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  UNIT 1 Many children first learn the value of money by receiving an allowance. The purpose is to let children learn from experience at an age when financial mistakes are not very costly. The amount of money that parents give to their children to spend as they wish differs from family to family. Timing is another consideration. Some children get a weekly allowance. Others get a monthly allowance. In any case, parents should make clear what, if anything, the child is expected to pay for with the money.  At first, young children may spend all of their allowance soon after they receive it. If they do this, they will learn the hard way that spending must be done within a budget. Parents are usually advised not to offer more money until the next allowance. The object is to show young people that a budget demands choices between spending and saving. Older children may be responsible enough to save money for larger costs, like clothing or electronics. Many people who have written on the subject of allowances say it is not a good idea to pay your child for work around the home. These jobs are a normal part of family life. Paying children to do extra work around the house, however, can be useful. It can even provide an understanding of how a business works.  Allowances give children a chance to experience the things they can do with money. They can share it in the form of gifts or giving to a good cause. They can spend it by buying things they want. Or they can save and maybe even invest it.  UNIT 2 Most kinds of rose plants come from Asia. But roses are also native to other areas including northwest Africa, Europe and the United States. In nineteen eighty-six, Congress chose the rose as America's national flower. Technically, Congress and President Ronald Reagan declared it the national floral emblem. Whatever the name, the decision did not smell sweet to supporters of other popular flowers. Some people say roses are difficult to grow. But you have a good chance of success if you start with a few suggestions from experts. You should plant your roses where they can get sunshine for about six hours on bright days. You can buy roses from a garden center or by mail order. You can buy potted roses, also known as container roses, or bare-root plants. Each kind has its fans. Some gardeners say potted roses are easier to plant. They say the roots develop better. The University of Illinois Extension advises getting bare-root roses as close to planting time as you can. If they arrive before you are ready to plant them, make sure the packing material is moist. Keep the plants in a cool, dark place. You plant the roses while they are dormant. The resting plants have no leaves but still need water. When growing roses, the soil should feel moist deep down. Watering should be done in the morning. That can prevent problems called black spot and mildew. But do not water too much. In normal conditions, placing mulch around rose plants is a good idea. Mulch suppresses weeds and holds moisture in the soil. You can use mulch made from bark, pine needles, cottonseed or oak leaves.  UNIT 3 The United Nations says Asian children are facing health problems caused by poor nutrition. The United Nations Children’s Fund, or UNICEF, and the World Health Organization produced the report. It finds some children are overweight while others in the same country suffer from starvation. The report focuses on countries across South East Asia including, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand. The report finds that in most countries, there are equal amounts of overweight and starving children. For example, in Indonesia, 12 percent of children are overweight, the same number as those who are starving. In Thailand, it says 7 percent of children are starving and 11 percent are overweight. South East Asia is seen as a key economic driver for the world economy. But with economic growth comes an increase in foods and sugary drinks with low nutritional value. The report says this has caused an increase in obesity and heart disease in children. Starvation is still an issue in most countries in the region. The report says this is caused by poverty, poor nutrition and a lack of clean water. Dorothy Foote is a nutrition expert at UNICEF. She says the lack of healthy food for children and the general population is causing a health crisis. The report calls on governments to invest in childhood nutrition policies. They say this will bring a better future for their citizens.  UNIT 4 Today, we will tell why exercise is so important. And we will tell about some popular ways to get in good shape. Health experts have long noted the importance of physical activity. Exercise not only improves your appearance. It can also improve your health. Exercise helps to reduce the risk of some diseases. They include heart disease, stroke, type-two diabetes, osteoporosis and even some kinds of cancer.  America’s Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. In two thousand six, heart disease killed more than six hundred thirty thousand Americans. High blood pressure and high cholesterol levels in blood can increase your risk of heart disease. Medical experts say both can be reduced through normal exercise. Physical activity is also known to increase the release of endorphins. These chemicals reduce feelings of pain. They also help people feel more happy and peaceful. There is some debate about exactly what causes the brain to release endorphins. Some experts believe it is the act of exercising itself. Others say it is the feeling one gets from having met an exercise goal. Eit her way, the two things work together when it comes to improving one’s emotional health. Exercise improves your energy levels by increasing the flow of blood to the heart and blood vessels. One of the main reasons people exercise is to control or reduce their weight. Physical activity burns calories  –  the energy stored in food. The more calories you burn, the easier it is to control or reduce your weight. So exactly how much exercise do you need to do to gain all of these great health effects? Experts say it is easier than you think. In two thousand eight, the Centers for Disease Control released its first ever Physical  Activity Guidelines for Americans. The report included suggestions for young people, adults, disabled persons and those with long-term health problems. One of the major ideas noted in the report was that some activity is better than none. So if you are not doing anything, now is the time to get started.
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