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Improving the Geometric Documentation of Cultural Heritage: Combined Methods for the Creation of an Integrated Management Information System in Greece

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Improving the Geometric Documentation of Cultural Heritage: Combined Methods for the Creation of an Integrated Management Information System in Greece
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  Improving the Geometric Documentationof Cultural Heritage: Combined Methodsfor the Creation of an Integrated Management Information System in Greece Eleftheria Mavromati 1( & ) , Eleni Stamatiou 2 ,Leonidas Chrysaeidis 3 , and Konstantinos Astaras 4 1 Senior Investigator at the Greek Ombudsman  –  Quality of LifeDepartment/Archaeologist MA/Aristoteleion University of Thessaloniki,Conservator of Antiquities and Pieces of Art Technological Universityof Athens/Professor of Archaeology and Conservation at VocationalInstitution I.IEK. Enosi, Street Art Conservator,3 Paridi Street, Polygono, 114 76 Athens, Greece teripieri@gmail.com 2 Senior Investigator at the Greek Ombudsman  –  Architect Engineer NTUA,MS Regional Development, Dr Regional & Town Planner (PhD, PPhD),Professor Consultant at the Hellenic Open University,7 Areos, 175 62 Paleo Faliro, Greece elestamlac@gmail.com 3 Surveyor Engineer of Products and Services Department - HellenicCadastre/Rural and Surveyor Engineer (M.B.A.)/National Technical Universityof Athens, 3 Paridi Street, Polygono, 114 76 Athens, Greece lchrysai@gmail.com 4 Surveyor Engineer GEODAITIKI ASTARAS - Surveyor Engineer Technological Educational Institution of Athens, 15 Papandreou Andrea Street,Agia Marina, 151 27 Melissia, Greece mail@astaras.gr Abstract.  The complete registration of areas of cultural interest, monumentsand public immovable cultural property in a single and systematic way requiresthe creation of an integrated information system.The architecture of the integrated digital registration system should includethe descriptive incorporation of all Archaeological Sites and Historic Sites,Monuments, Protected Areas, Regional Zones and their wider environments, thefull geographic recording of their data and relevant environmental data.The architecture of the Integrated Management Information System(MIS) should include a Geographical Information System (GIS) in a structured,modern, easy-to-use, uni 󿬁 ed platform, along with the development of a Rela-tional Database (RDB) of the above-mentioned cultural protection thematicareas and their related elements, analyzed in the article.Methods of scienti 󿬁 c approach are promising, since the choice of using theappropriate topographic, photographic and software tools is entirely consistent with the categorization and cultural signi 󿬁 cance of the recording objects cor-responding to the individual  󿬁 elds of the information system. In addition, they ©  Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019A. Moropoulou et al. (Eds.): TMM_CH 2018, CCIS 962, pp. 3 – 21, 2019.https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-12960-6_1  provide data on existing damages and enable detection and assessment of areasof construction requiring conservation interventions.The extent and importance of the Greek cultural heritage requires the modi- 󿬁 cation and optimization of the methodology of spatial identi 󿬁 cation andrecording of real estate belonging to the Ministry of Culture, protection areas of the cultural environment and immovable monuments, so as to ensure the sus-tainable management and protection of the cultural object on Greek Territory,the design of their future conservation activities, access to cultural informationand  fl oating geospatial and cartographic data. Keywords:  Cultural heritage    Hellenic Archaeological Cadastre   The Greek Ombudsman    Hellenic Cadastre   Management Information System    Photogram-metrical methods   Geospatial data    Archaeological sites protection 1 Introduction The proper registration of the areas of protection of cultural heritage for monumentsand more generally of the public immovable cultural property in a uniform and sys-tematic way requires the development of a Monitoring Information System (MIS).Its operation should include full geospatial recording and relevant environmentaldata, and it is essential to collect historical data on the recording of archaeological data.The article refers to the way of recording the cultural objects, the archaeologicallegislation and its evolution in Greece, the alternative methodology on the basis of themodern topographic and photogrammetric survey