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Interpreting the Seventh Century BC Tradition and Innovation Edited by

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  Interpreting the Seventh Century BC Tradition and Innovation Edited by Xenia Charalambidou and Catherine Morgan  Archaeopress Archaeology    Archaeopress Publishing Ltd Gordon House276 Banbury RoadOxford OX2 7ED www.archaeopress.com ISBN 978 1 78491 572 8ISBN 978 1 78491 573 5 (e-Pdf) © Archaeopress and the authors 2017 Cover images: Sanctuary of Herakles by the Elektran Gates at Thebes. Foreground: dinos or louterion depicting Herakles killing the Centaur Nessos while abducting Deianeira (© Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports: Archaeological Receipts Fund; photograph: S. Mavromatis). Background: concentration of unpainted jugs massed together in the ash altar (photograph: V. Aravantinos). All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owners. Printed in England by Oxuniprint, Oxford This book is available direct from Archaeopress or from our website www.archaeopress.com  i Contents Editors’ Preface  .........................................................................................................................................................................iii Notes on Contributors ............................................................................................................................................................ iv 1. Introduction: interpreting the seventh century BC  .....................................................................................................1Xenia Charalambidou and Catherine Morgan 2. Introduction: can one speak of the seventh century BC?  ...........................................................................................9Roland Étienne 3. Ceramics, analytical scales and cultural histories of seventh-century Crete  .....................................................15Antonis Kotsonas 4. The birthplace of Greek monumental sculpture revisited  .......................................................................................24Georgia Kokkorou-Alevras 5. On women and on lions  .....................................................................................................................................................31Eva Simantoni-Bournia 6. Greek art in the seventh century BC: the example of bronzes from Delphi  ........................................................38Hélène Aurigny 7. Al Mina and changing patterns of trade: the evidence from the eastern Mediterranean  ..............................47Alexander Vacek 8. Cypriot evidence in seventh-century Rhodes: discontinuity or change? ............................................................60Giorgos Bourogiannis 9. Faience in seventh-century Greece: egyptianizing ‘bric a brac’ or a useful paradigm for relations with Egypt?  ........................................................................................................................................................71Virginia Webb 10. A sea of luxury: luxury items and dyes of marine srcin in the Aegean during the seventh century BC .......80Tatiana Theodoropoulou 11. Coarse, plain and cooking ware: seventh-century innovation for old-fashioned pots  ..................................93 Jean-Sébastien Gros 12. East Greek pottery workshops in the seventh century BC: tracing regional styles  ......................................100Michael Kerschner 13. Old Smyrna: a window onto the seventh-century painted wares from the Anglo-Turkish excavations (1948-1951)  ...............................................................................................................................................................................114Stavros A. Paspalas 14. Euboea and the Euboean Gulf region: pottery in context  .....................................................................................123Xenia Charalambidou 15. Parian ceramics of the seventh century BC in Cycladic cemeteries and sanctuaries  ...................................150Photini Zaphiropoulou 16. Beyond Athens and Corinth. Pottery distribution in the seventh-century Aegean: the case of Kythnos  ...160Maria Koutsoumpou   ii 17. Conservatism versus innovation: architectural forms in early Archaic Greece  ............................................173Alexander Mazarakis Ainian 18. Fortifications in the seventh century. Where and why?  ......................................................................................186Rune Frederiksen 19. Corinthian sanctuaries and the question of cult buildings .................................................................................193Catherine Morgan 20. Achaian interaction and mobility in the area of the Corinthian Gulf during the seventh century BC  ...212Anastasia Gadolou 21. The sanctuaries of Herakles and Apollo Ismenios at Thebes: new evidence ...................................................221Vassilis Aravantinos 22. A group of small vases with Subgeometric – early Archaic decoration from the sanctuary of Herakles at Thebes  .................................................................................................................................................................231Kyriaki Kalliga 23. Cult in Attica. The case of the sanctuary of Artemis Mounichia  .......................................................................245Lydia Palaiokrassa-Kopitsa 24. Athenian burial practices and cultural change: the Rundbau early plot in the Kerameikos cemetery revisited  .....................................................................................................................................................................................260Anna Maria D’Onofrio 25. Special burial treatment for the ‘heroized’ dead in the Attic countryside. The case of the elite cemetery of Vari  .....................................................................................................................................................................281Alexandra Alexandridou 26. Cumae in Campania during the seventh century BC  .............................................................................................293Matteo D’Acunto 27. Cultural dynamics in the seventh-century Sibaritide ( Southern Italy ) ............................................................330 Jan Kindberg Jacobsen, Sine Grove Saxkjær and Gloria Paola Mittica 28. From innovation to tradition: seventh-century Sicily  ..........................................................................................339Gillian Shepherd 29. An early orientalizing