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Nur Fathiyyah Analysis SFG

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  1 Nur Fathiyyah 1414131048 PBI-C-5 Systemic Functional Grammar Transitivity Analysis “ John, A New Kid in Town ”   CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1.1   Research Background Language has very important roles in human life as language has many functions. Many people consider that language is used to communicate with other people. In addition, language has other functions such as to express feelings or experiences and to share it with other people. People can express their feeling in many ways, either spoken or written. One of the linguistics studies that learn language from its function is Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG), introduced by Halliday (1994). It focuses on the functional approach, namely the use of languages. It is intended to reveal the amount choice of language in interaction and shows its meaning (Gerot & Wignell, 1994). Systemic Functional Grammar describes how the structures in the language construct the meaning and make the clause as a unit which is the most important. Functional grammar learns how the meanings are realized in a text. Functional grammar explains three metafunctions, those are interpersonal, ideational, and textual. In SFG, meaning as the base, transitivity is one of three metafunction that explores the questions of what, who, when, where, why or how function. Transitivity is geared towards the grammar of experience that reflects the representations of the speaker’s world (Halliday & Matthiessen, 2004). How they can make meanings build up and be understood through choices of words and grammatical resources.  2 1.2   Focus of The Research This research is focus on identifying written text of one selected narrative text by analyzing transitivity system. The topic of the essay is about “  John, A New Kid in Town ” from the book entitled “  Kupas Tuntas Ujian Nasional Bahasa Inggris SMA ” . This research takes focus on the most dominant process types on the text as the result of transitivity analysis of the data and analyzes the construction of the experiential meaning in the text.  1.3   Research Questions Based on the background above, the problems are formulated as follows: 1.   How the transitivity processes were constructed in the clause?   2.   What is the most dominant process type which is used in this narrative text?  1.4   Aims of The Research Based on the problem identification, the aims of this research are to analyze and revealing the transitivity system in the one selected descriptive text entitled “My Day” . Specifically, this research also has two following aims:   1.   To analyze the process types that constructed in the clause. 2.   To identify the most dominant of process types in that essay.  3 CHAPTER 2   Literature Review 2.1   Systemic Functional Grammar Functional grammar has been one of the subjects offered in the English Department of Indonesia University of Education, in both ungraduate and postgraduate programs for quite some time. The basic concepts of systemic functional grammar has also been incorporated in the curriculum of English for secondary schools in Indonesia since 2004 (Emilia, 2014). Grammar is something that attracts the attention of variety of people in the community-teachers, parents, academics, politicians, talk-show hosts, writers to the editor and guardian of good taste (Collerson, 1994). Grammar is the system of patterns we use to select and combine words. Grammar gives us possibilities to write a text which expresses our experiences, ideas, thoughts, and feelings (Feez & Joyce, 2000). 2.2   Transitivity System According to Halliday (2004), languages express three main kinds of meaning simultaneously: ideational, interpersonal, and textual meanings. Among them, the ideational meaning can be referred to as meaning coming from the clause as representation. Halliday stated that a clause construes the world as goings on consisting of nuclear process and  participant, additional participant and circumstance. The concept of process, participant and circumstance are semantic categories which explain in the most general way how phenomena of the real world are represented as linguistic structure (Halliday, 1994). The concepts of process are expressed by verbal groups,  participants by nominal group, and circumstances by adverbial group or prepositional  phrases. 2.2.1   Process Types The core or nucleus of the clause as representation of experience is the process. The transitivity system construes the world of experience into a managable set of process types (Halliday, 1994: 106). The process represents the happening or event which the clause is on  4 about, whether is matter of a happening, doing, thinking, saying and being having. There are many kind of processes in the transitivity system, they are:   a.   Material processes According to Halliday (2004) material process is general or habitual it means that Material process is processes of doing. They express the notion that some entity does something which may be done to some other entity. Actor is the one that does the act or  performs the action. The goal is one that suffers or undergoes the process. Sometimes, material processes have two other participants’ functions whi ch are range and the beneficiary. Halliday (1994: 146) writes that in material process, the range expresses the domain over which the process takes place, or expresses the process itself. The beneficiary is the one to whom or for whom the process is said to take place. In material process, there are two kinds of beneficiary, they are recipient and client. Recipient is one that goods are given to, whereas client is one that services are done for.  b.   Mental processes According to Eggins (1994) Mental processes (sensing verbs) encode meanings of thinking or feeling it means that Mental process is a process of sensing, such as feeling, thinking, and seeing. The participants in a mental process are a senser and phenomenon. Senser is the conscious being that feels, thinks, or perceives. Phenomenon is that which is felt, thought and perceived. There are four subtypes of mental processes, they are: a)   Perceptive  b)   Cognitive c)   Desiderative d)   Emotive c.   Verbal processes According to Halliday (2004) Verbal processes are clauses of  saying which functioned as  sayer. There are three further participant functions based   on Halliday (2004), they are:   a)   The receiver The receiver is the one to whom the saying is directed.  b)   The Verbiage The verbiage is the function that corresponds to what is said, representing it as a class of thing rather than as a report or quote. c)   The target The target occurs only in a sub- type of ‘verbal’ clause; this function construes the entity that is targeted by the process of saying.
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