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Information Technology For Monitoring and Control of Power Distribution

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Monitoring Control
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  OGY FOR ON T0 R I N OL OF POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SUMMARY Information role in every monitoring and and distribution tion regarding line interaction areas of skills fctr pump systems, host of other such in all countries mation technolq availability of low high level of able. Present paper nology in monitoring tribution. INTRODUCTION: India is a vast power distributioti used for supply people, domestic: etc. n the weslern eastern countrie5, less than 10%. that the power available to the gin of 25 - 30% BY Dr Y S N Murty Professor & Dean of Information Technology Engineerhg :Staff College of lnclia Visvesvaraya Bhavan, Khairatabad HYDERABAD 4 Technology is going to play a malor country in their industries;, control of power generation systems, gathering of informa- ineeds of rural people and on- to provide assistance in the management of their electric distribution transformers and ~ applications. 50 of activities will be carried out through infor- y. This Is due to the current cost personal computer's and appplied software which is avaii- oiitlines role of information Tech- and control of power dis- country with a large number of networks. These networks aro of power to industries, rural consumers and street light ; countries and the advanced the power distribution loss i ; In India, however, it was founcf generated and the actual poweir consumers is having a loss mar- This loss is due to inefficient transmission lines, pilferage and poor quality of transformers etc. The country needs a huge in- crease in the power for meeting the needs of the growth in industry and agriculture. Power saved is power generated. if we can reduce or prevent the losses in the distribution system it is possible to make more power available to the consumers. For the purpose of reducing the power loss the root eauscf is required to be identified and preventive ;and corrective actions are taken. This requires a continuous automatic monitoring of power generated and available at various dis- tribution transformer points. For this purpose voltage awl current sensors are required t be provided alt the distribution transformers. Using telemetry the data on the power available at each transformer can be continuously transmitted through the satellite or fibre optic cable to a central cornmand and control port where one can obtain the information on the actual power generated and actual power available to the consumers. From the continuous monitoring of the data on supply, demand and availability of power one can know the root cause of the ios- ses in power distribution system. Based on this information one can take remote control actions of the power distribution system. It is also pos sible by proper switching systems to control the availability of power at various distribution transformers. We are aware that the life of the distribution power line transformers is generally 10 - 15 yeairs whereas in reality we find that 30 235  et burnt in 2 3 years. The cause of this s ding of the transformer and ~a~n~enance. hermal sensors can with the transformers and when the transformer exceeds the tolerable ~im~ts, uto~a~ic ~tion~ an be initiated for sw~t~hln~ ff the power to the transformer n be initiated. This ac- mers from being burnt a lot of money currently being.spent of transfo~er~. he ob- per is to obtain the Wor- the health of the transformer to a central computer contr~ syste~ which can take decisions and sters and optimise the available power for u~i6~satlon y vario~ onsumers. ER DlST eve~opments have taken place In the ~enera~~on nd transm~ssion of electrical ower. ~~wever, h eve~o~~ent$ n power ~lstr~bution yste~s ns~dera~e ttention. The d~stribution @ng~fleer s responsible for ensur- Ing ~tl~act~on the consumer of the electricity supply ~ndust~. he function of el~ctrici~y is- y available to each of ntral bulk point. The Is essential to op- to each customer. s of ~rket~ng nd control of power d~stri~u~io~ echni~u@s ave sig- nificant drawba~ks n view of the large volume of customers and ~istr~bu~ion f ~ower nd power generation systems. ne of the key factors in optim~sa~ion f func~i of power distr~b~tion s the dynamic data on the central pow~r enerated and ~ower made ava~~able o the cus- mers as per the current meters. It is ,found si~n~~~~ant ismat tomer. This ~@v@als osses be~@@n ower powe~ ~str~~~on. s such it is eces~a~ o ~~en~~~y he cause of pow^ loss and also hQw the The demand for eiectrictty is increasing by leeps and bounds thus calling for better distribution sytems and quaNy of eiectrlclty supplied to customers. Further the distribution system should ensure uninterrupted availability, reliability and maintainability of the standard of voltage and frequency within the stipulated limits. For meeting above needs of customers the power distribution information should be available on-line ~y~~i~ily~ With the monitoring infot-mation thus avabble the data can be generated