Documents

line

Description
Description:
Categories
Published
of 91
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Transcript
  2 . 1  Thescopeandcontentoftheprincipleof  non-refoulement  :Opinion sir elihu lauterpacht and daniel bethlehem ∗ Contents I. Introduction  page 89 A. Contextsinwhich non-refoulement  isrelevant  90 B. TheinterestofUNHCR   931 . TheestablishmentofUNHCRanditsmandate  932 . TheExecutiveCommitteeoftheHighCommissioner’sProgramme  96 II. The 1951 Convention(asamendedbythe 1967 Protocol)  98 A. Theoriginsofthe 1951 Convention  98 B. The 1951 Convention  99 C. The 1967 Protocol  101 D. Theapproachtointerpretation  103 E. Preliminaryobservations  106 F. TheinterpretationofArticle 33 ( 1 )ofthe 1951 Convention  1081 . Whoisbound?  108 (a) Themeaningof‘ContractingState’  108 (b) IstheresponsibilityoftheContractingStatelimitedtowhatoccursonitsterritory?  1102 . Prohibitedconduct  112 (a) Applicabilitytoextradition  112 (b) Rejectionatthefrontier  1133 . Whoisprotected?  115 (a)  Non-refoulement  isnotlimitedtothoseformallyrecognizedasrefugees  116 (b) Needforindividualassessmentofeachcase  118 (c) Massinflux  119 ∗ TheauthorswouldliketothankRodneyNeufeld,ResearchAssociateoftheLauterpachtResearchCentre,forhisresearchassistanceinthepreparationofthisOpinionand,inparticular,inrespectofthecompilationoftheannexes.[ Editorialnote :ThisOpinionwascompletedon 20  June 2001 onthebasisofthelawandotherpertinentfactorsatthatpoint.Itisreproducedherewithoutsub-stantive revision. A number of editorial notes have, however, been inserted for purposes of pub-lication, in order to reflect an up-to-date position (as of February  2003 ) on such matters as theratificationoftheinternationaltreatiesreferredtointhetext.] 87  88  Non-refoulement   (Article 33 ) 4 . Theplacetowhich refoulement  isprohibited  121 (a) ‘Territories’not‘States’  121 (b) ‘Thirdcountries’  1225 . Thethreattolifeorfreedom  1236 . Thenatureofthethreat  1267 . Conclusionsinrespectofthissubsection  127 G. Article 33 ( 2 ):theexceptions  1281 . Generalobservations  129 (a) RelationshiptoArticle 1 F  129 (b) Thetrendagainstexceptionstotheprohibitionof  refoulement   130 (c) LimitationsontheinterpretationandapplicationoftheexceptionsinArticle 33 ( 2 )  1332 . Specificobservations  134 (a) ThescopeofArticle 33 ( 2 ) rationepersonae  134 (b) Theinterpretationandapplicationofthenationalsecurityexception  134 (i) Theprospectivenatureofthedanger  135 (ii) Thedangermustbetothecountryofrefuge  135 (iii) AState’smarginofappreciationandtheseriousnessoftherisk  135 (iv) Theassessmentofriskrequiresconsiderationof individualcircumstances  136 (v) Therequirementofproportionality  137 (c) Theinterpretationandapplicationofthe‘dangertothecommunity’exception  138 (i) RelationshiptoArticle 1 F  139 (ii) ‘Particularlyseriouscrime’  139 (iii) ‘Convictionbyafinaljudgment’  139 (iv) ‘Dangertothecommunity’  140 III. Theroleandcontentofcustomaryinternationallaw  140 A. Theroleofcustomaryinternationallaw  140 B. Thesourcesofthecustomaryinternationallawon non-refoulement  :theroleoftreaties  1411 . General  141 (a) Fundamentallynorm-creatingcharacter  143 (b) WidespreadandrepresentativeStatesupport,includingthosewhoseinterestsarespeciallyaffected  146 (c) Consistentpracticeandgeneralrecognitionof therule  147 (d) Conclusionsinrespectofthissubsection  149  Scopeandcontentoftheprinciple  89 C. Thecontentoftheprincipleof  non-refoulement  incustomaryinternationallaw  1491 . Inthecontextofrefugees  1492 . Inthecontextofhumanrightsmoregenerally  150 (a) Thescopeofthecustomaryprohibitionoftortureandcruel,inhumanordegradingtreatmentorpunishment  150 (b)  Non-refoulement  asafundamentalcomponentofthecustomaryprohibitionoftortureandcruel,inhumanordegradingtreatmentorpunishment  155 (c) Thecontentof  non-refoulement  asacomponentofthecustomaryprohibitionoftortureandcruel,inhumanordegradingtreatmentorpunishment  158 (i) Thesubjecttobeprotected  158 (ii) Theprohibitedact  159 (iii) Theterritorialdimensionof  non-refoulement   159 (iv) Thenatureoftherisk  160 (v) Thethresholdoftheharmthreatened  161 (vi) Exceptions  162 (d) Conclusionsinrespectofthissubsection  1623 .  