MusculoSkeletal System

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  Muscular - Skeletal System (Locomotor System)  Functions    It gives support and shape to the body    It protects the internal organs    It helps with the body movements    Red blood cells production    Storage of fats and minerals Parts  1.   Bones 2.   Joints 3.   Tendons 4.   Ligaments 5.   Cartilage 6.   Muscles Skeletal System   Bone  –  is a tough structure in the body that is made up of connective tissues surrounded by minerals. Consist of a set of 206 bones . Babies have more than 300 bones.   Functions      It provides structural support or framework for the entire body.    Stores fats and minerals like calcium    Produce blood cells: Red blood cells, White blood cells, and other blood elements    Protect body organs    Provides leverage and movements 2 Parts of the skeletal system 1.   Axial Skeleton  –   Supports and protects organs in the body.  a.   Skull 8  Cranium bones - Protects the brain 14  Facial Bones  b.   Rib cage (Thoracic)  –  compose of 25 bones (12 pairs of ribs + 1 sternum), protects the heart and lungs.  c.   Vertebral Column (Spinal Column)  –   protects the spinal cord and supports the head (irregular bones) 33 bones (24 unfused + 9 fused)  i.   7 Cervical Vertebrae (make up the neck)  ii.   12 Thoracic Vertebrae (chest section, ribs attached)  iii.   5 Lumbar Vertebrae iv.   9 (Sacral Vertebrae + Coccyx) 2.   Appendicular Skeleton - comprises 126 bones and is involved in locomotion and manipulation of objects in the environment. a.   Pectoral Girdle  i.   Scapula  –  shoulder blade ii.   Clavicle  –  collar bone b.   Pelvic Girdle (Pelvis)  –  supports the lower part of the body and aid the movement of the legs. i.   Hip Bones ii.   Sacrum iii.   Coccyx c.   Upper extremities i.   Humerus    –  Upper arm ii.   Radius & Ulna    –  Lower arm Humerus Radius Ulna Clavicle Scapula  iii.   Hand ( 54  bones) 1.   16  Carpals (wrist) 2.   10  Metacarpals 3.   28  Phalanges (fingers) d.   Lower Extremities i.   Femur    –  Thighs, longest bone ii.   Patella    –  Knees iii.   Fibula & Tibia    –  Legs iv.   Feet and Ankles  ( 52  bones) 1.   14  Tarsals (Ankles) 2.   10  Metatarsals 3.   28  Phalanges (toes) Structure of Bones Calcium & Phosphorus    –  Makes the bones hard and strong 2 layers of Bone 1.   Compact Bone    –  hard, provides strength and protection. Gives smooth, white, and solid appearance. 2.   Spongy Bone    –  fills the interior of the bone, contains bone marrow. a.   Bone Marrow    –  produces all three types of blood cells in the body, and lymphocytes  which supports the immune system.  Yellow Marrow    –  stores fats Joints Joints  –   is formed when two bones meet each joint is designed for specific movement, except for the joint in the skull which is immovable. Three types of Joints 1.   Fibrous  (Immovable)  –  Skull joint 2.   Cartilagenous  (Partially moveable)  –  Disc of spinal column 3.   Synovial  (Freely moveable) 6 Types of Synovial Joint 1.   Pivot Joint    –  rotation around lengthwise axis a.   Legs, Neck, and wrist 2.   Ball and socket joint    –  movement in all directions a.   Shoulder, and hips 3.   Hinge joint    –  flexion and extension along single axis a.   Elbow, knee, ankle, jaw 4.   Condyloid joint    –  can move two axes a.   Wirst 5.   Saddle joint    –  condyloid, but wider range a.   Thumb 6.   Gliding joint    –  narrow range, plane joint a.   Feet Tendons    –  are tough connective tissues which connects the muscles to the bone. Ligaments    –  are connective tissues that can stretch Cartilage  –  serves as a protective cushioning layer where bones come together.  Muscular System Muscles    –  allows the body to move (650 muscles), movement, gives form to the body Three types of muscles Cardiac muscles    –  involuntary muscles, only found in the heart, specialized to pump blood Smooth muscles    –  involuntary muscles, covers the hollow walls of many organs such as esophagus, bronchi, uterus, and stomach. Skeletal Muscles    –  voluntary muscles or striated, attached to the bones by tendons providing movement Integumentary System
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