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  Int’l Conf. on Advanced Mechatronics, Intelligent Manufacture, and Industrial Automation 2015 (ICAMIMIA 2015) Surabaya, Indonesia, on October 15-17, 2015 Development of Greenhouse Autonomous Control System for Home Agriculture Project   M.Amir Abas Microelectronics Laboratory, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Gombak, Selangor, Malaysia drmamir@unikl.edu.my Maznah Dahlui CePH Uni.Malaya Malaysia maznahd@ummc.edu.my   Abstract   — This paper presents two autonomous control designs for Home Agriculture project. The first control is required for safeguarding the greenhouse from intruders especially monkeys. In tropical country animals are living in the garden, park and nearby houses. The control system safeguard the greenhouse by triggering siren and electric fence through motion sensor. The control also cut off the power of the Electric Fence Charger when there is no intruder detected. This will ensure the batteries is fully charged during day time. The second control is used to manage irrigations system for greenhouse. This unique control involves with feedback using weather condition. Three sensors namely temperature, humidity and pyranometer are used to provide signals that are known as multiplying factor for the control algorithm to perform autonomous adjustment for the next irrigation time. The algorithm involves with a constant K which is applied as time setting for daily irrigation. The time setting autonomously changed associated with the changes of weather such as dry climax, raining and hot weather. The control algorithm has been tested and the result shows the management of soil moisture through weather feedback element is economically improved and would be possible to increase yearly crop yield.  Keywords— Monitoring, Feedback, Control, Greenhouse, Soil  Moisture. I.   I  NTRODUCTION  Nowadays greenhouses are used widely and extensively by  botanists, commercial plant growers, and dedicated gardeners for planting plants. Plants can be grown easily in the greenhouse due to the availability of required plant environmental conditions. It can be a potential businesses model for a new concept of home agriculture especially in tropical countries. In Malaysia each house consumes small garden or land which is very valuable if properly managed for home agriculture. One of the unique ideas to materialize the  potential of home agriculture project is setting up mini greenhouse. In general a greenhouse is a building in which  plants are grown. The purpose of a greenhouse is to provide a controlled environment for plants, which allows them to flourish under optimal conditions. It has a structure with different types of covering materials, such as a glass or plastic roof. Glass or plastic walls are heats up because incoming visible solar radiation from the sun is absorbed by plants, soil, and other things inside the structure. Air warmed by the heat from hot interior surfaces is retained in the greenhouse by the roof and wall. In addition, the warmed structures and plants inside the greenhouse re-radiate some of their thermal energy in the infrared spectrum, to which glass is partly opaque, so some of this energy is also trapped inside the glasshouse. Although heat loss due to thermal conduction through the glass and other building materials occurs, net energy increases (and therefore temperature) inside the greenhouse. Monitoring and controlling the changes of the heat inside the greenhouse for promoting fast growth of plants is a new exploration especially for tropical climax. Apart from the above factor greenhouse in tropical countries is exclusive in minimizing the usage of pesticide chemicals which is badly harmful to human. Heavy dose of pesticide is used to prevent the plant from the insect and bugs in open plantation. Insect and bugs such as mosquito, snails, bat and etc. are well known becomes the main disturbance of the plant to growth. Hence greenhouse  becomes the best option to isolate the disturbance and ultimately produce healthy vegetables without chemical. II.   HOME   AGRICULTURE   PROJECT The project involves the development of modern agriculture system specifically for home user. It maximizes the small land or home garden to generate lucrative income with low cost and minimum maintenance. The system is powered through Solar for supporting all the electronic devices includes automation system, motor pump and ventilation fan. In tropical countries typically in Malaysia, medium scale greenhouse is common for planting strawberry in highland areas. Few farmers used to plant vegetables, flowers and  potato. However small greenhouse for home garden is rarely seen even many houses have enough space to set up mini greenhouse. Hence this project is to explore the effectiveness of the greenhouse against tropical weather, low maintenance cost and also technopreneurship concept generating side incomes 12  Int’l Conf. on Advanced Mechatronics, Intelligent Manufacture, and Industrial Automation 2015 (ICAMIMIA 2015) Surabaya, Indonesia, on October 15-17, 2015 for housewife or garden hobbyist. The project will explore all the components of the system include design, test, measurement and garden products. III.   GREENHOUSE   MODEL The model of the greenhouse comprises four main components (see Fig. 1). There are Solar system, greenhouse structure, water tanks, sensory and monitoring control circuit. The details of the components are summarized in the following subsections.  A.   