spouted krater from Naxos on Sicily  ...............................................................................349Maria Costanza Lentini 30. The city of Mende during the late eighth and seventh centuries BC  ................................................................355Sophia Moschonissioti 31. Panhellenes at Methone, Pieria ( c.  700 BC): new inscriptions, graffiti/dipinti, and ( trade ) marks  ..........364Yannis Tzifopoulos, Manthos Bessios and Antonis Kotsonas 32. Frontiers in seventh-century epigraphy: aspects of diffusion and consolidation  ........................................375Alan Johnston 33. Skilled in the Muses’ lovely gifts: lyric poetry and the rise of the community in the seventh-century Aegean  ........................................................................................................................................................................................382 Jan Paul Crielaard Bibliography  .............................................................................................................................................................................393 General Index  ...........................................................................................................................................................................443 Topographic Index  .................................................................................................................................................................447  173 17. Conservatism versus innovation: architectural forms in early Archaic Greece Alexander Mazarakis Ainian Abstract: This chapter highlights the mixed dynamics of seventh-century architecture. The century brought great advances in architectural forms as well as in methods and techniques. At the same time, as far as most aspects of everyday life were concerned, the material world of the seventh century would not have differed greatly from the preceding century, since mon-umental edifices (mostly temples) appear already in the last quarter of the eighth century. Most of these still stood and were used throughout the seventh. Yet several of these earlier buildings would have already appeared old fashioned by the middle of the century. The seventh century was thus an era of high contrasts, where a humble oval hut with a mud brick superstructure and a straw roof could have stood next to a monumental temple built with ashlar masonry, its walls decorated with frescoes, and covered with roof tiles. Thus I discuss the possible reasons behind different attitudes to the built environment between the eighth and seventh centuries BC. The seventh century marked the appearance of a number of innovations in architectural forms, building materials and techniques, especially in the public domain. Yet alongside these changes, we observe the persistence of architectural forms which had characterized the Geometric period and reach back even to Protogeometric, mostly (though not exclusively) in the domestic sphere. These older survivals denote a conservatism which makes the seventh century appear not so very different from the eighth. In this chapter I will discuss the possible reasons behind different attitudes to the built environment between the eighth and seventh centuries BC.  Archaeological visibility?  The seventh century has a lower archaeological visibility in settlement patterns and architectural remains than the preceding Geometric (see e.g. Osborne 1989 on Attica; Kotsonas 2002 on Crete). There are several possible reasons for this. This was a period of unrest and clashes which may have involved several communities and may have resulted in casualties and the abandonment of sites. The long-lasting Lelantine War naturally comes to mind, and  polyandria  of the kind discovered at Paroikia on Paros attest to the potentially disastrous effects of such wars on the small communities of those days (Zaphiropoulou 1999; 2006a). The act of synoikism (the nucleation within larger settlements of populations previously dispersed in smaller hamlets) was doubtless behind the abandonment of a number of sites (Snodgrass 1977). It is interesting to note that several settlements were abandoned around 700 BC in areas which were active in colonization, such as in Euboea (Xeropolis/Lefkandi) and Andros (Zagora and the ‘shrinking’ of Ypsili). Indeed, another reason for the diminution in data, especially in the earlier part of the seventh century, could be the foundation of colonies which led to a drop in population within the mother cities. Other factors which doubtless contributed to the uneven picture of the seventh century which we have today include changes in burial customs and a reduction in grave offerings, problems in drawing a clear dividing line between Late Geometric and Subgeometric pottery styles in certain areas, difficulties in dating with absolute precision the construction and abandonment of a structure due to the circumstances of numerous excavations, and other archaeological uncertainties.As a case study combining these points we may consider the situation in the central Euboean Gulf. The decline and final abandonment of the promontory of Xeropolis/Lefkandi may be explained in part by the Lelantine war (Th. 1.15.3; Str. 10.1.12), the topographical limitations of the site which did not allow its expansion into a polis, and the colonization movement both towards the northwest Aegean and the west. At the same time, Eretria   and Oropos reached their peak, perhaps due to an influx of people from Xeropolis in a probable process of synoikism (Mazarakis Ainian 2012a; 2012b). At both sites, however, a short-lived decline followed a generation or two later, perhaps as a result of the effects of the Lelantine war and a demographic decline conditioned by the foundation of distant colonies (Mazarakis Ainian 2012a; 2012b). I have indeed argued that Oropos (probably to be identified with Homeric Graia, Il.  2.498) seems to have participated in the colonization movement in the west, especially in the foundation of Pithekoussai (Ridgway 1992) under the ‘flag’ of the Eretrians, to use the words of Michael Sakellariou (1978: 26). The same likely applies for the foundation of colonies in the Thermaic Gulf and the Chalkidiki. A number of the last inhabitants of Xeropolis/Lefkandi probably participated in these ventures as well.If Xeropolis/Lefkandi appears to have been abandoned for these reasons, what was the fate of Eretria and Oropos? A temporary recession in the early part of the seventh century is observed at Eretria (Charalambidou 2006) as well
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