Nadishastra a History of Indian Medical Literature Vol IIA Text G Jan Meulenbeld

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  420 9 Miscellanea lakara, 127 Rāyarnukuŗa, 12 8 Sivadāsasena, 129 Srīdāsapaņc; ita, 13 Srīkaņŗhadatta, 131 and Todara. 132 Some of these quotations may be from Nala's Pākadarpaņa. · · Bhavyadatta's Yogaratnākara contained a sūdasāstrapariccheda. 133 SŪPASASTRA. 134 A Sūpasāstra is quoted in Vācaka Dīpacandra s Laiighanapathyani- rņaya 135 and Vopadeva's Siddhamantraprakāsa. 136 Chapter 2 orks on nāņīsāstra ABHINAVANAJ?ĪTANTRA by Visvanāth Dvivedī. 1 BHARATĪYANAJ?ĪVIJNANA by Prabhākaradevasarman Caŗŗopādhyāya 2 is a modern monograph on the pulse in about 500 verses, divided into seven chapters. Chapters one to four deal with general aspects of the examination of the pulse and the recognition of disorders of the o~as. Chapter five is about pulses which indicate a fatal outcome within a specified peri od of ime and about special cases which, although seemingly grave, are prognostically favourable. Chapter six describes the pulses characteristic for a long series of diseases and chapter seven signs indicating the approach of death. The author does not indicate his sources, 3 but a large part of his treatise is based upon the works of aņāda, Rāvaņa and others. 4 The colours of the vāta-, pitta-and kaphanā<:lī are described as respectively dark blue (nīla), pale (pāņ<;lura) and white (sveta). The problem of the confiicting views on the location of the pulses of the o~as with respect to the three fingers of the examiner 6 is solved by declaring that no importancjO should be given to this location because the do~as are sufficiently characterized by the movements of the pulse. 7 The list of diseases together with their pulses is longer than in the works of Kaņāda Rāvaņa and Bhūdharabhaŗŗa. 8 The author was a Principa of the Calcutta College of yurveda and wrote his book between the years 1930 and 1934. BHAVANĪNADĪVIJNANA. 9 DHARMAVAIDYAKANAJ?ĪPARĪK~A by Merutm1ga. 10 NAJ?ĪBHEDA. l NAJ?ĪCAKRA 12 is a remarkable treatise on the examination of the pulse, full of interesting details on this subject and other medical topics. The work 13 work consists of 292 verses, arranged in twelve chapters (paŗala). t is composed in the form of a dialogue between Siva and ārvatī. The marigala is adressed to Siva The introductory verse says that the Nādītantra will be expounded. The next few verses (2-6ab) relate that Pārvatī asked Siv for instruction in the difficult art of ādī- sāstra Siva replies that he will transmit to her the very subtle Nā<Jīcakra. . The exposition begins with the statement that the nāc;līs are said to be 72,000 in  422 9 Miscellanea number 14 by the great sages; authorities and works referred to are: Bhela, the Caraka- siistra, Susruta, the Tantravistara the Karņikokta, 15 Yājfiavalkya, and the Yogaratnii- valīyaka (7). The importance of the science of the pulse is highlighted (10-12). Three diagnostic methods are mentioned: touching (sparsana), questioning (prasna) and examining (darsana) a patient (13-14). 16 Touching, i.e., feeling the pulse at the wrist (hastamū- la), ankle (pādamūla), or both wrist and ankle, enables a physician to diagnose fever, disorders of the dosas, the state of the digestive fire, ailments caused by fasting and waking at night, an· intensive activity of the digestive fire (atyagni), deficiency of the semen (hīnavīryatva), disorders arising from fear (bhaya), grief (soka) and confusion (bhrama), ailments arising from food of a particular taste, 17 painful conditions brought about by (an excess of) physical exercise and sexual activity, and disorders of digestion (ajīrņa) (15-19ab). Questioning reveals the presence ofkuk~isūla, udāvarta, pārsvasū- la, bhagandara, sandhivāta, haemorrhoids (arsārpsi), the twenty urinary disorders mū- traroga), skha1advīrya, 18 siroroga, poisoning vi~asevā), antranil)sŗti, 19 hastapādādidā- ha, 2 o diseases of the penis, bladder and anus, and bleeding from the female genital organs (raktasrāva bhagotthita) (19cd-22ab). Examination discloses the presence of kāsa, svāsa, eye diseases, piŗakāl), vraņa, aņc)avāta, sopha, pāņc)u(roga), kāmi1a, pī- nasa asthibhailga ūrubhailga, nāc;Iībheda, 2 galagraha karņārbuda, mūrchā, arSālļlsi (haemorrhoids), līhan, ānāha, udara, sakthisopha (swelling of he thighs or 1egs), galagranthi, upajihvā, masūrikā, the eighteen forms of u~ŗha, c)amaru, 22 and aņc)amālikā (22cd-25). Finally, the pulse at the wrist is said to reveal all diseases, in the same way as the strings of a vīņā may produce all the rāgas (26-28ab). Chapter two (28cd-46) mentions a kan da (bu1bous structure ), located somewhat downward from the navel and measuring four ailgula in breadth and two allgula in height, 23 as the p1ace of srcin of the 72,000 nā<;līs (28cd-32), which are divided into 30,000 male, 30,000 female, and 10,000 neuter ones, distributed, respectively, over the right, left and middle part of the body (33-34). One hundred and one among these are of more importance; thirteen is the number of the most prominent ones (35ab . A main group of nā<;līs is formed by the pentad consisting of Ie)ā, Pinga ā, Su ~umnā, 24 located in the upper half of the body, together with Subalā and alā, located in the lower half. Ie)ā is found on the left, Pin alā on the right, and u~umnā in the middle. Ie)ā is the main carrier of the do~as in fema1es; Pingalā is its counterpart in males. The Su~umnā, the seat of rahmā, transports vāyu, the basis of breathing (38-43ab). A human being is said to breathe 21,600 times each day and night (43cd-44ab). 25 Chapter three (47-55) describes where the main nāc)ī should be examined by a physician: in males at the left, in females at the right side of the body, in cows at both sides of the nose, in horses at the ears, and in e1ephants at the mouth, tip of the nose, eyes, tai , and cheeks (51-52). Chapter four (56-65) is concerned with the way of feeling the pulse and the exact places where to put the fingers (56-59). t describes in which disorders which pulse should be taken (60-63), and which pulse should preferentially be examined in the various periods of life (64-65). Works on nā<;lTSāstra 423 Chapter five (66-80) is about characteristics of the pulse during the three parts of day and night (66) and during the six seasons (67-69ab). Each season endows the pulse with a characteristic type of pu1sation (gati), resembling the way in which a particu1ar animal moves about. The chapter proceeds with signs of the pulse connected with the preponderant taste of he food enjoyed; 26 these signs consist again of ways of pulsation resembling the gait of particular animals (69cd-72ab . A combination of he sweet and sour tas es gives rise to the same signs as those attributed to kap ha, a combination of he pungent and sa1ine tastes to the signs of pitta (72cd-73ab . 27 The tastes which should predominate in the food taken ina particu1ar season are mentioned (75-76ab), as well as the relationships between the o~as and the seasons (76cd-79ab) and those between the do~as and the mahābhūtas (79cd-80). Chapter six (81-92ab) describes the radial pu1se (jīvanāc)ī), the way to take it, the signs of the do~as, signs indicating curability or incurability, and conditions in which it is either practicab1e or impracticab1e to fee] the pulse. Chapter seven (92cd-95) instructs the physician to diagnose āta disorders with the index, pitta disorders with the middle finger, and kapha disorders with the little finger. Patients up to the age of fifty should be examined with the fingers of the right, older patients with those of the left hand. Chapter eight (96-1 00) specifies the types of pulsation characteristic of disorders of one do~a or two do~as; each do~a or combination of two do~as presents a type of pulsation resernbling the rnovement of a particular animaL Chapter nine ((101-153) describes first the pu1se that is typical ofinvolvement of all three do~as (101-102). Subsequent1y, it enumerates a group of ten nāc)īs: Ie)ā, Pi ilga ā, Su~umnā, Gāndhārī, Hastabīja, Pū~ā, Payasvinī, Alambu, Laka1a, and Sankhinī ( 103-1 04ab . 