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Opportunities for underground geological storage of CO2 in New Zealand-Report CCS-08/11-Monitoring and verification methodologies

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ABSTRACT Risk assessment is likely to be an important part of future CO2 sequestration projects in New Zealand. Although the global CO2 sequestration risk assessment community may be moving towards a common best-practice, neither a standard approach
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  GNS SCIENCE REPORT 2009/58 December 2009 Opportunities for underground geologicalstorage of CO2 in New Zealand - Report CCS-08/5 - Onshore Taranaki Basin overview P.R. KingK.J. BlandR.H. FunnellR. Archer L.Lever   1 Fairway Drive, Avalon Lower Hutt 5010 PO Box 30 368 Lower Hutt 5040 New Zealand T +64-4-570 1444 F +64-4-570 4600 www.gns.cri.nz Opportunities for underground geological storage of CO 2  in New Zealand - Report CCS-08/5 - Onshore Taranaki Basin overview P.R. King K.J. Bland R.H. Funnell R. Archer L. Lever GNS Science Report 2009/58 November 2009 Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Limited  BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCE King, P.R., Bland, K.J., Funnell, R.H., Archer, R. and Lever, L. 2008. Opportunities for underground geological storage of CO 2  in New Zealand - Report CCS-08/5 - Onshore Taranaki Basin overview. GNS Science Report 2009/58 . 135 p. P R King, GNS Science, P O Box 30 368, Lower Hutt 5040, New Zealand K J Bland, GNS Science, P O Box 30 368, Lower Hutt 5040, New Zealand R H Funnell, GNS Science, P O Box 30 368, Lower Hutt 5040, New Zealand R Archer, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand L Lever, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand © Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Limited, 2009 ISSN 1177-2425 ISBN 978-0-478-19722-8  GNS Science Report 2009/58 i CONTENTS  ABSTRACT.............................................................................................................................VIKEYWORDS...........................................................................................................................XI1.0 INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................................1 1.1 Scope and objectives........................................................................................11.2 Background.......................................................................................................21.2.1 Global context.......................................................................................21.2.2 Generic storage options........................................................................31.2.3 Overseas projects.................................................................................51.2.4 New Zealand’s greenhouse gas emissions ..........................................6 2.0 OVERVIEW OF THE TARANAKI REGION.................................................................9 2.1 Geography........................................................................................................92.2 Geomorphology................................................................................................92.2.1 Taranaki volcanic centres and ring-plain ..............................................92.2.2 Eastern Taranaki hill country ..............................................................102.2.3 Coastal terraces..................................................................................112.3 Population centres..........................................................................................112.4 Infrastructure...................................................................................................112.4.1 Road and rail.......................................................................................112.4.2 Pipelines.............................................................................................112.5 CO 2  point sources...........................................................................................122.5.1 Methanex............................................................................................122.5.2 Contact New Plymouth power station.................................................122.5.3 Contact Stratford power station ..........................................................122.5.4 Contact Energy Taranaki combined cycle gas turbine (TCC).............132.5.5 Natural Gas Corporation (Kapuni Field)..............................................132.5.6 Ballance Agri-Nutrients ammonia-urea plant......................................132.5.7 Kiwi Dairy co-generation plant, Hawera..............................................132.6 Generalised onshore Taranaki geology..........................................................132.6.1 Tectonic regime ..................................................................................132.6.2 Generalised basin structure................................................................142.6.3 Seismicity............................................................................................162.6.4 Active faults.........................................................................................162.6.5 Overview of Taranaki Basin sedimentary fill and geological history...182.7 Taranaki hydrocarbon resources....................................................................192.7.1 Distribution..........................................................................................202.7.2 Current status .....................................................................................212.7.3 Carbon dioxide content in reservoirs ..................................................212.7.4 Taranaki reservoir fairways.................................................................212.7.5 Seal rock intervals...............................................................................262.7.6 Seal rock capacity and integrity..........................................................282.8 Overview of onshore Taranaki groundwater resources..................................28  2.8.1 Hydrologic pressure regime................................................................282.8.2 Groundwater resource distribution......................................................302.8.3 Groundwater resource use .................................................................342.8.4 Potential growth..................................................................................35 3.0OPTIONS FOR SEQUESTRATION IN THE ONSHORE TARANAKI REGION........36 3.1 Sequestration in Taranaki coal seams............................................................363.1.1 Depth thresholds for sequestration in coals........................................363.1.2 King Country coal fields......................................................................363.1.3 Deep coal in the Taranaki Basin.........................................................383.1.4 Enhanced CBM production from Taranaki coals ................................383.2 Sequestration in deep saline aquifers.............................................................383.2.1 Saline aquifers in known fields onshore Taranaki...............................403.2.2 Saline aquifers in non-commercial drilled structures, onshore Taranaki 403.2.3 Onshore Taranaki leads and prospects..............................................433.2.4 Summary of deep saline aquifer potential...........................................433.3 Sequestration in depleted oil and gas fields onshore Taranaki......................443.3.1 Kapuni Field........................................................................................443.3.2 Tariki, Ahuroa, Waihapa, and Ngaere (TAWN) Fields........................483.3.3 Kaimiro/Ngatoro Fields .......................................................................513.3.4 McKee Field........................................................................................553.3.5 Mangahewa Field................................................................................603.3.6 Moturoa Field......................................................................................633.3.7 Rimu and Kauri Fields.........................................................................643.3.8 Cheal Field..........................................................................................693.3.9 Kahili Field..........................................................................................723.3.10 Cardiff Field.......................................................................................743.3.11 Radnor Field.....................................................................................773.3.12 Turangi Field.....................................................................................803.3.13 Goldie Field.......................................................................................813.3.14 Windsor Field....................................................................................833.3.15 Surrey Field.......................................................................................853.3.16 Summary of opportunities and risks from onshore depleted oil and gas fields.........................................................................................................873.4 Overview of offshore Maui and Pohokura Fields............................................873.4.1 Maui Field ...........................................................................................883.4.2 Pohokura Field....................................................................................923.5 CO 2  sequestration as part of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR).........................953.5.1 Methodology .......................................................................................953.5.2 CO 2  EOR parameters.........................................................................953.6 CO 2  sequestration as part of Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR) ......................973.7 Natural analogues...........................................................................................973.7.1 Origin of the CO 2  in the Kapuni Group, Taranaki Basin......................983.7.2 Fluid-rock interactions in the Kapuni Group, Taranaki Basin..............98 GNS Science Report 2009/58 ii
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