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   Journal of  Environmental Management (2002) 64 , 261–272 doi:10.1006/jema.2001.0498, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on A hierarchic metric approach for integrationof green issues in manufacturing: a p aper recycling application Christian N. Madu * , Chuhua Kuei and Ifeanyi E. Madu Department of Management & Management Science, Lubin School of Business, Pace University,1 Pace Plaza, New York, NY 10038, USA Received 1 June 1998; accepted 3 July 2001 This paper presents a hierarchic framework for environmentally conscious design. The framework integrates both  product designers and stakeholders to evaluate not only the product features but also its environmental burden. Inevaluating the product’s burden, a life cycle assessment of the product is conducted through input-output analysisso that a comprehensive inventory of the product’s actions and reactions to the environment could be documented.The analytic hierarchy procedure (AHP) is used to develop priority indices for customer requirements to highlight key features t  hat must be present in the product. Subsequently, the quality function deployment is used to match designrequirements to customer requirements. A cost-effective design plan is then finally developed. This framework adoptsa systemic approach and ensures that environmentally conscious products are designed and m anufactured. 2002 Elsevier Science L td.  Keywords : Environmentally conscious manufacturing, green design, paper r  ecycling. Introduction There is a growing interest in e nvironmentally conscious manufacturing. The current focus on environmental manufacturing is different from the traditional focus on  pollution control. Here, the emphasis is on life cycle assessment. Prod- ucts or  processes are seen as interacting with the environment and could have chain reaction effect on environmental pollution. Thus, r  ather than looking at any  product or process in isola- tion, the manufacturer needs to adopt a cradle- to-grave approach of the  product or  process. For  example, how much energy is expended in unit  product manufacturing, how much resources a re used, and how much waste is created, what a re the  product requirements for transportation and distribution? These are not issues that product designers are accustomed to considering. T heir  Ł Corresponding author. Email: chrismadu@aol.com traditional role has been to look at the  p roduct  by itself and design products that meet specificguidelines and may be environmental  p ollution laws. Today’s focus is different. M anufacturers must take a  product stewardship approach and this will  predict their survival in today’s competi- tive environment. Ayers (1989) makes an a nalogy  between an industrial economy and an ecologi- cal system. He notes that all living things n eed food and energy to grow and as they dischargewastes, such wastes  become  part of the food chain. Thus, there is no waste actually incurred s ince this cyclic loop continues. In contrast, i ndustrial economies have generated a tremendous a mount of waste that is often not reused or properly dis-  posed of. Industrial societies are increasingly faced with the  problems of hazardous waste manage-ment, locating new landfills, and the depletion of raw materials. Rather than continuing with this cycle of waste and extravagance, Ayres (1989)  pro-  posed that industrial economies should find  better  ways to convert wastes from one industry into input 0301–4797/02/030261C12 $35.00/0 2002 Elsevier Science L td.  6 C. N. Madu et al  .  A hierarchic metric approach for integration 7 in another industry. This impliesi nterdependence between industrieswhere one industry’soutput could become another’s input. Thiscycle of d epen- dence or reuse of material is generally referred to as recycling andits goal is toeliminate o r reducewaste. Unfortunately,sometimes, it m ay not be t echnologicallyefficient to recycle all  pos- sible wastes;therefore, some form of  wastes m ay still be incurred. This notion of  minimizing wasteand, t hereby,  prolonging the life of raw materials is in the h eart of the United Nations BrundtlandReport of 1987. This report notes that ‘ the challenge faced by all is to achieve a sustainable worldeconomy where the needs of all the world’s people are met without compromising the ability of f  uture generations to meettheir needs’. This report calls for  sustainable development. Duncan (1992) defines sustainable development as an ‘ economic  policy, which t eaches that societycan make the appropriate allocation of resources betweenenvironmental m aintenance, consumption, and i nvestment’. To effectively designenvironmentallyconscious  products,there must  be a shift from the traditional design paradigm.Traditionally, the focushas  been on  buildingquality products that are reliable and cost effective. But the shift towards ‘ greenmanufacturing’ has introduced new dimensions in  product and  process design. As manufacturers focuson ways to effectivelydisassemble, r  ecover, and reuse materials,management of a  product’s life cycle has become increasinglyimportant (Dillion and Baram, 1991; Roy and Whelan, 1992; Dillion, 1994). The management of a  product through its life cycle is known as  product stewardship (Dillion and Baram, 1991). This concept isa ‘systematic companyefforts to reduce product risks to health and the environment over all the s ignificant segments of a  product life cycle’ andfocus on the following aspects of  environmentallyconscious manufacturing: (1)  Ease  of   r ecycling. (2) Evaluation of equipment design and material selection for e nvironmentability. (3) Environmental impact assessment of m anufac- turing  processes and  product designs. (4) Effectiveness of wastecollection systems. (5) Ease of  disassembly and reclamation of s craps. (6) Economics of  r  ecycling. (7) Safe disposal of  hazardous wastes and c ompo- nents. These issues  posenew challenges in designing for  environment, as manufacturers nowhave t o take a ‘ cradle to grave’ approach in managingtheir product life cycles.This also will revolutionize the traditional accounting practices of e valuating direct costs of  manufacturing designs since some aspects of  environmentalmanagement s ystems may not be easilyquantified in terms of  cost. There is a growingnumber of research projects in ‘green manufacturing’ butmany of these t end tofocus on thetechnical aspects of   product life cycle assessment(Navinchandra, 1991; Scott Mathews andLave, 1995) and failto integrate societal and consumer influence in design f  or  environmentability. This is akin to the era of quality controlwhen engineersdesigned w hat they  believed to  be suitable products and  p ushed them into the marketwithout gettingcustomers’involvement.Ultimately, these products failed because they failed tocapture what theconsumers  perceived to be of quality to them.Manufacturers thenrecognized throughthe application of  t otal qualitymanagement thatcustomers are t heir  most important assets and must  be  part of  a ny design strategy to ensure the acceptability of t heir   products. In this paper,therefore, we  present a frame- work that shows how customers  8 C. N. Madu et al  . or consumers can  playan integral part in environmentallyconscious manufacturing. The customers will work  with the manufacturer to come up withfinished products thatmeet their environmentalexpectations. An illustration of the application of this procedure in  paper recycling is  presented. In fact, current prac- tices amongmanufacturers show that they have indeedrecognized the need to integrate c onsumers and other major stakeholders in their design f  or  environment. The response  by automobilecom-  panies to produce cleaner carsis a reaction to increasing legislativeinitiatives to limit the emis- sion of carbon into the atmosphere.Other cases in  pointinclude collaborationagreements between McDonald’s and the EnvironmentalDefense Fund (EDF) that led to McDonald’sswitching from the useof  polystyrenecontainers torecyclable paper wrap to  package its fastfood  products in order  to reduce solid waste;collaboration between the Pacific Gas and Electric Company andthe  Natural ResourceDefense Council, and that between the  New England ElectricSystem and the C onserva- tion Law Foundation to developrecyclable energy supply systems. Researchbackground Environmental consciousness is increasingly,  becoming a fundamental part of the overall

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