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    ! #$% &$%' ) *+ ! ,* -. %) /0+&,/ ! ),/%$#,$!$1' *2 - % 3,&$!$1' -456 7 LABORATORY SAFETY RULES The rules enumerated below shall be strictly enforced. The main objectives of these sets of rules are to avoid dangers of infection that may arise from the neglect of these necessary precautions. Each one must note that by neglecting any of these rules, one not only put grave risk to himself but also exposes others to infection. 1.   Read instructions carefully and thoroughly before coming to the laboratory. Know what to expect to learn through each laboratory experiment and what you are going to do in an experiment. This keep you informed and can prevent accidents that occur when students are unprepared for laboratory. If you are in doubt about correct procedures, double check the instructions and ask you laboratory instructor. 2.   Each student is obliged to wear a laboratory gown or coat while working in the laboratory. This will be used in the Bacteriology Laboratory and properly kept in the student’s locker. Gowns and coats should never be laid on the working tables. With dirty, it should be properly wrapped before washing. 3.   While working in the laboratory, avoid touching the mouth with the pencils, even with your fingers and other materials used. DO NOT  moistens labels with your lips or tongue. 4.   All accidents such as burns or abrasions and cuts as well as pillage of cultures and breakages or loss of equipment should be immediately reported to the laboratory instructor. 5.   Eating and drinking are absolutely forbidden at all times in the laboratory. DO NOT  drink from the laboratory glassware. If one wishes to take a drink or snack, you are at liberty to leave the laboratory for a short time, but before leaving, your hands should be properly washed. Never go into an eating place wearing your coat or laboratory gown. 6.   Each group should provide themselves with a plastic cover/manila paper. At the time beginning of the laboratory period, the plastic should be done on this plastic cover. The contaminated surface should be immediately cleaned with disinfectant solution. 7.   All non-infectious solid wastes like paper, cotton, matchsticks, etc should be placed in waste bags provided for that purpose. These are NOT  to be discarded    ! #$% &$%' ) *+ ! ,* -. %) /0+&,/ ! ),/%$#,$!$1' *2 - % 3,&$!$1' -456 8 on the table tops, sinks, much less on the floor. AT ALL TIMES, THE LABORATORY SHOULD BE KEPT CLEAN AND NEAT. 8.   Laboratory equipment which had been used in handling infective materials such as test tubes, Petri dishes, beakers, flasks, pipettes should be discarded into discard pans with disinfectant solutions. 9.   Cultures either stock or those finished experiments should NOT be left on table tops nor thrown into the sinks. They are to be returned immediately to the technician for proper sterilization and disposal. Cultures are NOT to be taken out of the laboratory without permission from the laboratory instructor. 10.   LOITERING, MAKING UNNECESSARY NOISE AND BORROWING EQUIPMENT FROM OTHER GROUPS WILL NOT BE TOLERATED. 11.   At the end of the laboratory period, return all apparatus and microscopes to the technician’s room, moisten your desktop with disinfectant and clean your surroundings. Turn off any leaking gas or water outlets. 12.   WASH YOUR HANDS THOROUGHLY WITH SOAP AND WATER.    ! #$% &$%' ) *+ ! ,* -. %) /0+&,/ ! ),/%$#,$!$1' *2 - % 3,&$!$1' -456 9 I.   Objectives: !   The student must be able to recognized and know the function of the different parts of the compound microscope and it’s usage in microbiology laboratory. !   The student must be able to examine & visualize prepared slide under low power objective, high power objective & oil immersion objective. II.   Introduction: The microorganisms are miniscule organism which cannot be seen with the naked eye. In order to visualize them, a tool called “ the microscope”   is necessary. The microscope is an essential tool for any microbiology laboratory and one of the most important instruments in the study of microorganisms. It is essential that the student should know the proper use of the microscope, its different parts & functions. Bacterial identification and classification are based in cell forms and structures visible only under high magnification and resolution. III.   Glossary of terms: Magnification of the microscope is the product of the objective multiplied by the magnification of the eye piece. Resolving power  refers to the ability to distinguish between two adjacent points. Low power objective (LPO) 10x objective power and 100x magnification. High power objective (HPO) 40x objective power and 400x magnification. Oil-immersion objective (OIO) 100x objective power and 1000x magnification. Parfocal is a property of the microscope where the objectives are so adjustment and are fitted so that if even either objective is swung into place, the image remains in focus or nearly focused as to require only fine adjustment manipulation. ! #$%&'$()    +   ,&-%./-.#01 23$ 4.'#.5(6 ,&-%./-.#$      ! #$% &$%' ) *+ ! ,* -. %) /0+&,/ ! ),/%$#,$!$1' *2 - % 3,&$!$1' -456 : IV.   Materials: 1.   Compound microscope 2.   Prepared Slides 3.   Xylene or xylol 4.   Cedarwood oil V.   Procedures: A. Use & Care of Microscope The student can only really benefit from the use of microscope if he knows very well the parts of the microscope, its capacity and limitations, its correct operation and its proper use and care. The following are important points to observe whenever using the microscope. 1.   Carry the microscope with two hands—one hand grasping the handle and the other hand supporting the from under. DO NOT  carry the microscope with only one hand, much less, swing it back and forth as you go to the table. The eye piece and other parts may fall out or the microscope may hit a table or chair. Avoid sudden jarring when you place the microscope on the table. 2.   Always use the microscope with the tube in the perpendicular position. This is to be strictly followed in the working with fresh mounts, hanging drop preparations and smears being examined under the OIO. The oil and other fluids of wet mounts tend to flow into the stage in the titled position, dirtying the stage if NOT  actually contaminating it. 3.   Keep the microscope free from the dust at all times. One must acquire the habit of cleaning the microscope before and after using it. The body if the microscope is wiped cleans with a piece of clean dry cloth while the lenses are wiped clean with the use of lens paper. If any of the objectives or the stage is smeared with oil, use lens paper with xylene. An excess of xylol may, however, dissolve cement and loosen other parts of the microscope. 4.   Carry the microscope with two hands – one hand grasping the handle and the other hand supporting the from under. DO NOT  carry the microscope with only one hand, much less swing it back and forth as you go to the table. The eye piece and other parts may fall out or the microscope may hit a table or a chair. Avoid sudden jarring when you place the microscope on the table.
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