Solar System The solar system is manned to perform as power supply for the whole system of the greenhouse (see Fig. 2). The solar system consists of 2 photovoltaic panels with each producing 70 W. The total of power generated by the solar system would  be 140 W. This power is used continuously for all the functions in the greenhouse. The solar panel is charging the  batteries during day time which should be sufficient to support the power for the system at night time. The optimization technique for power usage is discussed in Section IV.  B.   Green House The proposed Greenhouse has open area of 20’ x 20’ which is equivalent with 400 sq. feet. The area can accommodate approximately 300 to 350 plant begs. The greenhouse is constructed using solid metal for the main frame and coated with transparent plastic to filter out 30 % of radiated sun. Three parameters inside the green house are measured to monitor the condition against the outside weather. The three  parameters being monitored are humidity, temperature and irradiance. These parameters are hourly changed according to the outside weather. For instance during day time, the temperature is slightly higher while the humidity is low. Fig. 1: Greenhouse: Tropical Design with Ventilation Roof To compensate the changes the sprinkler is activated to spray cool water. The sprinkler is placed on top of the green house for wide coverage. Once the temperature is dropped at acceptable level the sprinkler stops spraying the water. This  process is continuously repeated to ensure the temperature and humidity is maintained at productive level. Third sensor is Irradiance sensor that is used to monitor intensity of light and ultra violet ray. Light is required to facilitate for  photosynthesis process for plant to grow. Therefore part of the study is to explore the duration of light that facilitates the  plant’s growth effectively. When the light is low especially during night time, the green house is light up with full spectrum florescence light. Full spectrum florescence light has capabilities to generate all wavelengths that are useful for  plant [12]. Some plants grow better when they are given more of a certain light ray, due to the mechanism of photosynthesis. Fig. 2: Solar Power System Overview There are different types of greenhouse used which is depending on the nature of the location. Simple design with flat roof is common in cool weather. The ventilation is controlled through exhaust fan. While in tropical countries, tropical greenhouse (see Fig. 1) is suitable due to the roof is triangular shape to promote air ventilation for the air circulation in the greenhouse. C.    Autonomous Integrated Monitoring Board Systems for the future will increasingly have the characteristics of the autonomous features. Autonomous is described as independent system which run with minimum supervision. In this greenhouse application some parts of control are necessarily need autonomous features. This could enhance the capability of the system that would improve the environment for the healthy plants. Autonomous control is designed to perform for several functions as follow 13  Int’l Conf. on Advanced Mechatronics, Intelligent Manufacture, and Industrial Automation 2015 (ICAMIMIA 2015) Surabaya, Indonesia, on October 15-17, 2015 ã   Monitoring intruder e.g. monkeys. ã   Watering plants ã   Solar Power control The new functions of the GSM greenhouse was developed using separated main control board. The board is a readymade  board with microcontroller 18F4250. It has 5 ports which are sufficient for small control application. Besides the main  board, additional boards are also required to facilitate the monitoring functions such as Real time circuit (RTC), Humidity and Temperature sensor board and relay board. Configuration of each board is done through MicroC (compiler and debugger). IV.   MONITORING   INTRUDER Tropical countries particularly in Malaysia is facing unexpected problems with animals. There are different types of animals living around our homes, school and park which include birds, monkeys, ants, fox and etc. The most severe animals that would damage entirely all the plants in greenhouse is monkey. Monkeys are smart and they learn to survive. Monkey repellent are available in the market with different types of system. First system involves with ultrasonic sound. Monkeys are sensitive with certain frequency of sound. Second system uses electric shock through electric fence. When the monkeys hold the wires of the fence they are  basically grounded the high DC voltage to ground. This electric grounded cause the monkeys with electric shock but would not kill them. Installation of electric fence took place with two wires. The wires are run over house fence at which monkeys always stay  before start looking at plants to find fruits or leave to eat. Installation of the life wire and ground must be closed for the monkeys to hold the wires at the same time. Several cases occurred that made the system interfere with earth wire of the house. This makes the main switch trip and interrupt the main supply to the house. The electric fence is powered through Solar panel and storage battery. Adequate time is set-up to control the time for activating and cutoff the supply for electric fence. This time management will ensure the storage battery is not overrun and have time to recharge. However during cutoff mode a movement sensor is triggered to monitor the presence of monkeys. In the case of monkey presence the mode is immediately switched to activating mode for full protection. In the triggered mode a horn speaker is also activated. The sound with unique rhythm from the speaker is hampering the guarded compound to frighten the monkeys or any other intruders. The control algorithm for the autonomous time management and movement sensor has been designed and tested successfully. The intruder unit produces two signals for activating relays and horn rhythm respectively once the triggered mode is activated (see Fig. 3). The horn signal is further up amplified  by Horn circuit which is make up by Darlington pair TIP127 to drive the speaker for maximum sound (see Fig. 4). Fig. 3: Triggered Mode Signals for Horn Speaker Fig. 4: Driver Circuit for Horn Speaker V.   