Michael Shishman of Bulgaria

Mihajlo Sisman
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  Michael Shishman of Bulgaria From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Michael III ShishmanTsar (mperor! of ulgaria Silver coin of Michael Shishman#$eign%&'&%&&) ornafter %'*)+ied&% July %&&)lace of death-el.a/hdredecessor0eorge Terter IISuccessorIvan Stephan1onsort2nna 3edaTheodora alaiologinaIssueIvan Stephan Michael ShishmanFatherShishman of -idinMichael 2sen III ( ulgarian: 456758 9;< III, Mihail 2sen III, commonly called Michael Shishman (456758 =5>?7<, Mihail @iAman!!,aBCD ruled as emperor (tsar! of ulgaria from %&'& to %&&)# The eEact year of his .irth is unknon .ut it as .eteen %'*) and %'G'# He as the founder of the last ruling dynasty of the Second ulgarian mpire, the Shishman dynasty# 2fter he as croned, hoever, Michael used the name 2sen to emphasi/e his connection ith the 2sen dynasty, the first one to rule over the Second mpire#2n energetic and am.itious ruler, Michael Shishman led an aggressive .ut opportunistic and inconsistent foreign policy against the y/antine mpire and the ingdom of Ser.ia, hich ended in the disastrous .attle of -el.a/hd hich claimed his on life# He as the last medieval ulgarian ruler ho aimed at military and political hegemony of the ulgarian mpire over the alkans and the last one ho attempted to sei/e 1onstantinople# He as succeeded .y his son Ivan Stephen and later .y his nephe Ivan 2leEander, ho reversed his policy .y forming an alliance ith Ser.ia#B%D$ise to the throneBeditD orn .eteen %'*)B'D and %'G'B%D Michael Shishman as the son of the despot Shishman of -idin .y an unnamed daughter of the se.astokrator eter and 2nna (Theodora!, herself daughter of Ivan 2sen II (r# %'%*%'K%! and Irene omnene of pirus# He as also a distant cousin of his predecessors on the ulgarian throne, Theodore Svetoslav (r# %&))%&'%! and 0eorge Terter II (r# %&'%%&''!# 2fter the peace   .eteen his father and Stefan Milutin in %'G', Michael Shishman as engaged to MilutinLs daughter 2nna 3eda and they married in %'G* or %'GG#B&DSince the middle of the %&th century, the area of -idin had .een autonomous under ineffective ulgarian overlordship, and as ruled successively .y akov Svetoslav (died %'NO!, Shishman (died .eteen %&)* and %&%&!, and then Michael Shishman# Shishman and his son received the high courtly title of despotPs from their cousin Theodore Svetoslav and the latter as referred to in a contemporary -enetian source as a +espot of ulgaria and Qord of -idin#B&D With the death of the Ser.ian king Stefan Milutin, Michael Shishman as a.le to follo a more active policy in the ulgarian capital Tarnovo# He soon .ecame a leading no.le in the internal affairs of the country and, on thechildless death of young 0eorge Terter II in %&'&, Michael Shishman as elected emperor of ulgaria .y the no.ility#BKD 2ccording to some historians he as chosen  .ecause he as a descendant of the 2sen dynasty and interpret his ascenion to the thronenot as the .eginning of a ne dynasty .ut rather as a continuation of the House of 2sen#BRD His half.rother, elaur, succeeded him as despot of -idin#BOD2ntiSer.ian campaign and Ser.ian vassalageBeditD The medieval a.a -ida castle in -idin, the capital of ShishmanLs semiindependent realmncouraged .y 3ogai, in %'G' Shishman launched a maor campaign against Milutin, his Ser.ian neigh.our to the est# Thanks to the support of Tatar mercenaries, ShishmanLs forces raided deeply into Ser.ian territory and reached Hvosno in osovo# 2fter attempting to conuer the fortress of Udrelo near eV to no availB*D and .urning the Uia monastery, ShishmanLs troops returned to -idin ithout any territorial gains#B%%D MilutinLs response to ShishmanLs act of aggression as much more successful# His counterattack resulted in Ser.ian forces reaching -idin and capturing ShishmanLs capital after a .rief siege# The despot, hoever, managed to escape north of the +anu.e to the safety of his Tatar su/erains#BRDB*DInstead of anneEing ShishmanLs lands, Milutin reinstalled Shishman as the despot of -idin and concluded an alliance ith him# To confirm the alliance, Shishman married the daughter of Ser.ian 0rand rince +ragoA# The future marriage of ShishmanLs son and future ulgarian emperor Michael Shishman (r# %&'&%&&)! to MilutinLs daughter 2nna  3eda as also arranged at the time ith the intention of further sealing the union#B*DBGD Itis uite apparent that ShishmanLs unlikely reinstallment in -idin and alliance ith Ser.ia ere dictated .y 3ogai, as at the same time Ser.ia also came under Tatar dependence# Milutin as even forced to send his son Stephen +eanski into captivity in order to  prevent a Tatar attack#BRDB%%D2lthough ShishmanLs realm as nominally a Ser.ian client state for an unknon time, heretained his prior semiindependence and he as completely in charge of his lands# He maintained good relations ith ulgaria and, according to 2ndreev, his political activity  as mainly concentrated in dealing ith ulgaria#BRD He also retained his close ties ith  3ogai and his descendants# In %&)%%&)', Shishman provided political refuge to several of 3ogaiLs relatives, including his grandson Xaraesek, ho fled to -idin along ith a &,)))strong cavalry and remained there until after %&'R# These Tatar no.les ere fleeingfrom the persecution of the ne khan, Tota, ho had defeated and murdered 3ogai in %'GG%&))#B%)D 1ontrary to 2ndreevLs opinion, Fine .elieves that the death of 3ogai increased Ser.iaLs influence over -idin#B%'DShishman died in the early %Kth century .ut .efore %&)*BRD or %&%&#B%&D He as succeeded as ruler of -idin .y his son Michael, ho in %&'& as elected to the ulgarianthrone due to the childless death of mperor 0eorge Terter II (r# %&'%%&''!# esides Michael, ShishmanLs other progeny included elaur, another despot of -idin, and eratsaetritsa, the mother of ulgarian emperor Ivan 2leEander (r# %&&%%&N%!#BRD ulgarian historian Ivan o/hilov classifies all of ShishmanLs knon children as descendants of the 2sen dynasty, thus indicating that they ere .orn to his first ife, the daughter of 2nna Theodora#B%KD The descendants of Shishman of -idin, knon collectively as the Shishman dynasty, ruled the Second ulgarian mpire from %&'& until it as ultimately su.ugated .y the Yttomans at the turn of the %Rth century#B%RD
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