28 The six cakras are mentioned, 29 their seats, and the parts of the body where the ten nāc)īs are found l04cd-108). The remaining part of the chapter is devoted to anatomy. All the verses on this sub ject have been borrowed from the iirilgadharasatŗihitii (1.5), with the exception of 125- 130, dealing with the seven layers of the skin and the diseases Jocated in these Jayers. 30 Chapter ten (154-182) describes the five mahābhūtas (154-158), disorders arising from deficiency of one of these (159-160), the connections between the mahābhūtas and the do~as (161), between the mahābhūtas and the seven bodi1y elements (162) and the tastes (163-164), the colours of the ahābhūtas (165), the ahābhūtas preponderantly present in particu1ar constituents of the body ( 166-170), the ratios of the mahā- bhūtas in se vera groups of anima1s (171-180), and the connections between the ahā- bhūtas and the seasons (181-182). Chapter e1even (183-273) is devoted to a classification of diseases. Almost the whole of this chapter has been taken from the Siirilgadharasatŗ hitii ( .7). Exceptions are verses 184-185, 31 186ab, 204-207, 32 and 272-273. 33 Chapter twe1ve (274-292) describes that ārvatī wonders how disorders of the do ~as, which have their seats in various parts of the body, can be diagnosed by means of the radial pulse. Being puzzled, she asks Siva for elucidation. Siva informs her of some anatomical facts. He declares that the mūlādhāracakra 34 contains a vidhigranthi, which is the seat of vāta; similar1y, the heart-lotus 35 has a  424 9 Miscellanea harigranthi, the seat of pitta; at the throat one finds a haragranthi, which is the seat of kapha. 36 The ā<;līs srcinate from the ūlakanda. Three among them, which have the nature of rahmā, Vi$ņu and Siva, are more important, but the Su$umnā is the foremost. This very subtle Su$umnā runs from the seat of āta to the seat of pitta, thence to the seat of kap ha, to reach finally the Sahasrāra 37 at the top of the head. From the top of the head it goes downwards, branches off, and passes through the forehead, ears, the region between the eyebrows, nostrils, throat, and shoulders, ending at the wrists, where the pulse can be examined. Other branches pass through the sides of the abdomen and the hips, ending at the ankles, where the pulsations are perceptible. The treatise ends with some verses explaining again that the state of the do~as is diagnosed by help of the three fingers of the physician. The author is unknown. The ādīcakra must be later than the Sārngadharasamhitā, on account of the large number of erses common to both works. 38 . NĀDICAKRANIDĀNA. 39 NĀDlCAKRANIRNAYA. 4 NĀQĪCAKRAVtmir 41 NĀJ?ĪDARPAŅA 42 by Dattārama, 43 son of rīlqwalala, 44 is a treatise in 217 verses, arranged in three chapters (avaloka). · Although stressing the importance of $ŗasthānaparīk$a (1.6) and referring to various elements of this procedure (1.11, 12, 14), the work is exclusively devoted to nā- <;iīparīk$ā. The author emphasizes that the examination of the pulse can be learnt by practice only, not from books (1.24). The cause of the pulsation of the arteries is said to be the contraction of the heart; the circulation of the blood is known to the author (1.31-35). Other subjects dealt