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Information Model of Ship Product Structure Supporting Operation and Maintenance After Ship Delivery (Paper)

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In this paper, information model of ship product structure is developed particularly considering the use of ship product structure data at the phase of operation and maintenance after the delivery.
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  PLM11 8th International Conference on Product Lifecycle Management    319    IFIP Working Group 5.1, 2011 Information model of ship product structure supporting operation and maintenance after ship delivery Duhwan Mun School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kyungpook National University 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-711, South Korea Fax: +82-54-530-1278, Tel: +82-54-530-1271 dhmun@knu.ac.kr Namchul Do Gyeongsang National University, Department of industrial and systems engineering, ERI 900 Gajwa-dong, Jinju, Gyeongsangnam-do 660-701, South Korea dnc@gnu.ac.kr Wooyoung Choi Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering Co., Ltd. 1, Aju-dong, Geoje-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, 656-714, South Korea wychoi@dsme.co.kr Abstract:  Recent trends in the engineering information management technology of the shipbuilding industry are characterized by the spread of the product lifecycle management (PLM) concept and an increased demand on better use of ship engineering data after ship delivery. Product structure data, explicit hierarchical assembly structures representing assemblies and the constituents of those assemblies, form the backbone of all engineering data managed by PLM systems. The product structure differs depending on the industry’s requirements, design and manufacturing methods, or lifecycle phases covered. In this study, information model of ship product structure is developed particularly considering the use of ship product structure data at the phase of operation and maintenance after the delivery. Keyword : Information model; ISO 10303 STEP PDM Schema; ISO 15926 Process Plants; Operation and maintenance; Ship product structure. 1   Introduction Product lifecycle management (PLM) is the process of managing the entire lifecycle of a product from its conception, through design and manufacture, to service and disposal, and is also a business strategy of a company [1]. Product structure data, explicit hierarchical assembly structures representing assemblies and the constituents of those  320  Duhwan Mun, Namchul Do, Wooyoung Choi assemblies, form the backbone of all engineering data managed by PLM systems. The product structure differs depending on the industry’s requirements, design and manufacturing methods, or lifecycle phases covered [2]. Recent trends in the engineering information management technology of the shipbuilding industry are characterized by the spread of the PLM concept and an increased demand on better use of ship engineering data after ship delivery. In order to meet this requirement, shipbuilding computer-aided design (CAD) vendors have developed PLM systems. Large shipbuilding companies in Korea are either customizing PLM systems developed for use in the mechanical industry or developing new PLM capabilities which are based on ship CAD systems in use. It is interesting that large shipbuilding companies in Korea adopted mechanical PLM systems in spite of interoperability issues with ship CAD systems. The shipbuilding industry in Korea has attempted to apply the PLM concept, focusing on managing the product data at the early lifecycle stages including design and manufacturing; the main purpose of introducing PLM systems is to seamlessly integrate CAD and enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems through PLM systems. However, in the cases of floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) and drill ships, 90% of the total lifecycle cost is incurred at lifecycle phases after ship delivery. Furthermore, effective operation and maintenance (O&M) and recycling of ships are gradually becoming important due to increased regulations on eco-friendly ships as well as ship safety. For these reasons, PLM systems are needed to provide capabilities so that ship data generated at design and manufacturing phases are efficiently utilized at lifecycle phases after ship delivery. Since core information managed by PLM systems is product structure, information model of ship product structure that is able to support ship O&M works is required. In this study, information model of ship product structure is developed particularly considering the use of ship product structure data at the O&M phase after the delivery. To this end, information requirements of ship product structure are analyzed and then information model of ship product structure is defined according to the requirement. Usability of the proposed information model is demonstrated by representing various types of product structure data with this model. 