Leadership Responses to Institutional Change in Japan

Leadership Responses to Institutional Change in Japan
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  Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1456622 !"#$%% #'( )*++#'*'  "#$%#&'()* +#'*,-'#' ., /-'.).0.),-$1 2($-3# )- 4$*$- *5 ,- Pharr, Susan J. 1985. ÒJapan in 1985: The Nakasone Era Peaks.Ó  Asian Survey , Vol. 26.  No. 1 (January), pp. 54-65. Kenneth B. Pyle. 1987. ÒIn Pursuit of a Grand Design: Nakasone Betwixt the Past and the Future.Ó  Journal of Japanese Studies , Vol. 13, No. 2. (Summer), pp. 243-270 Ramsayer, Mark J., and Frances McCall Rosenbluth. 1993.  Japan's Political Marketplace Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Riker, William H. 1984. ÒThe Heresthetics of Constitution-Making: The Presidency in 1787, with Comments on Determinism and Rational ChoiceÓ The American  Political Science Review , Vol. 78, No. 1 (March), pp. 1-16  _________. 1986. The Art of Political Manipulation.  New Haven: Yale University Press. Samuels, Richard J. 2003. 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Seattle: Society for Japanese Studies.  Nonaka, Naoto. 2008.  Jimint  !  No Seiji No Owari [The End of LDP Politics] . Tokyo: Chikuma Shinsho. )#/'*0 12344 56 7)*"%$#%/3'0 8#'/9$:#4/3'0 #'( ;/<*'%/3'6= 6(# 4,0&-$1 ,7 8,1).)9' 0 >3:6 -?0 @36 ? AB*C60 ?DEDF0 996 ,GH.D6    !"#$%% #'( )*++#'*'  "#$%#&'()* +#'*,-'#' ., /-'.).0.),-$1 2($-3# )- 4$*$- *5 ,, FIGURE 2   Average Monthly Support Ratings of Cabinet and LDP From JiJi Public Opinion Surveys, 1996-2008 I - ?I ?- JI J- ,I ,- .I .- -I K#%L/<343 MC$2L/ 83"/ !3/N$</ OC* B$+$(# O%3L 1*"/*%? 1*"/*%J  !"#$%% #'( )*++#'*'  "#$%#&'()* +#'*,-'#' ., /-'.).0.),-$1 2($-3# )- 4$*$- *5 ,J TABLE 1 Percent of Politicians Responding the Prime Minister Had the Most Influence by Policy Category [First and Second Rank Combined], 1987 and 2002 POLICY CATEGORY 1987 2002 DISTRIBUTIVE 10.0% [Rice Price Decisions] 25.7% [Public Works]   WELFARE 8.2% [Health Insurance] 28% [Welfare Policy]   DEFENSE/FOR POL 73.6% [Defense Budget Decision] 71.1% [Defense/Foreign Policy]   ECONOMIC 24% [Deregulation Policy] 45.6% [Economic Policy]   POL REFORM 24% [Electoral Law Revision] 52.9% [Political Reform] Source: Elite surveys conducted by Prof. Muramatsu Michio (formerly Kyoto University; currently Gakushuin University) and colleagues. Published srcinally in Ellis S. Krauss, ÒThe Prime Minister, Cabinet, and Policymaking: The Changing ÔCore ExecutiveÕ and ÔPresidentializationÕ in Japan. In Muramatsu Michio, editor, The Core Executive and the Civil Service System in Comparative Perspective (Kizu, Japan: The International Institute for the Advancement of Science, 2007.  !"#$%% #'( )*++#'*'  "#$%#&'()* +#'*,-'#' ., /-'.).0.),-$1 2($-3# )- 4$*$- *5 ,? FIGURE 1   Average Monthly Support Ratings of Cabinet and LDP From JiJi Public Opinion Surveys, 1980-1993 I - ?I ?- JI J- ,I ,- .I .- -I P;) 5#C
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