methods and the optimization of themethodologies for the complete and uniform creation of the Greek ArchaeologicalCadastre. As it is already evident from previous considerations, approaches andpractices and their results and as determined by the relevant legislation, the recordingand mapping of the Greek cultural heritage, given its overriding importance, requires anumber of modi 󿬁 cations and improvements.The examination of Greek reality, the  󿬁 ndings, needs and priorities of the last decades of the 20 th century have highlighted the urgency for the creation of a single,systematic and complete inventory of real estate and areas of cultural heritage, and theneed to frequently update the information with the help of a new organized, method-ical, reliable and simple to use information system (MIS). This information system is auni 󿬁 ed and constantly updated system of information, and, besides the recording of new archaeological  󿬁 ndings data of cultural heritage, it will also be used to document the public property managed by the Ministry of Culture and map the cultural objectsunder protection throughout the Greek Territory.The article refers to the contents of the Greek Archaeological Cadastre (project scope, implementation plan, scanning, georeferencing and vectoring of the archivematerial of the involved entities) and the corresponding problems that it resolves. Theproposals that arise from the archaeological and Surveying Engineering experience,from the development of the Hellenic Cadastre which aims the creation of a modern,fully automated real estate property record compilation and the research of the reportsto the Independent Authority of the Greek Ombudsman focus on (a) the archaeological 4 E. Mavromati et al.  work and the necessary actions (categorization by importance, historical description,categorization in thematic units, clear delineation) to be combined with  󿬁 eld mapping,and (b) methods for the improvement of topographical or photogrammetric surveyingand photographic documentation accuracy and precise results. Finally, possibilities andprospects are analyzed, focusing on the expected bene 󿬁 ts after the completion of theArchaeological Cadastre, which are summarized in the securing of the archaeologicalreal estate of the state, in the facilitation of the public of  󿬁 cers and the academic andresearch institutions, as well as the ability of citizens-owners to monitor and controltheir property (especially in cases of imminent expropriation, archaeological engage-ment or imposing  󿬁 nancial burdens, etc.). 2 Methods Regarding the Recording of Archaeological Data.Historical Information The research of archaeological data in the past  1 was based on the macroscopic surveyof topography and other sciences through  󿬁 eld research, archaeological  󿬁 ndings, Greekand foreign literature review, travelers ’  testimonies, etc.Researchers used to collect archaeological data from sources, maps, travelers ’ testimonies, and excavations. They used the existing limited number of data without having the full capability of linking archaeological  󿬁 nds with wider environmentalfactors or scenery, which in many cases was restrictive, forcing archaeologists intosmaller divisions of the site due to the terrain [2, 3]. The survey methods to locate archaeological sites were occasionally carried out,often repeated because of geological access restrictions and climatic conditions andrequired a large number of staff or were based on summer programs involving studentsor researches conducted by foreign archaeological schools. The positioning was madeon extracts of maps of the Army Geographic Service (GHS), usually using the scale1:5,000. This scale has been widely used for the purposes of demarcation of culturalsites, either for archaeological research or for the construction of infrastructures andmajor projects in which old and new archaeological sites emerged [3, 7]. The absence of geospatial data 2 for the demarcation and Geo-referencing of archaeological sites and monuments in Greece until now has caused many problems,both in the protection of the monuments and in the protection of the properties aroundthem. The Greek Ombudsman, an Independent Authority, has been involved, for  1 Since the middle of the 17th century, interest has begun to protect cultural goods from the negativeactions of opponents. The  󿬁 rst law to protect national monuments was Swedish and was issued in1666. With regards to Greece, Adamantios Korais  󿬁 rst expressed interest in the preservation andprotection of Greek antiquities with his memoirs to the Ecumenical Patriarch. Already in 1825, theMinister of Interior and Police in the government of Kountouriotis-Grigorios Dikaios (Papa fl essas)issued a decree on the collection of antiquities and their preservation in the school buildings [13: 60][19: 60). 