with are: the three types of ā<;iī (vayuvaha, mūtravi<;iasthira- savāhinī, āhāravāhinī; 1.37); 45 the total number of nāc; īs (thirty-five millions), 46 the gross nāc; īs (1,072 in number), and the twenty-four main nā<;līs (1.41-45); the places where to fee] the pulse (1.46-55); suitable and prohibited times for the exarnination of the pulse; (2.1-3); suitable and unsuitable patients (2.6-7); the correct procedure for examining the pulse (2.8-20); the characteristics of a norma pulse (2.21); the deities presiding over the various pulses (2.22); the colours of the ā<;līs (2.23); the characteristics of the pulse in disturbances of the do9as (2.26-59) and the author's own opinion on this subject (2.33-46); the pulses indicating curability and incurability or approaching death (2.60-95); the articles of food to be prescribed in patients with an abnormal pulse (2.99-106); the pulse in various disorders (3.1-28); the number of pulsebeats (3. 29-41) 47 Sources are not mentioned, but the major part of aņāda's Nāqīvijiiāna forms part of the āqīdarpaņa. The Nāqīdarpaŗw is quoted by Prabhakar Chatterjee in his Bhāratīyamī(iīvijiiāna 48 and Satyadeva Vāsi$(ha in his commentary on Rāvaņa's Nā(līparĪk$iĪ. Dattarāma was a resident of Math rā. 49 The references to the functions of heart 2 Works on nāc)Išastra 425 and lungs and to the circulation of the blood enable us to assign the Nāqīdarpaņa to the nineteenth century. Edition d has two additional chapters on pulse-examination according to Yūnānī (twenty-four verses) and western medicine (eighteen verses). NĀDĪGRANTHA. 50 NĀDĪJIVANA. 5 NĀQĪJNĀNA attributed to Ātreya. 52 NĀJ?ĪJNĀNADARPAŅA, a work on the pulse and sorne related subjects in 252 verses by Bhūdharabhaŗŗa. 53 The treatise covers all the subjects usual in a work on the pulse, but it deals with other diagnostic procedures as well, namely the examination of the eyes (netraparī- k$ā; 222-228), tongue (jihvaparīk$ā; 229-230), nose (nāsikāparīk$ā; 231), faeces (malaparīk$ā; 232-234), urine (mūtraparīk$ā; 235-247), and rnenstrual discharge (ārtavaparīk ā; 248-252). 54 This explains that the Nā(lījiiānadarpaņa has more verses on general aspects of medicine than the average text on nā<;iīparīk$ā and that various types of parīk$ā are referred to in its introductory part as indispensable procedures which have to precede any therapeutic action. The list of pulses characteristic for particular diseases (79-166) is rnuch longer than in the monographs attributed to Kaņāda and āvaņa. The same app ies to the list indicating a fatal outcome in general or death within a specified period of time (189-220). The author does not refer to his sources by name, but a cornparison with the treatises of aņāda and Rāvaņa learns that he has incorporated at east half of aņāda's work and some verses of āvaņa. Fourteen main nā<;līs are rnentioned by name: l<;iā, Piilgalā, Su$umnā, Sarasva tī, 55 V ruņī, 6 Pū$ā, 7 Hastijihvā, 8 YaSasvinT 9 ViSvodarā, 6   uhū, 61 Satlkhinī, 62 Payasvinī, 63 Alambu a, 64 and Gāndhārī 65 (30-32). 66 l<; ā, Piilgalā and Su$urnnā are the most important arnong these, and Su$urnnā, located in the backbone and the head, is the foremost of the three (32-33). The frequency of the beats of the pulse in the various periods of life is described (50-53). 67 The pulse should be examined at six places: the hands, the feet and the ternples (55), or at eight: the hands, the feet, the sides of the throat and near the two sides of the nose (56). The pulses felt at the sides of the nose and at the throat reveal particular disorders (57 and 59). The span of life as determined by the pulse is described (174-176). The examination of the nose and of the menstrual discharge are rarely mentioned in other treatises. No particulars are known about the author and his date. He is later, in any case, than the peri od of composition of the treatises attributed to Kaņāda and Rāvaņa. NĀDĪJNĀNADlP KĀ. 68 NĀQlJNĀNAPRADlPIKĀ. 