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Migration as disaster relief : lessons from the Great Irish Famine

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Mass emigration was one key feature of the Great Irish Famine which distinguishes it from today's famines. By bringing famine victims to overseas food supplies, it undoubtedly saved many lives. Poverty traps prevented those most in need from
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    Provided by the author(s) and University College Dublin Library in accordance with publisher policies. Pleasecite the published version when available.Downloaded 2016-04-14T09:28:57Z   Some rights reserved. For more information, please see the item record link above.  Title Migration as disaster relief : lessons from the Great IrishFamine Author(s) Ó Gráda, Cormac; O'Rourke, Kevin H. PublicationDate 1997-04 Publicationinformation European Review of Economic History, 1 (1): 3-25 Publisher Cambridge University Press Link topublisher'sversion http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1361491697000026http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayIssue?jid=ERE&volumeId=1&issueId=01# Itemrecord/moreinformation http://hdl.handle.net/10197/431 DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1361491697000026  European Review of Economic History,  I, 3-25. © 1997  Cambridge University Press Migration  as  disaster  relief:  Lessons fromthe Great Irish Famine CORMAC  6  GRADAf  AND  KEVIN  H.  O'ROURKE^ f  and   Department of Economics, University  College  Dublin,  Bellfield,  Dublin 4,  Ireland Mass emigration was  one key  feature  of  the Great Irish Famine whichdistinguishes  it  from today's famines. By bringing famine victims  to overseas food supplies,  it  undoubtedly saved many lives. Poverty trapsprevented those most  in  need from availing  of  this form  of relief,  however.Cross-county data show that  the  ratio  of  emigration  to  deaths  was  higherin richer than  in  poorer counties. Another key feature  of  the Famineemigration was that  it  was irreversible.  The  Famine thus  had a  permanentimpact  on  Ireland's population  and  economy, whereas typically faminesonly reduce population  in a  transitory fashion. Famine emigration spurredpost-Famine emigration  by  eliminating poverty traps;  the  result was  a sustained decline  in the  Irish population,  and a  convergence  of  livingstandards both within Ireland  and  between Ireland  and the  rest  of  theworld. 1.  Introduction Mass long-distance emigration from Ireland did not begin with the Great IrishFamine.  Yet the  outflow was greatly swollen  by  that famine,  and  this distin-guishes the Irish  crisis  from most historical and modern Third World famines.The migration  was the  product  of  the United States' open door policy  and Ireland's being part  of  the United Kingdom.  No  similar prospect  is  open  to modern famine-threatened  economies.  The distinction  raises  many questionsabout the character  and  scope of the famine migration  and  its effectiveness  as a complement  to,  or  substitute  for, the  lack of other forms of famine  relief. All famines induce people  to  move temporarily  in  search  of  food  and in order  to  escape disease. Much  of  the movement  is  from rural areas into  the towns,  and  when  the  worst is over most of the migrants usually return home(Sen 1981,  pp. 98,  205; Watkins  and  Menken 1985,  p. 652;  Findley 1994).Some  of  the migration during  the  Great Irish Famine followed this pattern,as cities  and  bigger towns were swollen  by the  arrival of thousands of largelyunwelcome famine migrants seeking relief  or  work.  The  huge increasebetween  1841 and 1851 in the  percentage  of  Dubliners born outside  of Dublin (from  27 to 39 per  cent)  was  largely  the  result  of  the Great Famine.The inflow into  the  cities provoked  its own  problems  and  responses.  European Review of Economic History However, a distinction must be made between such 'local', largelytemporary, movements and permanent long-distance migration. A crucialdifference between the Great Irish Famine and most other famines is that formany of the Irish poor in the 1840s, mass emigration provided a welcomesafety-valve. As explained in more detail later, estimates of Irish famine-induced emigration can be only approximate, but famine emigrants cer-tainly numbered more than half of the one and a half million or so who leftIreland for good between the mid-i84os and the early 1850s. The number ofIrish-born persons living abroad more than doubled in that period, and thenumber in the United States and Canada probably increased by more thanthat.The famine migration occurred just before steamships won out over sailon the north Atlantic route. A great deal has been written about the terribleconditions and high mortality endured by Ireland's 'economic refugees' onthe long crossing (e.g. Scally 1995, ch. 10), but what such accounts hide isthe reality that most Irish emigrants made it safely to the other side duringthe famine years. Raymond Cohn (1984, 1987) has inferred migrantmortality on the passage between Europe and New York between 1836 and1853 from a sample of contemporary passenger lists. What is most remark-able about his findings is that neither the Irish as a group nor the famineyears stand out; the record of German ships in 1847 and 1848 was muchworse, and curiously 1849, not 1847, produced the highest mortality overall.Cholera was presumably responsible for the high mortality in 1849. In Table1 Irish ports and Liverpool represent Irish emigrants. While the death rateout of Liverpool was higher in 1847-8 than in 1845-6, the mean mortalityrate was still less than 2 per cent. Whether the high mortality out of Irishports in 1852 reflects a 'rogue' small sample (two ships) deserves further Table 1.  Mortality on New-York bound  ships,  1847-53. Year184518461847184818491850185118521853 (a) Irish ports MR—-1.332.743.361.160.673-590.62 Obs. —-55 14 7 162 5 (b) Liverpool MR0.760.91i-731.363-33i-541.280.881.73 Obs. 13 18 17 3447 50 786754 (c) France MR0.611.180.83i-351.740.550.790.741.30 Obs. 8 11 6 11 73 121618 (d) Germany MR0.961.073-773.361.514.411.050.55I.OI Obs. 513 5 2 8385 27 (e) London MR3-571.281.091.040.56I.89O.520.961.23 Obs. 1 53 212 8 1210 Source:  Grada (1995a), based on data supplied by Raymond Cohn. Note:  MR = mortality rate, Obs. = number of ships.  