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Lope-Alzina 2010. Book - Gender relations and in situ conservation of agrobiodiversity

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Lope-Alzina 2010. Book - Gender relations and in situ conservation of agrobiodiversity
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    i Lope-Alzina, Diana Gabriela2010 Gender relations as a basis for varietal selection:women, men, and in situ conservation of agrobiodiversity inthe Yucatec-Maya agricultural system: Lambert Publishers,Germany. 120 p. This book examines the influence of gender relations and genderbounded production spaces on varietal selection of Yucatec Mayastaple crops maize (Zea mays L.) and squash (Cucurbita spp.) inthe village of Yaxcabá in the Yucatan Peninsula, Southeast   Mexico. Results indicate that the traditional production spaces of homegardens and agricultural fields (milpas) are complementary gendered domains of varietal maintenance for both crops although with different cropping patterns, while a'new' space, of land allocated to some families for future residential construction(terreno) is in the meantime a jointly worked agricultural domain. Women's labour,knowledge and preferences predominate in post-harvest processes such as foodprocessing and preparation. Fieldwork revealed that neither men nor women are   independent decision-makers, planning what to grow, where and in what amounts, butthat in most aspects of farming the interests of both are accommodated within thehousehold's production spaces. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TABLE OF CONTENTSACKNOWLEDGEMENTS IVLIST OF ACRONYMS V1 INTRODUCTION 11.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 21.1 Research topic ....................................................................................................... 41.3 Research problem and literature review ............................................................. 51.4 Research objectives .............................................................................................. 61.5 Conceptual framework for the research ............................................................. 62 RESEARCH STRATEGY AND CONTEXT 102.0 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 112.1 Selection criteria and sampling ......................................................................... 112.2 Methods and instruments for field data collection .......................................... 122.3 Limitations of the study ...................................................................................... 142.4 Nomenclature for cultivars ................................................................................. 142.5 Study site ............................................................................................................. 15    ii 2.6 The traditional agricultural system: the milpa ko'ol ........................................ 16 2.4.1 Agricultural fields ( milpas  ) ............................................................................... 172.4.2 Homegardens ( solares  ) .................................................................................. 172.4.3 Community plots ( terrenos  ) ............................................................................ 18 3 ENCOUNTERED MAIZE AND SQUASH DIVERSITY AND THE INTERACTIONAMONG PRODUCTION SPACES 193.0 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 203.1 Types of cultivated maize and squash varieties .............................................. 20 3.1.1 Landraces ....................................................................................................... 213.1.1.1Maize (Zea Mays L.) landraces ........................................................... 223.1.1.1 Squash (Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne ex Lam.), C. argyrospermaHuber, and C. pepo L.) landraces ................................................................... 223.1.2 Locally crossed populations ............................................................................ 233.1.3 Improved populations ..................................................................................... 23  3.2 Diversity encountered during the 2003 harvest season and reasons for itsmaintenance .......................................................................................................... 24 3.2.1 Maize .............................................................................................................. 243.2.1.1 Zea Mays L. Xnuk nal ....................................................................... 253.2.1.2 Zea Mays L. Xmejen nal ................................................................... 263.2.1.3 Zea Mays L. Imported group ............................................................. 273.2.1.4 Zea Mays L. 'Nal tel'.......................................................................... 273.2.1.5 Zea Mays L. Dzit bacal ..................................................................... 283.2.1.6 Zea Mays L. 'Nal tel' = 'Nal tel' X 'PR7822' ....................................... 293.2.2 Squash ............................................................................................................ 293.2.2.1 Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne ex Lam.) ‘Xnuk kuum’ .................... 303.2.2.2 Cucurbita argyrosperma Huber ‘Xtop’ .............................................. 313.2.2.3 C. pepo L. ‘Tzol’ ................................................................................ 313.2.2.4 Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne ex Lam.) ‘Xmejen kuum’ ................ 31 3.3 Encountered diversity: reasons to grow a given cultivar in a given space ... 31 3.3.1 Maize .............................................................................................................. 