Indigenous Peoples of the Pacific Northwest Supplement - Native Peoples of the Northwest Coast

1. Native Peoples of the Northwest Coast AIS 270/JSIS 270 – Summer 2016 Professor: Charlotte Coté Office: 514c Padelford Building Class Time: M/T/W/Th, 12:00-2:10 pm…
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  • 1. Native Peoples of the Northwest Coast AIS 270/JSIS 270 – Summer 2016 Professor: Charlotte Coté Office: 514c Padelford Building Class Time: M/T/W/Th, 12:00-2:10 pm Office Hours: Thurs. 2:15-3:15 pm (or by appointment) Classroom: Clark 316 Phone: (206) 221-6549 E-mail: Course Description: This course introduces students to the Indigenous cultures of the Northwest Coast, extending from Southeast Alaska down along the coastlines of British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. This area of the United States and Canada is home to many distinct Indigenous societies whose histories and cultures have continually shaped and enriched this richly diverse and complex region. We will conduct a comprehensive study on two of the nations in this region, the Nuu-chah-nulth who live along the west coast of Vancouver Island in British Columbia and the Makah who live on the most western tip of Washington State. We will explore these people’s social, political, economic, and spiritual systems during the pre and early contact period. We will then examine their contemporary histories with a focus on their whaling traditions and on the issues that have arisen as a result of the Nuu-chah-nulth and Makah people’s decision to revive their whale hunts. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Required Texts: 1. Course reader, available at the RAMS Copy Center, 4144 University Way. 2. Charlotte Coté, Spirits of Our Whaling Ancestors. Revitalizing Makah and Nuu-chah nulth Traditions, Seattle: UW Press, 2010. Course Requirements and Grading: Assignment #1 ……… (35%) – Take-home, essay format, handed out July 5 - due July 11 beginning of class Assignment #2 ……... (25 %) – Group Presentation Assignment #4 ……… (40%) - Take home, essay format, handed out July 18- due July 24 via email
  • 2. Grading Scale: A ... 96 - 100 …4.0 B+ …87 ….. 3.2 C+ ….79 ….. 2.4 D+ …67 …1.2 A ... 94 - 95 …..3.9 B ….86 ….. 3.1 C+ .....78 ….. 2.3 D …. 66 … 1.1 A- ... 93 ………3.8 B …. 85 ….. 3.0 C+ ….77 ….. 2.2 D …..65 … 1.0 A- …92 ……... 3.7 B …..84 ….. 2.9 C ……76 …. 2.1 D …. 64 … 0.9 A- .....91 ..……. 3.6 B- ….83 ….. 2.8 C- …...72 … 1.7 D- … 63 … 0.8 A- …90 ……... 3.5 B- ….82 ….. 2.7 C- …. 70 …..1.5 D- … 62 … 0.7 (the lowest passing grade) B+ …89 ……... 3.4 B- ….81 … 2.6 D+ …..69 …. 1.4 D- … 61 … 0.6 B+ …88 ……... 3.3 B- …..80 …. 2.5 D+ …..68 …..1.3 F ….. 60 … 0.5 Take-home assignments (75 %): The take-home assignments are multi-faceted questions and identification questions based on the readings (including possible e-articles), lectures, films, and class discussions up to the date handed out. Your assignments must be in essay format, typed, stapled, double-spaced, and properly cited. If you do not reference your material, points will be taken of your grade. Plagiarism results in a failing grade! Your essay will be graded on content, clarity, grammar, organization, and your use of the readings to support your analysis. Group Presentation (25 %): I will divide you into groups in the first week of class. Your group will be given a chapter in the “Spirits” book to discuss and analyze and you will be given one hour for your presentation. You must link your analysis t themes/issues we have already covered in the readings and utilize the readings to support your analysis. Your grade will be based on how clearly you present the material, your ability to analyze the key themes in the chapter, how you utilize the readings to support your analysis, and the use of relevant visuals (photos, graphs, etc), and/or videos. You must provide at least two questions for class discussion. You can also include a class participation game in your presentation. All members of the group must participate in the collaboration of this assignment and meet regularly outside of class. If you fail to meet with your group before the presentation you will be dropped from the group and you will receive a failing grade (F) for this assignment Do not hesitate to contact me for help with finding information. I do not want your group to just give an overview of the chapter. We have all read it. You must analyze and discuss the important points and themes raised in the chapter. You can use the class discussion questions I provide in the syllabus as a guide for your presentation. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Note: I do not accept class assignments via e-mail, however I will make anexception for the final assignment. You must give me a hard copy of your assignment. Late assignments will demonstrate that you have not mastered the assignment in the specified time and thus, you will have grades taken off for each day late. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- For help with your writing and citation guidelines: and the UW Interdisciplinary Writing Studio,
