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Opportunities for underground geological storage of CO2 in New Zealand-Report CCS-08/2-The onshore Waikato Region

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Opportunities for underground geological storage of CO2 in New Zealand-Report CCS-08/2-The onshore Waikato Region
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  GNSSCIENCEREPORT2009/54 December2009 OpportunitiesforundergroundgeologicalstorageofCO2inNewZealand-ReportCCS-08/2-TheonshoreWaikatoRegion S.EdbrookeB.RickettsG.Leonard  1 Fairway Drive, AvalonLower Hutt 5010PO Box 30 368Lower Hutt 5040New ZealandT +64-4-570 1444F +64-4-570 4600www.gns.cri.nz Opportunities for underground geologicalstorage of CO 2 in New Zealand - Report CCS-08/2 – The onshore Waikato Region S. EdbrookeB. RickettsG. Leonard GNS Science Report 2009/54November 2009 Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Limited  BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCE Edbrooke, S., Ricketts, B., and Leonard, G. 2009. Opportunities forunderground geological storage of CO 2 in New Zealand - Report CCS-08/2 - The onshore Waikato Region. GNS Science Report 2009/54  . 72p. S Edbrooke, GNS Science, P O Box 30 368, Lower Hutt 5040, New ZealandB Ricketts, Brian Ricketts Geological Consulting Ltd., 82 Te Kawa Rd, RD3 Te AwamutuG Leonard, GNS Science, P O Box 30 368, Lower Hutt 5040, New Zealand  © Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Limited, 2009ISSN 1177-2425ISBN 978-0-478-19718-1  GNS Science Report 2009/54 i CONTENTSABSTRACT..............................................................................................................................VKEYWORDS...........................................................................................................................VI1.0INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................................1 1.1Scope and objectives........................................................................................11.2Background.......................................................................................................11.2.1Storage options.....................................................................................21.2.1Analogues.............................................................................................51.2.2New Zealand’s greenhouse gas emissions..........................................51.2.3Reporting..............................................................................................7 2.0THE WAIKATO REGION.............................................................................................9 2.1Indications from gravity data.............................................................................92.2Southern Waikato...........................................................................................112.3Central North Island ignimbrites.....................................................................12 3.0SOUTH MANUKAU...................................................................................................13 3.1Introduction.....................................................................................................133.2Basin stratigraphy...........................................................................................133.3Implications of the Otaua-1 result...................................................................173.4An alternative interpretation for Otaua-1.........................................................183.5Seismic surveys..............................................................................................193.6Aquifers and groundwater flow.......................................................................203.7Geothermal gradient.......................................................................................203.8CO 2 storage potential......................................................................................203.9Seismic risk.....................................................................................................213.10Recommendations for further work.................................................................22 4.0HAURAKI PLAINS.....................................................................................................24 4.1Introduction.....................................................................................................244.2Sedimentary fill...............................................................................................244.3Structure.........................................................................................................264.4Activity on Kerepehi Fault...............................................................................274.5Thermal waters and geothermal gradient.......................................................274.6CO 2 storage potential......................................................................................284.7Recommendations for further work.................................................................28 5.0WHANGAMARINO AREA.........................................................................................30 5.1Introduction.....................................................................................................305.2Basin structure................................................................................................305.3Stratigraphy....................................................................................................305.4CO 2 storage potential......................................................................................335.5Summary and recommendations....................................................................33  6.0HAMILTON BASIN....................................................................................................34 6.1Introduction.....................................................................................................346.2Oil exploration drillholes..................................................................................346.2.1SP logs................................................................................................346.2.2Resistivity logs....................................................................................376.2.3Gamma and caliper logs.....................................................................376.2.4Sonic and neutron logs.......................................................................376.3Basin stratigraphy...........................................................................................376.3.1Te Kuiti Group.....................................................................................376.3.2Waitemata Group................................................................................376.3.3Tauranga Group..................................................................................416.4Seismic reflection data....................................................................................426.5Geothermal gradient.......................................................................................446.6Hamilton Basin aquifers..................................................................................486.7Aquifer seals and traps...................................................................................486.8Potential storage capacity of the Waitemata Group.......................................506.9Seismic risk.....................................................................................................506.10Summary and conclusions..............................................................................516.11Recommendations..........................................................................................51 7.0CENTRAL NORTH ISLAND IGNIMBRITES..............................................................53 7.1The Taupo Rift................................................................................................537.2Geothermal activity.........................................................................................547.3Calderas.........................................................................................................547.3.1Thick intra-caldera ignimbrite deposits...............................................557.4Ignimbrite........................................................................................................557.4.1Porosity...............................................................................................567.4.2Jointing................................................................................................567.4.3Outflow ignimbrite sheets....................................................................577.5Airfall pumice and ash layers..........................................................................587.6Potential volcanic basins with relatively low active faulting............................587.6.1Rotorua caldera..................................................................................587.6.2Beneath the Kaingaroa plateau..........................................................587.6.3Reporoa caldera.................................................................................597.6.4Matata-Te Puke-Rotoiti dissected plain..............................................607.6.5The Mamaku Plateau..........................................................................607.7Rhyolite Lava..................................................................................................607.8Basalt..............................................................................................................607.9Summary of CO2 storage potential................................................................61 8.0OVERALL CONCLUSIONS AND RANKING............................................................629.0ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS..........................................................................................6410.0REFERENCES...........................................................................................................65 GNS Science Report 2009/54 ii
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