323.3.1.1 In homegardens ................................................................................ 333.3.1.2 In agricultural fields ........................................................................... 343.3.1.3 In community plots ............................................................................ 353.3.2 Squash ............................................................................................................ 353.3.2.1 In homegardens ................................................................................ 353.3.2.2 In agricultural fields ........................................................................... 363.3.2.3 In community plots ............................................................................ 37 3.4 Gender, cultivars and production spaces ......................................................... 37 3.4.1 Maize as a 'mainly male' crop? ....................................................................... 383.4.2 Squash as a 'both sexes' crop (with 'mainly female' cultivars) ........................ 39 3.5 Conclusions ......................................................................................................... 404 GENDER, VARIETAL SELECTION AND THE PRODUCTION-CONSUMPTION CHAIN424.0 Introduction 43    iii 4.1 The maize production-consumption chain and cultivar ranking .................... 46 4.1.1 Production related characteristics ................................................................... 484.1.2 Storage and preservation steps: a male-female comparison ......................... 484.1.3 Processing/food preparation steps: a male-female comparison ..................... 504.1.4 Final forms of consumption: a male-female comparison ................................ 52 4.2 The squash production-consumption chain and cultivar ranking ................. 54 4.2.1 Production related characteristics ................................................................... 544.2.2 Storage and preservation steps: a male-female comparison ......................... 544.2.3 Processing/food preparation steps: a male-female comparison ..................... 564.2.4 Final forms of consumption: a male-female comparison ................................ 57 4.3 Conclusions ........................................................................................................ 595 GENDER RELATIONS AND GENDER NORMS: DECISION MAKING ANDINFLUENCES IN VARIETAL SELECTION 615.0 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 625.1 Desires, decisions and requests about cultivars in production spaces:negotiations between men and women .............................................................. 63 5.1.1 Family 1 ......................................................................................................... 635.1.2 Family 2 ......................................................................................................... 645.1.3 Family 3 ......................................................................................................... 665.1.4 Family 4 ......................................................................................................... 675.1.5 Family 5 ......................................................................................................... 685.1.6 Family 6 ......................................................................................................... 695.1.7 Family 7 ......................................................................................................... 705.1.8 Family 8 ......................................................................................................... 71 5.2 Conclusions ........................................................................................................ 726 CONCLUSIONS 746.1 Conclusions .......................................................................................................... 75 6.1.1 Conclusions by research objectives and hypothesis ...................................... 756.1.2 Agroecology and the production-consumption chain ...................................... 776.1.3 Gender bias: three errors in research around maize and squash varietalselection in Mexico ......................................................................................... 80 6.2 Needs for further research................................................................................... 82BIBLIOGRAPHY 83APPENDIX 89    iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Special thanks to Prof. Patricia Howard from Wageningen University who supervised this   work and Dr. Devra Jarvis from Biodiversity International (IPGRI) who encouraged andsupported the implementation of this research piece as part of the in situ  conservation project   under her coordination.For the scholarship that made possible to pursue the MSc programe ‘Management ofAgroecological Knowledge Systems’ (MAKS) in the Netherlands and for fieldwork fundsprovided, i am indebted to the Institute of International Education (IIE) on behalf of the FordFoundation,to the International Development Research Centre (IDRC, Canada), and the   agency for Swiss Development Cooperation (SDC). In Mexico, i thank CINVESTAV-IPN, andespecially, the local families in the Yucatan that have provided the key elements to   understand how they have managed and conserved their biocultural system across millenia.To my beloved ones,Diana G. Lope-AlzinaCanterbury, UKApril 2010    v LIST OF ACRONYMS CINVESTAV IPN Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto PolitécnicoNacionalCIMMYT Centro International de Mejoramiento de Maíz y TrigoICBN International Code of Botanical NomenclatureICNCP International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated PlantsIPGRI International Plant Genetic Resources InstituteOPV Open pollinated varietiesQPM High protein/amino acid improved populations
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