2 Topographic, cadastral or other types of charts that do not accompany the properties and thedeclarations of their protection and do not exist in the archives of the involved entities, as establishedby the already three completed pilot projects of the National Cadastre project. Improving the Geometric Documentation of Cultural Heritage 5  example, over many years in the non-demarcated archaeological areas and the prob-lems arising from the inability to exploit private property due to inadequate localizationthrough the system of state cores and maps of the boundaries declarations of archae-ological sites and the delimitation of Zones A and B within them 3 (see Fig. 1) [15, 22]. Developments in the science of topography and the requirements of archaeologyhave led to the collaboration of scientists in both  󿬁 elds in order to draw conclusionsbased on various methods, to record archaeological data and to reconstitute the envi-ronment [5, 25, 26]. As early as in the beginning of the 20th century, aerial methods were used for archaeology in various countries worldwide, and since 1980 the evolution of topo-graphic and photographic systems has introduced new  󿬁 elds of science and we nowrefer to aerial archaeology and archaeological topography, which, combined with thecurrent climatic condit ions and modern methods such as the Airborne lidar (light detection and ranging) 4 (see Fig. 2) reveal hidden or lost antiquities, which areimpossible to be perceived, they are not observable from ground level, and are aimed at protecting and highlighting the cultural heritage [1, 2, 6 – 8, 11]. Fig. 1.  Extract from the 1965 Government Of  󿬁 cial Journal, which lists unclear declarations (inGreek) (Government Journal 605/B/1965) 3 Indicatively, Mavromati (2013) (22.01): Mediation summit on  “ Implications of the Unclear Limits of Archaeological Sites, An example of the rede 󿬁 nition of the declared archaeological site of the MusesValley of Voiotia ” , which was posted on the website of the Ombudsman, http://www.synigoros.gr/?i=quality-of-life.el.loipa_adeiodotisi.83170 and Ombudsman, Life Cycle, Protection Zones andUses, https://www.synigoros.gr/?i=quality-of-life.el.zwnes_prostasias). 4 Airborne lidar measures the height of the ground surface and other features in large areas of landscape with a very high resolution and accuracy.  « Therefore, it provides the ability to collect verylarge quantities of high precision three-dimensional measurements in a short time. This facilitatesvery detailed analysis of a single site, or data capture of entire landscapes »  [6, 7]. 6 E. Mavromati et al.  3 Legislation and Methods of Protection of Cultural Heritagein Greece. Findings, Needs and Perspectives 3.1 Legislation and Methods of Protection of Cultural Heritage in Greece According to Article 24 of the Constitution, individual and social rights include theprotection of the cultural environment,  “ Protection of the natural and cultural envi-ronment is a duty of the State and the right of everyone. In order to preserve it, theState has an obligation to take particular preventive or repressive measures within the framework of the principle of sustainability ” .According to Article 18 of the Constitution,  “ Special laws regulate the ownershipand disposal of archaeological sites  [ … ]  and any other deprivation of the free use and appropriation of property, required by particular circumstances  [ … ]  Monuments,traditional areas and traditional elements are protected by the State ” .Therefore, the Constitution enshrines the protection of the natural and culturalenvironment as a state matter and as an individual right of citizens. In implementingthis speci 󿬁 c provision of the Constitution, the cultural environment and, in particular,the monuments, traditional areas and traditional elements must be constantly protectedthroughout the year   –  at this point comes the concept of sustainability, which de 󿬁 nesthe way of the state protection of cultural goods 5 [17]. Fig. 2.  Prize winning archaeological KAP image in print. CHRISTY LAWLESS http://arch.ced.berkeley.edu/kap/discuss/index.php?p=%2Fdiscussion%2F5828%2Fprize-winning-archaeological-kap-image-in-print  5 Skouris Panagiotis and Trova Eleni,  The protection of Antiquities and Cultural Heritage , AthensThessaloniki, 2003, pp. 31 – 32. Improving the Geometric Documentation of Cultural Heritage 7
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