2   Related literature and studies 2.1    Information modeling of product structure Bill of material (BOM) is a term similar to product structure. BOM is a hierarchical assembly structure of parts constituting a product. When multiple instances of a part are used in an assembly, only one relation between the part and the assembly is defined. The number of instances is associated with the relation as an attribute. The product structure is also a hierarchical assembly structure of parts constituting a product. However, when multiple instances of a part are used in an assembly, multiple relations, equal in number to the instances between the part and the assembly, are defined. Van Veen and Wortmann proposed a generic BOM management system based on the variant concept [3]. Olsen studies an information model which represents product family with programming languages [4]. Do et al. suggested a method to represent engineering change information by using product structure data [5]. Trappey and Lin developed an   Information model of ship product structure supporting operation and maintenance after ship delivery   321   object-oriented BOM system for the management of product family [6]. Kim et al. studied the management of BOMs in ship outfitting design [7]. In this study, types of information that should be contained in BOM data and capabilities that shipbuilding PLM systems should provide are elaborated with several cases. Kim et al. suggested the system architecture as well as BOM data processing functionalities and the procedure of a collaborative BOM management system for small and medium enterprises [8]. Most of previous studies are on configuration management in which several products constituting a product family are constructed and managed with product structure. They mostly focused on the mechanical industry and did not consider the O&M phase. Kim et al. [7] studied the management technique of BOM data in the shipbuilding industry. However, they dealt with product structure not in information model level but in data (or instance) level focusing on the use of product structure in the design and manufacturing phases. 2.2    Related industrial data standards Typical industrial data standards for the representation of product structure are STEP product data management (PDM) schema [9], ISO 10303 STEP AP239 product life cycle support (PLCS) [10], and ISO 15926 Process Plants [11]. The shipbuilding industry occupies an intermediate position between the mechanical and plant industries. ISO 15926 Process Plants is an appropriate international standard for the plant industry, whereas ISO 10303 STEP is suitable for the mechanical industry. In this study, the authors referred to the STEP PDM schema and ISO 15926 Part 2 data model in order to develop information model of ship product structure. The STEP PDM schema is a common PDM data schema developed by PDES, Inc. and ProSTEP, Inc. It is a real subset of PDM-relevant STEP APs (AP203, 212, 214, 232, 233, 239), fulfilling nearly all requirements for PDM data exchange. It provides main functionalities for parts and documents: part identification, product structure, document identification and linking the identified documents to the product structure, versioning, and product configuration. ISO 10303 STEP AP239 PLCS, an extension of the STEP PDM schema, is an international standard designed to ensure that the support information is aligned with the evolving product definition over the entire lifecycle. It provides information resources for support engineering, resource management, configuration management, and maintenance and feedback. ISO 15926 Process Plants is an international standard for data sharing and integration of process plant lifecycle data. From the view points of product structure, ISO 15926 Part 2 data model does not provide enough information resources for engineering change management and configuration management, but it has information resources useful in the O&M phase including clear definitions of classes and individuals, discrimination of functional and physical objects, and integration of space and time dimensions.  322  Duhwan Mun, Namchul Do, Wooyoung Choi 3   Information requirements of ship product structure 3.1    Lifecycle phases before ship delivery Contrary to mechanical CAD systems, shipbuilding CAD systems partially have PDM capabilities: access control, workflow management, and part catalogue management. Due to this reason, advantages of applying PLM systems in the shipbuilding industry come not from conventional PDM capabilities but from capabilities for seamlessly integrating whole lifecycles. Therefore, not only conventional application fields of product structure at the design and manufacturing phases, but also tight integration of product requirements created before the design phase and product structure [12], and use of product structure for the O&M works are required. Views on the same product are different from each other depending on lifecycle phases or application purposes, which lead to different product structures for the same product. To describe the difference between product structure and product view, product structure contains explicit hierarchical assembly relations among constituents of a product whereas product view is product structure constructed relevant to the requirements of a particular lifecycle stage and application domain. In the shipbuilding industry, different product views are required as ship design proceeds, as shown in Fig. 1. Ship product structure evolves from a rough one to a detailed one: from the main machinery list (MML) in the early design phase, through the system-oriented product view in the preliminary design phase and the block-oriented product view in the detail design phase, to the zone-oriented product view in the manufacturing design phase [7]. Therefore, information model of ship product structure should support product views. Fig. 1.  Evolution of ship product structure – before ship delivery An engineering change can be defined as all the changes made to the product structure, product configuration, or part properties with the aim of improving functionality, quality, or productivity of a product. From the viewpoint of the product

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