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Lect-8 in Vitro Pollination, Fertilization and Embryo Culture

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In vitro Pollination & Fertilization Reproductive isolation is considered to play a key part in evolution. Plants and animals have developed a range of strategies that minimize gene flow between species. In plants, these strategies involve either prezygotic barriers, such as differences in floral structure and pollen-stigma recognition (inhibition of pollen tube growth), or postzygotic barriers (malformation of endosperm and the inhibition of germination) which are less well understood and affec
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  In vitro  Pollination & Fertilization  Reproductive isolation is considered to play akey part in evolution.  Plants and animals have developed a range ofstrategies that minimizegene flowbetweenspecies.  In plants, these strategies involve eitherpre-zygoticbarriers, such as differences in floralstructure and pollen-stigma recognition(inhibition of pollen tube growth),orpost-zygotic barriers(malformation of endospermand the inhibition of germination)which are lesswell understood and affect seed developmentfrom fertilization to seed set.  Wide Hybridization  In most crop improvement programme oftenwide hybridizationis resorted to transfer thegenes for abiotic and biotic stress fromaliengenera.  Involves interaverietal, inter-varietal, inter-genera and inter-family crosses to transfer thetarget genes from the donors.  Eg. Wheat & Rye (Inter-genera)Rice: Wide crosses of interaverietalMost failure in these crosses are due toi) self incompatibility,ii) cross incompatibility etc.  In vitro  pollination & Fertilization  To overcome the barrier ofhindering the growth of thepollen grainon the stigma or style, a part of the stigmaor style may becutand the pollen grain may be placedon the cut surface of the ovary or transferred through ahole in the ovary wall called “intraovarian pollination”Eg. Papaver somniferu  , P. rhoeas  , Argemone mexicana   Another approach to overcome the barrier topollentube growthis direct pollination ofcultured ovules( in vitro  ovular pollination) or excised ovules along withplacenta ( in vitro  placental pollination)  (Developed at University of Delhi byMaheswari andKranta, 1954to overcome the self incompatibility inPapaveraceae and Solanaceae)  In vitro  pollination Stigmatic pollinationOvarian pollinationPlacental pollinationDiagrammatic representation of the in vitro  pollination
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