69 NĀJ?ĪlNĀNAPRAKĀSJKĀ. 7 The nurnber of openings 71 of the nā<;iīs, which are connected with the hairs, and frorn which drops of sweat (gharrnabindu) ooze out, is thirty-  426 9 Miscellanea five millions (3). 72 One main nā<;lī the srcin of all the others, is the pathway of vayu, and has its root in the upper part of the body, while its branches reach downwards 4). The fourteen most important nā<;līs, which carry prāņa, and are established in the jīvakoSa, are: Ic;iā Piilgalā, Su:;mmņā, Sarasvatī, Vāruņī, Pū~ā, Hastijihvā, YaSasvinī, Visvodarī, Kuhū, Sailkhinī, Payasvinī, Alaf 1busa, and Gāndhārī 10-13). Ten among these nā<;līs convey the ten kinds of vayu. <;fa, Piilgalā and Su~umņā course in an upward direction; Gāndharī and Hastijihvā provide movement to arms and legs; Alam busā and Yasasvinī are located in the right, Kuhū and Sailkhinī in the left half of the body 14-16). The locations of the terminals (dvāra) of the ten vāyu-transporting) nā <;fīs: lc;lā ends in the left nostril, Piilgalā in the right nostril, Su~umņā in the opening (randhra) (at the top) of the spinal column (vafjlsa), Gandharī in the left eye, Hasti jihvā in the right eye, Pū~a in the right ear, Yasasvinī in the left ear, Alaf lbusā in the mouth, Kuhū in the root of the penis, and Sailkhinī in the crown of the skull 17-19). 73 The ten kinds o āyu are: prāņa, apāna, samāna, udāna, vyāna, nāga, kūrma, kŗ kara, devadatta, and dhanafijaya; 74 the first five form the more important group; prāņa and apāna are the most important among them; prāņa is more important than apāna 20-21); the nā<;līs in the ears perceive sounds, those in the eyes forms, those in the nose srnells; the one situated in the tongue perceives tastes, those in the skin perceive sensations o touch; those in heart and mouth give rise to sound; manas, buddhi, etc., are eastablished in the heart 22-23). Gāndhārī is located behind <;fa; it has the colour of a peacock's throat and runs from the left foot to the left eye (25). Hastijihvā l es to the front of <;Iā; it has the colour of an utpala (blue water-lily) and runs from the left part of the head to the big toe of the left foot (26). Pū~a ies behind Piilgalā; its colour is like that of a dark cloud; it runs from the right eye to the sole of the right foot 27). Alaf lbusā lies to the front of Pi ilga ā and is red in colour; it runs from the right eye to the big toe of the right foot 28). Yasasvinī, lying in front of ingalā, has the hue of a conch and runs from the right part of the head to the big toe of the right foot 29). Sailkhinī is located between Gā ndhārī and Sarasvatī; it is golden in colour and runs from the left foot .to the left ear (30). Kuhū is located between Vāruņī and Pū~ā; it is white in colour and runs from the big toe of the right foot to the top of the head (31). The most important among these nā<;līs are Visvodarī, Sailkhinī, Rāvanā, and Sarasvatī (32). 75 Su umņā, located in the brahrnarandhra, on the road to finalliberation muktimārga), is invisible (avyakta) and associated with Vi~ņu (33). The three main nā<;iīs are lc;lā Piilgala and Su umņā; Su ~umņa is foremost among them 34). Ie; ā runs on the left side, Püigalā on the right side, and Su~umņā in the rniddle; all three are pathways ofvāyu (35). I<:Jā has the lustre of a conch and the rnoon, Pi lga]ā is white and red 36). l<;lā is a seat of the moon, iilgalā of the sun, Su~umņā of he wind (marut); l<;lā is a seat of raj as, Piilgalā of tamas, Su~umņā of sattva; l<;lā is associated with the night, Piilgalā with the day 37). I<;lā has the nature of āyu, Pin alā that of fire, while u~umņā, lying on the pathway to the rahmadvāra = brahmarandhra), has the nature of both (38). The heart resembles an inverted lotus bud, decorated with perforations 39). Pi ilga]ā has the fire maņ<;lala as its dwelling place (gocara) and is called evayāna ( 40). 