Cmmns Attributin License Mst f the study re lies within lng-prtected eclgy preserve, nw prt f the Hnfrd ech Ntinl Mnument mnged by the United Sttes Fish nd Wildlife Service (Bjrnstd 26; Bjrnstd et l. 27). Clsed t the public fr the lst 6 yr, this re is idelly suited t the study f ice-rfted debris becuse it hs escped widespred nthrpgenic disturbnces cmmn t ther prts f the regin. Furthermre, light-clred errtic bulders stnd ut in strk cntrst t indigenus blck Clumbi iver bslt nd the ple-brwn blnket f fine-grined Quternry sediments. These ttributes, lng with the lw, sprse, shrubsteppe vegettin fcilitte the identifictin nd mpping f ice-rfted debris. Lst, the gentle yet uneven slpes prvide n pprtunity t exmine subtle chnges in fld-flw dynmics reflected in the distributin f ice-rfted debris. 3 Ice-fted Debris Bretz (1923: 65) ccurtely nted: A widespred submergence f the lwer Clumbi Vlley is knwn t hve ccurred during the Wiscnsin glcitin. It is recrded by berg-flted errtic bulders, sme f gret size, scttered widely in the Clumbi Vlley belw the present ltitude f but 1,25 feet [38 m] bve tide. Bretz nd thers, hwever, ctegrized ice-rfted debris int tw clsses: errtics r bergmunds. The present study distinguishes n imprtnt third ctegry f ice-rfted debris errtic clusters. Exmples f the three types f ice-rfted debris re shwn in Figure 4. Islted errtics (Figure 4A) generlly cnsist f slitry bulder while clusters (Figure 4B nd 5) represent clse gruping f severl r mre errtics. Bergmunds (Figure 4C) cnsist f distinct, lw-relief munds cvered with ice-rfted debris, up t 3 m r mre in dimeter nd severl meters tll (Bretz 193; Allisn 1933; Fecht & Tllmn 1978; Chmness 1993). In generl, bergmunds re distinguished frm errtic clusters by the presence f cnicl mund displying recgnizble tpgrphic relief. Individul clusters nd bergmunds my cntin single rck type, but mre re represented by multiple lithlgies (Allisn 1935; Fecht & Tllmn 1978). The rel distributin fr ll three different types f ice-rfted debris is shwn ver prtin f ttlesnke Muntin n Figure 7. 4 Methds The 6-km 2 ttlesnke Muntin study re ws field mp- Fig. 4: Types f ice-rfted debris n ttlesnke Muntin. (A) Islted grndirite errtic bulder t (183 m elevtin) in bslt-flred gully. (B) Cluster f grndirite errtics t 335 m elevtin. (C) Pir f bergmunds (~245 m elevtin); ntice grnitic errtic tp left bergmund (encircled). Lking nrth int the expnsive Psc Bsin. Abb. 4: Typen vn eisverfrchtetem Schutt m ttlesnke Muntin. (A) Vereinzelte errtische Gesteinsblöcke us Grndirit in bsltgrundiger Schluchtrinne (uf 183 m Seehöhe). (B) Anhäufung vn errtischen Gesteinsblöcken us Grndirit Findlingen (uf 335 m Seehöhe). (C) Pärchen vn Bergmunds (cirk~ 245 m Seehöhe). ; mn bechte den Grnitfindling (eingekreist) ben uf dem linken Hügel. Blick nch Nrden in ds weitläufige Psc-Becken. E&G / Vl. 63 / N. 1 / 214 / / DOI /eg / Authrs / Cretive Cmmns Attributin License 47 Fig. 5: Cluster f mdertely wethered, bnded rgillite bulders t 244 m elevtin n Iw Flts lng the nrth flnk f ttlesnke Muntin. The lrgest errtic bulder is but three metres lng. Argillite is derived frm the Prterzic Belt Supergrup nce in cntct with the ice dm fr glcil Lke Missul in nrthern Idh ~65 km t the nrthest. Nte tht the errtics in this cluster re prtilly buried in n unknwn quntity f Quternry less, slpewsh nd slckwter fld depsits. Abb. 5: Hufen vn mäßig verwitterten Gesteinsbrcken us gestreiftem Argilit (uf 244 m Seehöhe) uf den Iw-Untiefen entlng der Nrd- Flnke des ttlesnke Muntin. Der größte Findling links der Bildmitte ist etw drei Meter lng. Argilit (Tnschiefer) entstmmt dem Gürtel der Übergruppe us dem Prterzikum, der einst mit dem Eisdmm des c. 65 km nrdöstlich entfernten Gletschers vn Lke Missul in Nrd-Idh in Verbindung stnd. Mn bechte, dss die Findlingsblöcke dieser Gruppe teilweise unter unbestimmten Mengen vn Löss-, Ausspülungs- und Stuwsser-Ablgerungen us dem Qurtär begrben sind. ped in series f rughly prllel t dignl, up-dwn trnsects. The trnsects trversed gullies s well s the interfluvil res, usully spced 1 m r mre prt. All bserved ice-rfted debris .93 m 2 mximum expsed crss sectinl re ws lcted using hnd-held GPS receiver unit. An rbitrry cut-ff vlue f.93 m 2 ws chsen becuse tht ws ner the minimum size redily bserved in the field. Depending n lctin, errtics cn be prtilly t lmst ttlly buried by Quternry-ge fine-grined less, slpewsh, r slckwter fld depsits. Fr this resn it ws nt pssible t determine the true vlume f mst errtics nd the size reprted here represents nly the mximum