AUTONOMOUS IRRIGATION SYSTEM  In tropical country soil moisture is easily evaporated within few hours. The water should be timely replaced to ensure the  plants are not over dried. The frequency of watering for plants is dependent on the condition of weather. Many watering plant systems implementing soil moisture factor as indicator to activate or scheduling the time for watering the plants.  N.J.Jeng and R.Radharaman design low cost control circuit to measure soil moisture [12]. The circuit is implanted in the few locations with each unit transmits the data through WIFI signals. Each unit is powered with small batteries that last for 6 months. Fisher also use soil moisture as main factor to indicate the scheduling for watering the plants [17]. Both requires few hundreds of sensors to transmit data to the main controller. The drawback from these techniques is the management of the devices which require intensive monitoring and maintenance. The device is also exposed to 14  Int’l Conf. on Advanced Mechatronics, Intelligent Manufacture, and Industrial Automation 2015 (ICAMIMIA 2015) Surabaya, Indonesia, on October 15-17, 2015 water as it is being implant in the soil to read the water contents of the soil. This also cause the life of the device being damaged or rusted after few months in the soil. A new method that eliminates the drawback of soil moisture technique is by using data integration of three parameters: temperature, air humidity and irradiance. This predictions method is based on calculation to produce next hours for activation. Fig. 5: Block Diagram of Autonomous Watering System The block diagram for the complete system (see Fig. 5) comprises sensors, algorithm and ADC. Watering algorithm will get sources of inputs to generate the next activation time for control system. Firstly, input K is set to determine the regular hours for activation. Secondly the input from the three sensors are read and converted to produce multiply factor for K. The result is used to add with the present activation time which then produce the next activation time.  A.    Parameters in Algorithm One of the factors to promote healthy growth for plants is effective control watering system and humidity control level during day time. In tropical country temperature could rise up to 37’C during peak noon daily. This temperature level is not suitable for some vegetables plant that will reduce crop yield. Simple autonomous solution to monitor the temperature level is by using sensors and Real Time Device (RTC). One wire sensor SLTH1 is used in the system to measure two environment parameters namely humidity and temperature. Another sensor is pyranometer which is used to measure sun intensity. The control algorithm use feedback mechanism from three sensors to decide the next activation time for water sprinkler. Measurement for the three parameters were carried out to generate the next activation time (see Fig. 6). Once the time has been obtained it will be add with RTC time to determine the actual Real Time for next activation. There are three values involved in weather measurement for Green House. First is temperature parameter. Temperature is induced from heat particularly from sun. During day time the heat is increased especially during noon time. The higher the heat the more water from soil is evaporated. As a result more frequent is required to watering the plants. Second parameter is humidity. Humidity is defined as  percentage of water contents in air. Humidity is increasing after long raining and during night time. In greenhouse, water in soil is evaporated faster when heat is increased. This cause soil moisture decreasing. In short watering frequency, the higher value of humidity means less number of watering frequency is applied. Fig. 6: Two Days Measurement Using EDM The third parameter in measurement is irradiance. Irradiance is a measurement of solar power and is defined as the rate at which solar energy falls onto a surface. The irradiance falling on a surface can and does vary from moment to moment. The range of irradiance is within 0 to 1.6 kw/m 2 . A typical calibration factor C of pyranometer can be expressed as in (1). C = 160 mV/ (kw/m²) (1) This value means that when the solar irradiance Ee is 1 kw/m 2  (typical for a clear, sunny day around noon) the pyranometer will provide an output voltage around 160 mV. If the output voltage is found to be 80 mV, this indicates that the solar irradiance is about 0.5 kw/m 2 . Thus: Ee = V / C (2) where V is the signal voltage in millivolts and Ee is measured in kw/m 2 .  Normal day time at peak noon, irradiance is increased to 1.0 kw/m 2 . The higher the irradiance indicates the weather is dry and hot. Therefore the plants require more water per day. The range of irradiance is unique which becomes multiply factor for calculating the next activation hours. The minimum reading is zero that indicates night time while for day time it is slowly increased from 0 to 1.2 kw/m 2 . Apparently the total relation for the three parameters with time activation could be described as in (3) and (4). 15
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