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Leadership Responses to Institutional Change in Japan

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Leadership Responses to Institutional Change in Japan
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  Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1456622 !"#$%% #'( )*++#'*'  "#$%#&'()* +#'*,-'#' ., /-'.).0.),-$1 2($-3# )- 4$*$- *5 ,- Pharr, Susan J. 1985. ÒJapan in 1985: The Nakasone Era Peaks.Ó  Asian Survey , Vol. 26.  No. 1 (January), pp. 54-65. Kenneth B. Pyle. 1987. ÒIn Pursuit of a Grand Design: Nakasone Betwixt the Past and the Future.Ó  Journal of Japanese Studies , Vol. 13, No. 2. (Summer), pp. 243-270 Ramsayer, Mark J., and Frances McCall Rosenbluth. 1993.  Japan's Political Marketplace Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Riker, William H. 1984. ÒThe Heresthetics of Constitution-Making: The Presidency in 1787, with Comments on Determinism and Rational ChoiceÓ The American  Political Science Review , Vol. 78, No. 1 (March), pp. 1-16  _________. 1986. The Art of Political Manipulation.  New Haven: Yale University Press. Samuels, Richard J. 2003. ÒLeadership and Political Change in Japan: The Case of the Second Rinch™.Ó  Journal of Japanese Studies , Vol. 29. No. 1 (Winter). pp. 1-31. Schattschneider, E. E. 1975. The Semisovereign People: A Realist's View of Democracy in America . Harcourt Brace College Publishers. Shepsle, Kenneth A. 2003. ÒLosers in Politics (and How They Sometimes Become Winners): William RikerÕs Heresthetic.Ó (APSA) Perspectives on Politics.  Vol. 1,  No. 2 (June 2003).   Str¿m, Kaare. 1990. "A Behavioral Theory of Competitive Political Parties."  American  Journal of Political Science  34:569-98. Takenaka, Heizo, 2002. ÒJapan Takes on Challenges of Structural Reform. Ó Talk before the National Economist Club, Washington, D.C., January 7; The Japan Society,  New York, January 9; and Chatham House, London, January 11, 2002. Found at http://www5.cao.go.jp/keizai1/2002/0107speech.pdf Wright, Dell S. and Yasuyoshi Sakurai. 1987. ÒAdministrative Reform in Japan: Politics, Policy, and Public Administration in a Deliberative Society.Ó  Public  Administration Review , Vol. 47, No. 2 (March-April), pp. 121-133.  Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1456622 !"#$%% #'( )*++#'*'  "#$%#&'()* +#'*,-'#' ., /-'.).0.),-$1 2($-3# )- 4$*$- *5 ,. BIBLIOGRAPHY Angel, Robert C. 1988-89. ÒPrime Ministerial Leadership in Japan: Recent Changes in Personal Style and Administrative Organization.Ó  Pacific Affairs , Vol. 61, No. 4 (Winter), pp. 583-602. Cabineto henshžb u ,  Koizumi Ichir™ desu (Tokyo: jiji Gap™sha, 2006). George Mulgan, Aurelia. 2003. "Japan's 'Un-Westminster' System: Impediments to Reform in a Crisis Economy." Government and Opposition  38 (1):73 - 91. Hayao, Kenji. 1993. The Japanese Prime Minister and Public Policy . Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Hoshi, Hiroshi, and Iwao Osaka. 2006. Terebi Seiji--kokkai h ! d  !  kara TV "Takkuru" made . Tokyo: Asahi Shimbunsha. Iijima Isao, 2006.  Koizumi kantei no hiroku  [The Secret Record of the Koizumi Prime MinisterÕs Office]. Tokyo: Nihon Keizai Shimbunsha. Kabashima, Ikuo, and Gill Steel. 2007. "How Junichiro Koizumi Seized the Leadership of Japan's Liberal Democratic Party."  Japanese Journal of Political Science  8 (1):96. Krauss, Ellis S. and Robert Pekkanen. Forthcoming.  