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Module Eight Leading

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Module Eight LEADING Contemporary Management Module Eight Leading This module first explains the nature of leadership, then defines power and its relationship to leadership. After looking briefly at early trait models of leadership, it examines in more detail behavioral approaches. This module second explores the topic of employee motivation in details. It examines the nature of motivation. Then it defines motivation theories . It continues by discussing reinforcement processes and concludes
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    LL EEAADDIINNGG  Module Eight      Module Eight   Productivity and Quality InstituteContemporary Management   L eading T his module first explains the nature of leadership, then defines power and its relationship toleadership. After looking briefly at early trait models of leadership, it examines in more detailbehavioral approaches. T his module second explores the topic of employee motivation in details. It examines thenature of motivation. T hen it defines motivation theories. It continues by discussingreinforcement processes and concludes with a summary of how reward systems affectmotivation. Module Objectives    D efine leadership, indicate the difference between leadership and management,and identify the challenges of leadership.    D iscuss leadership behaviors and compare and contrast the Michigan and Ohiostudies with contemporary views.    Explain what motivation is and why managers need to be concerned about it.    D escribe from the perspectives of expectancy theory what managers should do tohave a highly motivated workforce. Module Outlines T he Nature of Leadership «««««««««««««««««««««««««.. 2 T he Challenges of Leadership «««««««««««««««««««««««««. 3Power and leadership ««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 4Leadership T raits «««««««««««««.«««««««««««««««« 6Leadership Behaviors ««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 7 T he Nature of Motivation «««««««««««««««««««««««««. 10Motivation T heories «««««««««««««««««««««««««««.. 12Reinforcement Process ««««««««««««««««««««««««««. 21Schedules of Reinforced «««««««««««««««««««««««««« 23Reward Systems and Motivation ««««««««««««««««««««««. 24Case Studies ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 27    Module Eight   Productivity and Quality InstituteContemporary Management   T he Nature of Leadership Leadership is the ability to influence and to motivate others to achieve organizational goals. T he leadership process involves using authority to help determine group or organizationalgoals, motivating organization members to work toward achieving those goals, andinfluencing group dynamics and organizational culture. A leader is someone who advancesorganizational goals by influencing the attitudes and actions of others. Leadership andmotivation go hand-in-hand ; just as employees draw inspiration from leaders, leaders are notconsidered leaders unless they can motivate others. Generally, organizational leadership is acontinuous process rather than a one-time event, providing the means to one end:performance. T he reason leaders at any organizational level (with or without formalauthority) are able to influence people to perform is that leadership is related to power. 1  Leadership Activity ManagementEstablishing direction andvision for the organizationCreating an agendaPlanning and budgeting,allocating resourcesAligning people throughcommunications andactions that providedirection D eveloping a humannetwork for achieving theagendaOrganizing and staffing,structuring andmonitoringimplementationMotivating and inspiringby satisfying needsExecuting plansControlling and problemsolvingProduces useful changeand new approaches tochallengesOutcomesProduces predictabilityand order and attainsresults 2   T able 1: Leadership Versus Management Leadership Styles across Cultures Some evidence suggests that leadership styles vary not only among individuals but alsoamong countries or cultures. Some research suggests that European managers tend to bemore humanistic or people oriented than both Japanese and American managers. T hecollectivistic culture in Japan places prime emphasis on the group rather than the individual,so the importance of individuals' own personalities, needs, and desires is minimized.Organizations in the United States tend to be very profit oriented and thus tend to downplay    Module Eight   Productivity and Quality InstituteContemporary Management   the importance of individual employees' needs and desires. Many countries in Europe have amore individualistic perspective than Japan and a more humanistic perspective than theUnited States, which may result in some European managers being more people orientedthan their Japanese or American counterparts. European managers, for example, tend to bereluctant to lay off employees, and when a layoff is absolutely necessary, they take carefulsteps to make it as painless as possible. 3  Another cross-cultural difference that has been noted is in time horizons. Managers in anyone country often differ in their time horizons but there also may be cultural differences. U.S.organizations tend to have a short-run profit orientation, which results in U.S. managers'personal leadership styles emphasizing short-run performance. Japanese organizations tendto have a long-run growth orientation, which results in Japanese managers' personalleadership styles emphasizing long-run performance. T he Challenges of Leadership In order to fulfill others' expectations of them, leaders must confront numerous challenges. Inlarge measure, the success of any leader depends on his or her ability to address thesechallenges in a way that people will accept. Although any number of challenges areinherent in a given situation, three are relatively constant: multiple constituencies, unpopular decisions, and diversity. Multiple Constituencies : Satisfying multiple constituencies means that the leader mustattempt' to deal with several different people and groups at the same time in away that isrelatively acceptable to every party. T his concern is compounded by the fact that thedifferent constituencies often desire conflicting things from the organization. Employeesmay demand higher wages, while stockholders desire bigger dividends. U npopular Decisions: Hand in hand with the notion of multiple constituencies is the simplefact that leaders occasionally have to make decisions that are unpopular, at least amongsome of their constituents. Diversity: Managers and leaders are both becoming more diverse as a group and arehaving to deal with groups that are composed of more diverse members than in the past.Organizations can gain a great deal by taking advantage of the skills such diverse groupspossess, but if organizations are not careful, they could also alienate members of thesediverse groups and suffer rather than gain from the increasingly diverse labor forceworldwide.
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