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  MEDICAL TERMINOLOGIES -   Professional language of those who are directly or indirectly engaged in the art of healing -   Difficulties gradually disappear as students assimilate a working knowledge of the elements of medical terms , which in turn, enables them to analyze words etymologically and according to their meaning. -   Memorization  –  stepping stone to better understanding -   Primary Goal: to help develop the ability to read and understand the language of medicine -   Promoting knowledge on elements of medical terms, understanding standard abbreviations, being able to spell medical terms and appreciating the logical method found in analyzing medical terms BASIC CONCEPTS -   Majority of medical terms came from Greek and Latin ancestry; some from modern language like German and French -   Study of medical terminology can enrich one’s understanding of history, language, and medicine  -   Pronunciation of medical terms have no rigid rules  –  flexibility  –  different languages used -   Many medical terminologies are combinations of components from these ancient languages -   As vocabulary grows  – notice patterns  –  increased knowledge  –  recall and recognize easily and quickly -   Word building  –  misleading: take the word apart/break the word to better understand the word -   Not learned overnight KEY CONCEPTS 1.   ROOT OR BASE WORD -   Refers to the main body of the word -   May be accompanied by a prefix or suffix -   Example: adenoma Aden- (base/root) = gland -oma (suffix) = tumor Adenoma = gland tumor 2.   PREFIX -   One or two syllables or word parts placed before a word to modify or alter its meaning -   Example: hemigastrectomy Hemi (prefix) = half Gastr (base/root) = stomach -ectomy = removal or excision Hemigastrectomy = removal of the half of the stomach 3.   SUFFIX  -   One or two syllables or word parts attached at the end of a word to modify or alter its meaning -   Example: hysterectomy Hyster-(base/root) = uterus -ectomy = removal or excision Hysterectomy = removal of uterus 3.a. Suffix meaning one who    –  selected suffixes meaning  one who  include   –  er and   –  ist Example: Pathologist Path (root/base)  –  disease or morbid condition O (combining-form element, vowel) -logy (suffix) = science or study of -ist (suffix) = one who Pathologist = one who studies disease or morbid conditions 3.b. Suffix meaning  pertaining to    –  selected suffixes include -ac, -ic, -al, -eal, -ary, and –  ous Example: hemic Hem- (base/root) = blood -ic (suffix) = pertaining to Hemic = pertaining to blood 4.   COMBINING-FORM ELEMENT -   Results when a vowel, usually a, e, i, o, is added to a word root or base. The vowels used most commonly as combining-form elements are a, i, or o. -   The vowel is usually deleted from a combining-form when the next letter that follows is also a vowel Example: proctitis Procto- (combining form) = denoting relationship to the rectum -itis (suffix) = inflammation of Proctitis = correct combination Proctoitis = incorrect combination (o should be dropped) Proctitis = inflammation of the rectum 5.   COMPOUND WORDS -   Result when two or more root or base-word elements are used to form a word -   Usually adjectives or nouns are added to a root word to form compound words -   Compound words may include a combining form, a root or base word element, and a suffix or word ending Example: myocardiopathy Myo- (combining form element) = relationship to muscle Cardio- (combining-form element) = relationship to heart -pathy (suffix) = disease or morbid condition Myocardiopathy = disease of the heart muscle  *Caution and flexibility are required in breaking down terms Example: anemia -emia (suffix) = blood An- (prefix) = without, not Anemia = without blood In the strict sense, the term “anemia” may seem to mean no blood (absence or total lack of blood) rather than the attenuated quality of blood. When breaking down terms, it is more helpful to start the process by: a.   Beginning with the suffix b.   Proceed to the root or root and prefix TERMS PERTAINING TO THE BODY AS A WHOLE ANATOMIC DIVISIONS OF THE ABDOMEN Hypochondriac region (upper lateral regions beneath the ribs) -1 Epigastric region (region of the pit of the stomach)  –  2 Lumbar region (middle lateral regions)  –  4, 6 Umbilical region (region of the navel) - 5 Inguinal region (lower lateral regions)  –  7, 9 Hypogastric region (region below the umbilicus)  –  8 CLINICAL DIVISION OF THE ABDOMEN Upper right quadrant  –  URQ Upper left quadrant  –  ULQ Lower right quadrant  –  LRQ Lower left quadrant  –  LLQ ANATOMIC DIVISION OF THE BACK Cervical region  –  neck Thoracic region  –  chest Lumbar region  –  loin Sacral region  –  sacrum POSITION AND DIRECTION Afferent  –  conducting toward a structure Anterior or ventral  –  front of the body Central  –  toward the center Deep  –  away from the surface Distal or peripheral  –  away from the beginning of a structure; away from the center  Efferent  –  conducting away from a structure Inferior or caudal  –  away from the head; situated below another structure Intermediate  –  between medial and lateral Lateral  –  toward the side Medial  –  toward the median plane Median  –  in the middle of the structure Posterior or dorsal  –  back of the body Proximal  –  toward the beginning of a structure Superficial  –  near the surface Superior or cephalic  –  toward the head; situated above the another structure PLANES OF THE BODY Frontal or coronal  –  vertical plane parallel to coronal suture of the skull; divides body or structure into anterior and posterior portions Horizontal  –  plane parallel to the horizon Longitudinal  –  plane parallel to the long axis of the structure Median  –  lengthwise plane that divides the body or structure into right and left halves Sagittal  –  any vertical plane parallel to the sagittal suture of the skull and the median plane ANATOMIC POSITION -   Body is erect -   Eyes look straight to the front -   Upper limbs hang at the sides with palms facing forward -   Lower limbs are parallel with the toes pointing forward -   Whether the body lies face upward or downward, or in any other positions, the relationships of structure are always described as if the body were in the anatomic position BODY CAVITIES -   Human’s internal organs are called visceral   organs; located within specific cavities Two Main Cavities 1.   Dorsal Cavity 1.1.   Cranial cavity  – holds the brain 1.2.   Spinal cavity  –  spinal cord and is protected by secretions of the vertebrae 2.   Ventral Cavity 2.1.   Thoracic cavity  –  lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea and thymus gland 2.2.   Abdominopelvic cavity 2.2.1.   Abdominal cavity  – stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, most of the large and small intestines 2.2.2.   Pelvic cavity  –  remaining portions of the large and small intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs 3.   Oral cavity  –  teeth and tongue


Oct 7, 2019
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