JapanÕs Liberal Democratic Party in Time (Ithaca: Cornell University Press). Krauss, Ellis S. and Robert Pekkanen , Reforming the LDP: The 2005 Election, Changing Japanese Politics, and Democracy.Ó In Sherry L. Martin and Gill Steel (eds.),  Democratic Reform in Japan: Assessing the Impact (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2008). Krauss, Ellis S., Benjamin Nyblade, and Robert Pekkanen. ÒThe Logic of Ministerial Selection: Electoral Reform and Party Goals in Japan,Ó in process. McCubbins, Mathew, and Frances Rosenbluth. 1995. "Party Provision for Personal Politics: Dividing the Vote in Japan." In Structure and Policy in Japan and the United States , ed. P. F. Cowhey and M. D. McCubbins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. McLean, Iain. 2001.  Rational Choice and British Politics: An analysis of Rhetoric and  Manipulation from Peel to Blair. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  _______2002. ÒWiliam H. Riker and the Invention of Heresthetic(s).Ó  British Journal of  Political Science.  Vol. 32, No. 3 (July), pp. 535-558. Miroff, Bruce. 2009. ÒPresidential Policy Leadership: Types and Variation.Ó Paper  presented to the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, Toronto, Canada (September) Mughan, Anthony. 2000.  Media and the Presidentialization of Parliamentary Elections . London and New York: Palgrave. Muramatsu Michio. 1987. ÒIn Search of National Identity: The Politics and Policies of the Nakasone Administration.Ó In The Trade Crisis: How Will Japan Respond? Ed. Kenneth B. Pyle. Seattle: Society for Japanese Studies.  Nonaka, Naoto. 2008.  Jimint  !  No Seiji No Owari [The End of LDP Politics] . Tokyo: Chikuma Shinsho. )#/'*0 12344 56 7)*"%$#%/3'0 8#'/9$:#4/3'0 #'( ;/<*'%/3'6= 6(# 4,0&-$1 ,7 8,1).)9' 0 >3:6 -?0 @36 ? AB*C60 ?DEDF0 996 ,GH.D6    !"#$%% #'( )*++#'*'  "#$%#&'()* +#'*,-'#' ., /-'.).0.),-$1 2($-3# )- 4$*$- *5 ,, FIGURE 2   Average Monthly Support Ratings of Cabinet and LDP From JiJi Public Opinion Surveys, 1996-2008 I - ?I ?- JI J- ,I ,- .I .- -I K#%L/<343 MC$2L/ 83"/ !3/N$</ OC* B$+$(# O%3L 1*"/*%? 1*"/*%J  !"#$%% #'( )*++#'*'  "#$%#&'()* +#'*,-'#' ., /-'.).0.),-$1 2($-3# )- 4$*$- *5 ,J TABLE 1 Percent of Politicians Responding the Prime Minister Had the Most Influence by Policy Category [First and Second Rank Combined], 1987 and 2002 POLICY CATEGORY 1987 2002 DISTRIBUTIVE 10.0% [Rice Price Decisions] 25.7% [Public Works]   WELFARE 8.2% [Health Insurance] 28% [Welfare Policy]   DEFENSE/FOR POL 73.6% [Defense Budget Decision] 71.1% [Defense/Foreign Policy]   ECONOMIC 24% [Deregulation Policy] 45.6% [Economic Policy]   POL REFORM 24% [Electoral Law Revision] 52.9% [Political Reform] Source: Elite surveys conducted by Prof. Muramatsu Michio (formerly Kyoto University; currently Gakushuin University) and colleagues. Published srcinally in Ellis S. Krauss, ÒThe Prime Minister, Cabinet, and Policymaking: The Changing ÔCore ExecutiveÕ and ÔPresidentializationÕ in Japan. In Muramatsu Michio, editor, The Core Executive and the Civil Service System in Comparative Perspective (Kizu, Japan: The International Institute for the Advancement of Science, 2007.  !"#$%% #'( )*++#'*'  "#$%#&'()* +#'*,-'#' ., /-'.).0.),-$1 2($-3# )- 4$*$- *5 ,? FIGURE 1   Average Monthly Support Ratings of Cabinet and LDP From JiJi Public Opinion Surveys, 1980-1993 I - ?I ?- JI J- ,I ,- .I .- -I P;) 5#C
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