  • 3. This course is based on a lecture/seminar format. You must be prepared to discuss the assigned reading material for each class and place them within the context of the course. Attendance is fundamental to this course and to your overall learning. If you miss a class it is up to you to obtain lecture notes from the other students. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Note: Use of your computers in class is restricted to taking notes only. I will not tolerate phone texting or use of computers for social networking. You will be asked to leave the class if I find you using your phone/computer for this purpose! Class Schedule June 20: Introduction to the Course/Introduction to the Area/People Reading: Maps. Film: Ancient America - The Northwest, excerpt (Camera One Productions, 1999) June 21: Environment and Culture Reading: Hillary Stewart, “People of the Cedar,” Kenneth Ames and Herbert Maschner, “Introduction,” Wayne Suttles, Introduction,” and Robert Boyd, “Demographic History.” For discussion: Why does Stewart describe the coastal peoples as “The People of the Cedar”? Why do Ames and Maschner describe the coastal peoples as “complex hunter and gatherer societies”? How did the environment influence the development of their cultural systems? How did disease epidemics impact these societies? June 22: Social Rank, Prestige, and Wealth Suzanne J. Crawford, “Guardian Spirit Complex,” Edward Sapir, “The Social Organization of the West Coast tribes,” Philip Drucker, “Rank, Wealth, and Kinship in Northwest Society,” Franz Boas, “The Indian Tribes of the North Pacific Coast.” For discussion: What is the Guardian Spirit Complex? How do anthropological studies contribute to our understanding of indigenous peoples? Why are indigenous oral traditions important to understanding indigenous histories? How were the coastal indigenous peoples socially structured? How and why were individuals ranked? How are rank, wealth, and kinship linked? Going from north to south how does the social structure and ranking system change? June 23: The Potlatch Reading: Sergei Kan, “Potlatch,” Philip Drucker, “Some Variations of the Potlatch,” George Clutesi, Potlatch, excerpt. For discussion: What is a potlatch and why was it integral to the coastal people’s social structure? How is it linked to wealth and prestige? Why did an individual/clan host a potlatch? What took place during a potlatch? What needed to be validated? What is the significance of the gifting of food and goods? Why was the potlatch more elaborate in the northern/central areas? June 27: The Newcomers - Contact and Culture Change Reading: Maps, Douglas Cole and David Darling; “History of the Early Period,” and Cesare Marino, “History of Western Washington Since 1846,” Treaty of Medicine Creek,1854; “Isaac Ingalls Stevens,” Chief Seattle’s Speeches #1 and #3, Ruth Kirk, “Halting the Potlatch.” Film: Chief Seattle (Bullfrog Films, 57 mins, 2000) For discussion: Discuss the changes taking place in coastal societies following non-Native contact/settlement. Why were treaties signed? Who are Chief Leschi and Chief Sealth and why are their stories important when discussing contact and culture change? What is the significance of Chief Sealth’s (Chief Seattle) “speech”?
  • 4. June 28: Culture Change and Adaptation Reading: Pamela Amoss, “The Indian Shaker Church,” Rolf Knight, “Resource Industries and Indian Labour,” Robie Liscomb, “Film Tells Story of Coast Salish Knitters.” Film: Story of the Coast Salish Knitters (Christine Welsh, 52 mins, 2000) For discussion: What is the Indian Shaker Church and why did it form? What are the main elements of this religion? What is the story of the Coast Salish knitters important to understanding contact and culture change? Why are the Indian Shaker Church and the story of the Coast Salish knitters great examples of cultural adaptation? June 29: Contemporary IndigenousLand Issues – B.C. First Nations J.E. Michael Kew, “History of Coastal British Columbia since 1846,” Fact sheet: B.C. Treaty negotiations; Taiaike Alfred, “Modern Treaties: A Path to Assimilation?” For discussion: Why were treaties never signed in B.C. in the early contact period? What advantages do Native people have in negotiating treaties today that they did not have in the early contact period? What are the disadvantages? Why does Alfred describe the contemporary treaty process in B.C. as a “path to assimilation.”? June 30: Resistance and Revival – Western Oregon Tribes Stephan Beckham, “History of Western Oregonsince 1846,” Charles Wilkinson, excerpt, The People are Dancing Again. The History of the Siletz Tribe of Western Oregon; For discussion: What happened to the Oregon tribes in 1856? Why are the Oregon tribes “dancing again?” July 4: Holiday July 5: Northwest Coast Artistic Expression– Burke Museum Tour Reading: Cheryl Shearar, “The Art and Culture of the Northwest Coast.” Gary Wyatt, “MythicBeings,” Hillary Stewart, “Two-Dimensional Art.” For discussion: How was/is artistic expression integral to coastal people’s social, cultural, and spiritual systems? What significance does art and artistic expression have in contemporary coastal communities today? Why/how does gaining knowledge of coastal people’s artist expression further our understanding of their cultures, traditions and lifestyles? Which art/artifacts most intrigued you, and why? What shapes, designs, images, colors, and materials are prominent in the art? Hand out Assignment # 1 July 6: Fishing Rights in the Pacific Northwest – The Boldt Decision Reading: Joel Geffen and Suzanne J. Crawford, “First Salmon Rites”, Jovanna Brown, “Fishing Rights and the First Salmon Ceremony,Rob Carson, “Boldt Decision on tribal fishing still resonates after 40 years. Landmark 1974 ruling led to numerous changes in government-tribal interactions,” Lynda