expsed crss-sectinl re bserved in the field. Fr dt mngebility, becuse mny errtic clusters nd bergmunds cntin dzens r mre individul errtics, specific infrmtin ws recrded nly fr the lrgest errtic in ech cluster r bergmund gruping. Hrizntl ccurcy f hndheld GPS units is generlly within 3 m while the mesured verticl ccurcy is much less precise. Fr this resn, insted f the elevtin recrded by the GPS, elevtins were btined frm tpgrphic mp fter lctin crdintes were entered int Ntinl Gegrphic s TOPO! prgrm. Becuse there is wide spcing f cntur lines in the generlly lw relief f the study re, recrded elevtins re believed t be ccurte t within t lest hlf f the cntur intervl (12.2 m), r but 6 m verticl distnce. In dditin t lctin nd elevtin, dt were cllected n lithlgy, rundness, shpe, nd surfce chrcteristics, such s degree f wethering, wind plish, nd stritins. Becuse rtes f wethering nd rundness vry with lithlgy, these prmeters were cmpred fr nly the dminnt rck type (i.e., grnitic). Grnitic errtics clssified s un Time ck!units Ice!dm!fr Glcil!Lke Missul Cenzic Meszic Plezic Prterzic M Clumbi!iver!Bslt!Grup!(vlcnic) Sedimentry!nd!vlcnic Plutnic Metsedimentry (Belt!Supergrup)! Ultrmfic High-grde metmrphic Ykim!Fld!nticline 46 WA ID * Study!re Crdillern!Ice!Sheet Fig. 6: Distributin f mjr rck units in estern Wshingtn nd nrthern Idh. Mst ice-rfted errtics fund n ttlesnke Muntin cn be trced t grnitic (plutnic) nd Belt Supergrup metsedimentry rcks nce in cntct with the Crdillern Ice Sheet nrth nd est f the Clumbi Plteu. T the suth, Ykim Flds strngly influenced the flw f fldwter int nd ut f the Psc Bsin. Abb. 6: Verteilung größerer Felseinheiten im östlichen Wshingtn und Nrd-Idh. Der Ursprung der meisten eisverfrchteten Findlingen uf ttlesnke Muntin knn zu den grnitrtigen (plutnischen) und metsedimentären Felsen des Gürtels der Übergruppe zurückverflgt werden, die einst in Verbindung mit dem Crdillerischen Eisschild nördlich und östlich des Clumbi Plteu stnden. Im Süden htten die Flten der Ykim Senke strken Einfluß uf den Fluss der Flutwsser in ds Psc-Becken hinein und hinus. 48 E&G / Vl. 63 / N. 1 / 214 / / DOI /eg / Authrs / Cretive Cmmns Attributin License Ice-fted Debris Bergmund Errtic cluster Islted errtic Abve mximum fld ( 38 m elev.) n g e er iv id ke g sn in le N Y k im tt ir F ge Csmgenic-expsure ge dte wethered re bright white nd shw n surficil xidtin r minerl decmpsitin. In cntrst, strngly wethered grnitic errtics displyed dvnced stges f minerl decmpsitin nd surfce rughness, ften with deep reddish brwn r drk vrnished surfces. Slightly wethered t mdertely wethered errtics displyed intermedite stges f rughness, xidtin nd minerl decmpsitin (Figure 8). Csmgenic 36Cl expsure-ge dtes were btined frm three lrge, dispersed, ice-rfted errtics reprted in Keszthelyi et l. (29) nd represented in Figure 7 nd Tble 1. Tw f the nlyses were perfrmed n grnitic bulders; the third ws perfrmed n n ice-rfted bulder f bslt. Becuse bslt is the nly indigenus rck type nd cmpletely underlies the study re nd crps ut in the steep slpes f ttlesnke Muntin t the suthwest, specil cre is needed t psitively identify bslt errtics. Sme might rgue tht bslt des nt qulify s true errtic since it mkes up the underlying bedrck t ttlesnke Muntin, hwever, in this pper bslt is included s n errtic when it clerly hs n ice-rfted rigin. Accrdingly, nly bslt Fig. 7: Distributin f the three different types f ice-rfted debris crss the study re. Detils n the three errtics smpled fr csmgenic-nuclide expsure dting re listed in Tble 1. Abb. 7: Drei verschiedene Typen vn eisverfrchteten Schutt sind ungleichmäßig im Untersuchungsgebiet verteilt. Einzelinfrmtinen zu drei Findlingen, die für die dinuklidmessung des Betrhlungslters usgewählt wurden in Tbelle 1 ufgelistet. bulders tht were: 1) well beynd the limits where rcks culd hve rlled r mved dwn frm higher elevtins vi mss mvement, nd (2) hd severl metres r mre f finetextured pst-bslt sediment between bslt bulders nd underlying bedrck were clssified s errtics. 5 esults nd Observtins On ttlesnke Muntin, islted errtics (52% f ll icerfted debris) fr utnumber errtic clusters (29%), which exceed bergmunds (19%). Hwever, becuse mny errtics smller thn metre my be cnceled beneth cver f vegettin, the true prprtins f islted errtics nd clusters my be greter thn tht indicted bve. The highest cncentrtin f ice-rfted debris lies ner 21 m with generl decrese bve nd belw this elevtin (Figure 9). As previusly nted by Bretz (1
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