Non-refoulement  atcustomarylaw  163 Annex 2 . 1  Statusofratificationsofkeyinternationalinstrumentswhichincludea non-refoulement  component  164 Annex 2 . 2  Constitutionalandlegislativeprovisionsimportingtheprincipleof  non-refoulement  intomunicipallaw  171 I. Introduction 1 .WehavebeenaskedbytheOfficeoftheUnitedNationsHighCommis-sionerforRefugees(UNHCR)toexaminethescopeandcontentoftheprincipleof  non-refoulement   in international law. We have not been asked to address particularcasesorspecificcircumstancesinwhichtheprinciplehasbeeninissuebutrathertocommentontheinterpretationandapplicationoftheprincipleingeneral.Itgoeswithout saying that the interpretation and application of the principle in specificcases will hinge on the facts involved. The present opinion is limited to a prelimi-naryanalysisofthematter. 2 .  Non-refoulement  isaconceptwhichprohibitsStatesfromreturningarefugeeorasylumseekertoterritorieswherethereisariskthathisorherlifeorfreedomwouldbethreatenedonaccountofrace,religion,nationality,membershipofaparticularsocialgroup,orpoliticalopinion. 3 .Theabovedescriptionisnomorethanasummaryindicationofwhatthecon-ceptisaboutinrelationtorefugees.Thereare,inaddition,othercontextsinwhich  90  Non-refoulement   (Article 33 ) the concept is relevant, notably in the more general law relating to human rightsconcerningtheprohibitionoftortureorcruel,inhumanordegradingtreatmentorpunishment. A. Contextsinwhich non-refoulement  isrelevant 4 .Theconceptof  non-refoulement  isrelevantinanumberofcontexts – prin-cipally,butnotexclusively,ofatreatynature.ItsbestknownexpressionforpresentpurposesisinArticle 33 ofthe 1951 ConventionRelatingtotheStatusofRefugees: 1 1 .NoContractingStateshallexpelorreturn(‘ refouler  ’)arefugeeinanymannerwhatsoevertothefrontiersofterritorieswherehislifeorfreedomwouldbethreatenedonaccountofhisrace,religion,nationality,membershipofaparticularsocialgrouporpoliticalopinion. 2 .Thebenefitofthepresentprovisionmaynot,however,beclaimedbyarefugeewhomtherearereasonablegroundsforregardingasadangertothesecurityofthecountryinwhichheis,orwho,havingbeenconvictedbyafinaljudgmentofaparticularlyseriouscrime,constitutesadangertothecommunityofthatcountry. 5 .Theprinciplealsoappearsinvaryingformsinanumberoflaterinstruments:(a) the  1966  Principles Concerning Treatment of Refugees, adopted by the Asian-AfricanLegalConsultativeCommittee, 2 ArticleIII( 3 )ofwhichprovides: NooneseekingasyluminaccordancewiththesePrinciplesshould,exceptforoverridingreasonsofnationalsecurityorsafeguardingthepopulations,besubjectedtomeasuressuchasrejectionatthefrontier,returnorexpulsion 1  No. 2545 , 189 UNTS 150 (hereinafter‘ 1951 Convention’). 2  ReportoftheEighthSessionoftheAsian-AfricanLegalConsultativeCommitteeheldinBangkok, 8 – 17  Aug.  1966 , p.  335  (hereinafter ‘Asian-African Refugee Principles’). Art. III( 1 ) of the as yetunadoptedDraftConsolidatedTextoftheseprinciplesrevisedatameetingheldinNewDelhion 26 – 27 Feb. 2001 providesasfollows:NooneseekingasyluminaccordancewiththesePrinciplesshallbesubjectedtomeasuressuchasrejectionatthefrontier,returnorexpulsionwhichwouldresultinhislifeorfreedombeingthreatenedonaccountofhisrace,religion,nationality,ethnicorigin,membershipofaparticularsocialgrouporpoliticalopinion.Theprovisionasoutlinedabovemaynothoweverbeclaimedbyapersonwhentherearereasonablegroundstobelievetheperson’spresenceisadangertothenationalsecurityandpublicorderofthecountryinwhichheis,orwho,havingbeenconvictedbyafinaljudgmentofaparticularlyseriouscrime,constitutesadangertothecommunityofthatcountry.[ Editorialnote: ThesePrincipleswereadoptedbyResolution 40 / 3 on 24  June 2001 ,atameetingat which the Committee was also renamed the Asian-African Legal Consultative Organization.ThetextofArticleIIIwasnotchanged.]
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks
SAVE OUR EARTH

We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

More details...

Sign Now!

We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!

x