Mapes, “Culvert ruling backs tribes,” Billy Frank Jr. “The drum beats for everyone.” Film: Billy Frank and the Fish Wars For discussion: What is the First Salmon Ceremony? Why/how is this ritual fundamental to the coastal people’s fishing traditions? What are the key aspects of the Boldt Decision? Why is this court ruling significant to tribal sovereignty and self-determination? July 7: Revitalizing the Coastal Canoe and Longhouse Traditions Reading: “Canoe. Tales of the Canoe Nation,” Squaxin Island Tourism,Canoe Journey; Richard Walker, “The Journey to Swinomish,” “How to Pull with Pride and Purpose,” University of Washington’s wǝɫǝbʔaltxʷ Intellectual House Project. For discussion: Why are the coastal canoe and longhouse traditions being revitalized? What is the guiding protocol for tribal journeys? How will the wǝɫǝbʔaltxʷ Intellectual House revitalize the UW Native and
  • 5. non-Native community? How does the revitalization of these traditions link to tribal sovereignty and self- determination? The Makah and Nuu-chah-nulth Peoples July 11: The Makah and Nuu-chah-nulth – The Centrality of Whaling to Makah and Nuu- chah-nulth Life Reading: Charlotte Coté, “Spirits of Our Whaling Ancestors,” Foreword, Orthography, Introduction, Ch.1. Films: YouTube videos For discussion: How was whaling intricately linked to the Makah and Nuu-chah-nulth people’s social, economic, and spiritual systems? Who whaled and why? How did the whalers prepare for a hunt? How was the whaler’s wife intricately connected to the whaling tradition? What was a whaling shrine and how was it utilized by the whalers? What is the significance of “cheesum”? Assignment #1 due, beginning of class July 12: Worldviews Collide (Group #1) Reading: “Spirits,” Ch.2. For discussion: What happened to Makah and Nuu-chah-nulth societies following contact with mamalhni? How did these societal changes impact their whaling tradition? During the signing of the Treaty of Neah Bay one of the Makah chiefs told the treaty officials, “He wanted the sea. That is his country.”(44) What is the significance of this quote and how does this connect to the Makah leaders insistence on having whaling protected? How did disease, boarding schools, federal policies, forbidding pa-chitle, commercial whaling, and entry into the global market economy impact Makah and Nuu-chah-nulth societies and, ultimately, their whaling tradition? July 13: Maintaining the Cultural Link to Whaling Ancestors (Group # 2) Reading: “Spirits,” Ch.3. For discussion: What are the key elements of the Tseshaht creation story and why are stories contained within oral traditions important to understanding indigenous cultures? How are names, stories, songs, dances, and artistic expression significant to the Makah and Nuu-chah-nulth in maintaining cultural links to their whaling traditions and also important to people understanding their cultures and societies? Why is the story of Na:we:’I:k (91-93)significant to understanding Tseshaht people and society? July 14: The Makah Harvest a Whale (Group # 3) Reading: “Spirits,” Ch. 4. Film: The Makah Nation: A Whaling People (Makah Tribal Council, 40 mins) For discussion: How is Makah and Nuu-chah-nulth political mobilization and cultural revitalization linked to the decision to revive their whale hunts? Describe the process leading to the Makah tribe’s contemporary whale hunt. How did the Makah tribe “stay true to tradition while rearticulating the hunt? What is the significance of Chief Mexsis’ quote on page 146? July 18: Challenges to Our Right to Whale (Group # 4) Reading: “Spirits,” Ch. 5. For discussion: What arguments framed the anti-whaling discourse? Examine the quotes from Keith Johnson (154), Janine Bowechop (154), Michael Two Horses (155-56), the CBC editorial (157) Greg Colfax (162), and Russell Barsh (163). What do these quotes reveal about some people’s ideas regarding indigenous cultures and traditions? How did the anti-whaling discourse perpetuate false notions about indigenous cultures? Hand out Assignment #3 - due Sunday, July 24, before 6pm by email.
  • 6. July 19: Legal Impediments Spark a 2007 Whale Hunt (Group # 5) Reading: “Spirits,” Ch. 6. For discussion: What events led to five Makah tribal members carrying out a whale hunt in September 2007? How did the whaling opponents frame their legal campaign against the Makah? Why was the anti- whaling coalition described as “a strange alliance?” What did the court rule in the 2004 court case, Anderson v. Evans? How did the court ruling impact future Makah whale hunts, and what implications could it have on all tribal treaty rights? What are your thoughts on Wayne Johnson’s statement, “I’m not ashamed” (183). July 20: Restoring Nanash’aqtl Communities (Group # 6) Reading: “Spirits,” Ch. 7. For discussion: What are some of the health issues facing Native people today and how are they attempting to overcome these health problems? Discuss the quote “I am what I am because of what I eat”(198). What is culinary imperialism and how did colonization impact indigenous people’s health and diet? What is food sovereignty? Why is food sovereignty important to tribal self-determination? How is understanding Makah and Nuu-chah-nulth cultures important to understanding indigenous societies, cultures, and traditions?  Reminder: Your final assignment is due on Sunday, July 24, before 6pm by email. Email your assignment to Tleko (thank you)!
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