Migration as disaster  relief:  Lessons from  the Great Irish Famine  5checking. Other data, it is true, highlight 'Black 1847', and mortality amongpoorer passengers who chose ships bound for Maritime and Canadiandestinations (who accounted for nearly half of the Irish who crossed theAtlantic in Black '47, but only 10-15 per cent thereafter) was much higherthan those bound for New York. Cohn's numbers exclude ships that sank orturned back and unrecorded deaths on board. Nor do they include deaths inthe wake of arrival. Still, his results suggest that Mokyr's assessment of theoverall death rate on the north Atlantic passage - 'five per cent of the totaloverseas migration at the most' - is not far from the truth (Mokyr 1985, pp.267-8). In the sometimes chaotic circumstances, the outcome is an impress-ive achievement.On arrival, the prospects facing the typical Irish immigrant were unskilledlabour and slum accommodation in the big cities. Yet surely the funda-mental comparative point to make here is that most migrants survived thepassage and that many of today's famine victims would welcome suchprospects in North America, Japan, or western Europe.The power of migration to reduce famine mortality depended in part onthe extent to which a poverty trap operated: the really poor, who were mostvulnerable during the famine, and who most needed to emigrate, were lesslikely to be able to afford the voyage than their better-off neighbours. In fact,several considerations suggest that emigration may have provided a moreeffective safety valve than would be possible today. First, it occurred duringthat 'liberal interlude' when the international movement of labour was freerthan ever before or since. Second, it occurred at a time when long-distancetravel by sea was relatively cheap. A steerage passage from Ireland to Britaincould be had for a few shillings and to one of the Canadian maritime ports -the least expensive transatlantic route - for a few pounds. True, £3 or  £4 still amounted to one-third or one-half of an unskilled worker's yearly wagesor a similar fraction of pre-famine income per capita (compare Mokyr 1985, p.  10), and this must have ruled out long-distance migration for the mostdestitute; but long-distance travel for the poorest of the poor is relativelymore expensive today. Even the cheapest one-way fares from Addis Ababa,Mogadishu or Khartoum to London or New York are multiples of incomeper capita in Ethiopia, Somalia or Sudan, rather than fractions, as was truein the Irish case. Nonetheless, and in particular despite the possibility of verycheap fares to Britain, a poverty trap did probably prevent emigration frombeing an efficient form of famine  relief.  Section  3  tries to verify this intuitionusing the available cross-county data, and speculates on the contributionwhich emigration  did  make to reducing excess mortality during the famine.Long-distance emigration differs from famine relief in another crucialrespect: it may well be irreversible. In modern famines, food is shipped tothe hungry, and when famine retreats, outside food shipments cease. In theIrish case, the hungry went to where the food was, and they never returned.The famine thus had a permanent impact on the Irish economy, whereas  European Review of Economic History other famines leave a more transitory imprint on the societies which theyafflict. Section 4 deals at length with the long run demographic andeconomic consequences of  the  Irish famine emigration. 2.  Poverty and population on the eve of the Famine A few remarks first on the Great Famine's context. How did Irish incomes inthe early 1840s compare with those in the Third World today? Only thecrudest answer is possible. However, Irish economic historians believe thataverage income in Ireland just before the famine was somewhat less thanhalf of that in Great Britain, and British economic historians estimate thatincomes in Britain have increased eight- or tenfold between then and now.In the late 1980s, moreover, the average purchasing power of incomes inEthiopia was about 2.8 per cent of Great Britain's, and in Somalia about 6.6per cent (Summers and Heston 1991, Table 2). Taken together, thesenumbers indicate that Irish living standards on the eve of  the  Great Faminelay somewhere between those of Ethiopia and of Somalia a few years ago,though closer to Somalia's (6 Grada 1995).Much of the recent discussion about the Irish economy before the famineseeks to answer the question, 'Was Malthus Right?'. In 1817, Malthus wrote,in a letter to Ricardo, that 'the land in Ireland is infinitely more peopled thanin England; and to give full effect to the natural resources of the country agreat part of the population should be swept away from the soil'. 1  Insubsequent decades the notion that Ireland's poverty was a result ofoverpopulation took a firm hold in British policy-making circles. 2  Politically,the Irish famine and Irish emigration have to be viewed in the context of thisdebate, and when the famine struck many intellectuals regarded it as aninevitable consequence of Ireland's failure to adopt preventive checks (suchas emigration, or a lowering of the fertility rate). This belief clearlyinfluenced the British government's attitude towards famine relief duringthe crisis. Nonetheless, whether ecological disasters such as the havocwreaked by the potato blight in Ireland in the 1840s or the volcanic eruptionwhich resulted in the deaths of one third of Iceland's population in the 1780sshould be regarded as Malthusian checks is a moot point. The mini-famineswhich affected Ireland before 1845 are much more plausible candidates.Mokyr's (1985) classic analysis of Irish poverty on the eve of the famineexploited the county-level data offered by a range of pre-famine social andstatistical surveys. The thirty-two counties provided a convenient cross-section for econometric analysis, just large enough for conventional statis-tical inference. To his surprise Mokyr failed to find any strong connection 1  Cited in Mokyr (1985, p. 38). 2  Ireland's population grew  from  five  million  circa  1800 to 8.2 m. in 1841 (Mokyr and 6Grada, 1984).
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