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Leadership Literature Review

Leadership Literature Review
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  Running head: LEADERSHIP LITERATURE REVIEW 1 Leadership Literature Review Timothy Bergman University of Phoenix  LEADERSHIP LITERATURE REVIEW 2 Leadership is a purposeful approach towards inspiring positive change according to  Northouse (2019). There are many structures that inform leadership including: historical and contemporary leadership theories; followership concepts; ethics; decision-making; and discipline-specific application of leadership. In coordination with considering, and applying,  principles of leadership, it is essential for a leader to identify with a philosophy of leadership. Likewise, it is beneficial to distinguish between leadership and management. Philosophy Leaders evolve with the needs of their organization and individuals with an emotive investment. With this approach a leader effectually stimulates the process of realizing goals. According to Nanus (as cited in Ibrahim & Cordes, 1996), leaders authenticate ideas through initiative and action. These ideas are collaboratively achieved by onboarding others and navigating the process. Leaders maintain a forthcoming mindset that illustrates longevity in organizational advantage. To accomplish this, a leader must hearten those involved to receive the goal as desirable as further understood by Ibrahim & Cordes (1996). A leader is responsible for realizing and causing focused and meaningful change. This is a collaborative effort that requires the leader to motivate and be motivated. A leader does not require a position of leadership to be deemed a leader. Rather, a leader is realized through a demeanor of purpose and action that elicits positive change or outcome for the organization, or group, and those involved. Understanding Differences Between Leadership and Management  Northouse (2019) says that management is centered in the organizational logistics and development that maintain constancy through control and minimal emotional involvement. Regarding leadership, the authors detail an adaptive and emotionally invested individual that is  LEADERSHIP LITERATURE REVIEW 3 grounded in evolving towards positive transformations. Northouse further states that both managers and leaders carry significant roles in advancing a group or organization towards accomplishing goals or tasks. We are told by Ibrahim and Cordes (1996) that leaders are vision-driven individual that is constantly imagining how to redefine the future. Meanwhile, managers are focused on everyday processes that are accomplished through consistency. It can reasonably  be stated, based on these inferences, that a leader may be identified as an advocate or promoter and a manager as a more business-minded individual. There are aspects of leadership that may be identified in a manager, and likewise, characteristics of managers evident in a leader. However, some may argue that a manager is limited to business mindedness where leaders operate in the infrastructure, defined by Perrin (2010) as the five zones. These zones are concerned with innovative reflection that concerns itself with the humanities and diversity. In any case, managers and leaders are both vital roles required to operate and advance society. Historical and Contemporary Leadership Theories Historical Great Man Theory Great Man Theory informed, or initiated, the “Trait Approach” that illustrate qualities of leaders, focusing on distinguishing variances between leaders and followers, according to Bass, 2008 and Jago, 1982 (as cited in Northouse, 2019). This model is varied and inconsistent  LEADERSHIP LITERATURE REVIEW 4 according to Ronald (2014), sustaining misperception of general characteristics. However, Great Man Theory informed debate that encouraged the further exploration and study of “trait” theories. Trait Theory Early 20 th  century method that informed characteristics of great leaders by methodically identifying abilities describes the Trait Theory model, according to Northouse (2019). Trait Theory is a leader-centered approach, shifting focus away from the follower role is situations. The model is illustrated by self-confidence, determination, integrity, and sociability. Behavioral Theory According to Northouse (2019), Behavioral Theory can be summarized as leadership as informed by actions, indicated in the categories of task and relational behaviors. This theory group develops the “what” and “how” beyond individual attributes. It is characterized by descriptive behavioral analysis over dictating leadership behaviors. Skills Approach The Skills Approach is a leader-focused perspective that emphasizes learnable skills and aptitudes, according to Northouse (2019). Description of the method includes a three-skilled approach hinged on technical, human and conceptual personal skills domains, with priority one over others depending on structural role. The model finds strength as the srcinal structural  processing model that focuses on developing leadership skills and in universal accessibility by way of learning and developing aptitudes. Contemporary    LEADERSHIP LITERATURE REVIEW 5 Situational Leadership Situational Leadership is constructed around Reddin’s (1967) 3 -D management approach with leadership conceptualized as situationally adaptive as stated by Northouse (2019). It is  based on a model of directive and supportive reciprocity and consists of varying levels of direction and support based on assessment of dexterity and drive over time. Situational Leadership is characterized by leader-follower stylization mutuality and is perceivably valuable in grooming effective leaders. Transactional Leadership  Transactional Leadership is a formal and controlled systematic approach based on a motivational rewards system of coaching and rewarding according to Baskarada, Watson, & Cromarty (2017). Vito, Higgins, & Denney (2014) call to attention, characteristics including reciprocal “bargain -  based” motivational mechanisms, conditional recompense and constructive transactions, leader-subsidiary mutuality, and problem-motivated actionability in describing the system. Baskarada, Watson, & Cromarty (2017) state that a Transactional Leadership style is suitable for systematization, strengthening and clarification standing knowledge approaches, Transformational Leadership Transformational Leadership is a motivational approach grounded in logical and motivational stimuli as stated by Baskarada, Watson, & Cromarty (2017). Vito, Higgins, & Denney (2014) denote the approach as emotionally based and indicate a 4-point representation that includes charisma, inspiration, individual attention, and intellectual motivation. This approach is provocatively elastic in considering present circumstance approaches, according to Baskarada, Watson, & Cromarty (2017).
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