for assessing the extent to which the needs of the customers are met. IN~O~~A~~O~ ECHNOLOGY TOOLS: With the significant increase in the customers of both authorised and unauthorised categ now become essential to use currently a~a~~~ble information technology tools to gather and forward the information to a central control poht and computer. Such information can be processed for corrective and preventive actions and power load management at various distribution points. Since the advent of microprocessor around 1982, the personal computers have made big Impact and are now available in c suitable software the PC be made part and parcel of any distribution system for optimisation and effectiveness. The gr~~ing emand for electricity in terms of increasing growth rates and high densities make t imperative that the distribution system should be capab~e of handling higher voltages, higher cities, ’ better control mechanism to ensure e,continuous and better performance of the distrib~iQn ystem. It is also necessary to have ~n~orm~tiQn n the customer load distribution and the pattern in which this distribution s changing with more and more industries, agriculture, pump sy~~e~s, omestic consumers, street lighting etc. 36  Monitoring an control of power distribution system: Over loading in cause disruption and also ci power supplieij degradation can voltage, chango more damages consumers. Co and also we call theft and other by automatic led, programmalie in computers have made sig- the last two decades and used in the power industry monitoring and control of a distribution system can of power to the customelrs use degradation in quality of to the consumers. The be In the way of drop of in frequency, which can cause Bo the electrical systems of the *rective actions can be initiated identify the root cause of the losses. This Is now possibile methods using software control- computers. and power actually made ethods employed are only terface telemetry sensors ystem, as well as, the voltage, the current, ture, oil level in ;the quality power avail- stomers. Also it is possibile to ther losses in tlhe various other parameter:; EFFECT OF O ERLOAQING CASE STUDY: MA~NTENANCE~ F RURAL TRANSFORMERS: n transfor- mers are part of all The life of a power transformler 5 years. However, in actual reality 30 of transformers in India are getting burnt within two to three years. This is due to one of the following causes 1 Lack of adequate o l in the transformers. 2. Overloading of the transformers by drawing moro than the stipulated power. Pilferage and leakage are the causes of drop in thle level of transformer oil. Overload can be due to unauthorised persons drawing power from the transformers. Overload of power and inadequate U causes overheating beyond the tolerable limit. This can cause the burniing of transformer. For preventive and corrective actions for healthy operation of transformers it is now possible to integrate a thermistor heat sensing sensor, as well as, it s posslbie to put a sensor to indicate he level of oil. The output of these sensors will generate electrical voltages which can be transmitted through the current communication networks to a central monitoring office where an alarm of both visual and audio can be activated. The maintenance staff, as well as a computer system can automatically switch off the input to the transformer. Hybrid Communication Networks can access transformers located in any part of the country. Currently, ruggedised telemetry systems are available indigenously (Developed by DRDO) which can be Interfaced with the sensors and the Hybrid Communlc~tlon Networks can be made available for on-line dataflow on the performance and health of a trainsformer. A network of all power transformers can be integrated and the data can be made to flow to a control port. By this on-line continuous monitoring the follo,ving information can be generated, riamely 1 OVerllDad is taking place 2. The normal timing when such o ierload takes place. 237   ether the overload is a regular feature or sporadic ~oc~li~y r area of the transformer wh~ch s ett tin^ OV@dWdded. 5. Timely actions to prevent and make ~o~rec~ive teps by nearest main~@nan~~ taff through the use of information flow. The current {nf~~at~o~ echnology tools and h~b~~d om~un~~t~n ystem will provide a lot of savings in the expenditure in replacement of transformers and also get revenue from the per- sons who are pilfering the power. It is recommended that currently available lntormation Technology Tools should be fully usedl for monitoring and control of power distri~~~~~~ systems. This cafls for Interfacing of telemet systems, Interne , mtcrowave finks and other communication systems for o way traffk of gathering information for monitoring and sending information for controlling on a continuous on-line basis. Currently used manual methods will not be useful for prevention of damages to power distribution transformers as the lime avaliable Is very short. Cornputorisation far contid and monitoring of power dlstribution is essential from now onwards. 238

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Jul 23, 2017
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