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Linking technology choice with operation and maintenance in the context of community water supply and sanitation

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A document to help decision-makers from bilateral, multilateral, and governmental agencies to identify the most appropriate technology for water-supply or sanitation projects in their area. This guide contains information on a number of technologies including water sources and intakes, water-lifting devices, power systems, water treatment methods, storage and distribution methods, and sanitation technologies. Author: World Health Organization (WHO); Francois Brikké and Maarten Bredero Publication date: 2003 Link: PDF (Opens in a new window) File size: 2.39 MB Keywords: Implementation, Planning, Participatory Methods, Water Services, Technology, Policy Maker, Donor
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  137   Linking technology choicewith operation and maintenancein the context of community water supplyand sanitation  A REFERENCE DOCUMENTFOR PLANNERS AND PROJECT STAFF François Brikké and Maarten Bredero  World Health Organization and IRC Water and Sanitation CentreGeneva, Switzerland2003  WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication DataLinking technology choice with operation and maintenance in the context of community watersupply and sanitation: a reference document for planners and project staff / prepared by FrançoisBrikké and Maarten Bredero.1.Water supply2.Sanitation3.Water resources development4.Appropriate technology5.Maintenance – methods6.ManualsI.Brikké, FrançoisII.Bredero, MaartenIII.Water Supplyand Sanitation Collaborative Council.Operation and Maintenance Network.ISBN 92 4 156215 3(NLM classification: WA 675) © World Health Organization 2003 All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from Marketing and Dissemina-tion, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel: +41 22 791 2476; fax:+41 22 791 4857; email: bookorders@who.int). Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publica-tions – whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to Publications, at the aboveaddress (fax: +41 22 791 4806; email: permissions@who.int).The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression ofany opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country,territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lineson maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement.The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed orrecommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.The World Health Organization does not warrant that the information contained in this publication is complete andcorrect and shall not be liable for any damages incurred as a result of its use.Designed by minimum graphicsPrinted in Malta  CONTENTS Contents PrefacevAcknowledgementsvi 1.Introduction1 1.1The importance of operation and maintenance for water-supplyand sanitation technologies11.2Defining sustainability21.3Organization of the document – Fact Sheets5 2.The technology selection process6 2.1Introduction62.2Factors that influence the selection of community water-supply technology62.3The selection process for community water-supply technology82.4Factors that influence the selection of community sanitation technology102.5The selection process for community sanitation technology102.6Assessing O&M needs12 3.Water sources and intakes20 3.1Introduction203.2Rooftop rainwater harvesting213.3Catchment and storage dams233.4Springwater collection263.5Dug well293.6Drilled wells323.7Subsurface harvesting systems343.8Protected side intake363.9River-bottom intake383.10Floating intake393.11Sump intake41 4.Water-lifting devices43 4.1Introduction434.2Rope and bucket434.3Bucket pump454.4Rope pump474.5Suction plunger handpump494.6Direct action handpump514.7Deep-well diaphragm pump534.8Deep-well piston handpump554.9Centrifugal pump584.10Submersible pump604.11Hydraulic ram pump62 5.Power systems64 5.1Introduction645.2Windmills645.3Solar power system665.4Diesel generator68 iii  6.Water treatment71 6.1Introduction716.2Boiling756.3Household slow sand filter776.4Water chlorination at household level796.5Storage and sedimentation816.6Upflow roughing filter826.7Slow sand filtration846.8Chlorination in piped systems 7.Storage and distribution90 7.1Introduction907.2Concrete-lined earthen reservoir917.3Reinforced concrete reservoir937.4Elevated steel reservoir947.5Ferrocement tank967.6Public standpost987.7Domestic connection1007.8Domestic water meter 8.Sanitation103 8.1Introduction1038.2Improved traditional pit latrine1058.3Ventilated improved pit latrine1088.4Double-vault compost latrine1118.5Bored-hole latrine1138.6Pour-flush latrine1148.7Septic tank and aqua privy1178.8Vacuum tanker1198.9Manual pit emptying technology (MAPET)1228.10Soakaway1248.11Drainage field1258.12Small-bore sewerage system126 9.Bibliography129 LINKING TECHNOLOGY CHOICE WITH OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE iv
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