76 <;la has the somamaņ<;fala as its dwelling place and is cal ed pitŗyāna ( 4 ). 77 The long 2 Works on nat)īSastra 427 (series of) bone(s) in the back, extending from the anus to the head, and resernbling the neck (daņ<;la) of a vīņā, is called the brahmadaņ<)a (42). The delicate bole at its upper end is called brahmanā<;fī; the subtle Su~umņā ]ies between l<;lā and Piilgalā 43). The jīva is established in the body, which is at some places like a cakra, at other places like a kosa, or again like a īvagŗha ( 48). The īva roams through the body, mounted on the prāņas; it resembles a spider in its web 49). The ten seats (āyatana) of rāņa are: the umbilical region, ojas, the ana] region, semen, the blood, the templ es, the head, the ā ņ<;fa and the heart 51). 78 Visvodarī is thirty-two hasta in length; that part of it which is present in the neck rneasures one hasta (52). The āmāsaya is located at a distance of ten hasta from this (part of isvodarī) and the pacyamānāsaya at a distance of ten hasta from the āmasaya (53). The distance between pacyamānāsaya and pakvāsaya is ten hasta again; the guhyadeSa region o the genitals and anus measures one hasta; its nā<;lī resembles the convolutions of a co nch 54). The ingested food passes through māsaya, pacyamānāsaya and akvāsaya; the (digestive) fire is located above the akvā§aya 55). The rasa deri ved from the food passes through the nā<;lī of the navel and goes to all parts of the body, impel ed by vāyu (56). The umbilical region has the form of a tortoise (kūrma); the eight limbs of this tor toise are connected with the eight mahanā<;Iīs; four among these are in the region of the back, four in the region of the chest (kro<;fa) (57). Two of the ā<;līs in the back and two in the chest run upwards, the other four downwards; the nā<;līs running upwards split into two branches (pallava) in the region of the throat; one of these splits again into five smaller branches (58). The branches go to the eyes, nostrils, tongue, lips and ears; one nā<;fī coming from the back, is called ākuficanakarī 59). 79 A nā<;fī coming from the shoulder region, goes to the hand and splits into five branches; this one too is called ākuficanakarī 60). A na<;lī running downwards from the back splits into five branches for the toes and is called rasaraņakarī 61). 80 The ninth limb of the tortoise is called iilganā<;fī; its two branches convey urine and semen (62). The tortoise ]ies ina transverse position in the umbilical region, its head pointing to the left and its tail to the right; its left legs point upwards, the right legs downwards 63). Two nā<;līs are present in its head, two in its tai , and five in each of its legs 64). lts mouth parts face upwards in women, downwards in men 71). For this reason a physician should examine the pulse of the right hand in males, that of the left hand in females (72). NĀQĪJNĀNASIK9Ā by Kālīprasanna Vidyāratna Bhaŗŗācarya, 8 a modern work. NĀJ?ĪlNĀNASIK9Ā by Haralāla Gupta. 82 NĀQĪJNĀNATARANGIŅĪ, a treatise on the pulse in 102 verses by Raghunāthaprasa da. 83 This work is in the form of a dialogue between a woman called olāk~ī, daughter of a Gandharva called Pampayya who lived in Bilagrāma, and a physician who answers her questions on diagnostics by means of the pulse 5-8; 101-102). The usual subjects are covered. Many verses are taken from the monographs on the pulse attributed to Kaņada and Rāvaņa or are very sirnilar to verses found there, although the author does not disclose his sources except mentioning Parāšara y name
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