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Optical Fibre Communication

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ABSTRACT Optical fibers have been used extensively in communication systems due some of the very interesting properties they have and their obvious advantages over traditional copper cables. The basics of optical fiber communication have been explored in this seminar report. INTRODUCTION Explosive information demand in the internet world is creating enormous needs for capacity expansion in next generation telecommunication networks. It is expected that the data-oriented network traffic will do
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  ABSTRACT Optical fibers have been used extensively in communication systemsdue some of the very interesting properties they have and their obvious advantages over traditional copper cables. The basics of optical fiber communication have been explored in this seminar report.     IN TRODUCT I O N   Explosive information demand in the internet world is creatingenormous needs for capacity expansion in next generationtelecommunication networks. I t is expected that the data-orientednetwork traffic will double every year.Optical networks are widely regarded as the ultimate solution tothe bandwidth needs of future communication systems. Progressingfrom the copper wire of a century ago to today¶s fibre optic cable, our increasing ability to transmit more information, more quickly andover longer distances has expanded the boundaries of our technological development in all areas.   Optical fibre links deployedare capable to carry terabits of information.An optical fiber (or fiber)   is a glass or plastic fiber that carries lightalong its length. Fiber optics is the overlap of applied science andengineering concerned with the design and application of opticalfibers. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber optic communications,which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths because light has high frequency than any other form of radio signal used in communication systems. Light is kept in the coreof the optical fiber by total internal reflection Fibers are used insteadof metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss, andthey are also immune to electromagnetic interference, which is causedby thunderstorm.       A BR  I EF H I STORY: The first practical all-glass fiber was devised by Brian O'Brien   at theAmerican Optical Company and N arinder Kapany   (who first coinedthe term 'fiber optics' in 1956) and colleagues at the I mperial Collegeof Science and Technology in London. Early all-glass fibersexperienced excessive optical loss, the loss of the light signal as ittravelled the fiber, limiting transmission distances. I n 1969, severalscientists concluded that impurities in the fiber material caused thesignal loss in optical fibers. The basic fiber material prevented thelight signal from reaching the end of the fiber. Thus researchersbelieved it was possible to reduce the losses in optical fibers byremoving the impurities.   Jun-ichi N ishizawa, a Japanese scientist at Tohoku University, wasthe first to propose the use of optical fibers for communications in1963. N ishizawa invented other technologies that contributed to thedevelopment of optical fiber communications as well. N ishizawainvented the graded-index optical fiber in 1964 as a channel for transmitting light from semiconductor lasers over long distances withlow loss. Fiber optics developed over the years in a series of generations that can be closely tied to wavelength.             Optical Fibres: Optical Fibers are thin long (km) strands of ultra pure glass (silica) or plastic that can to transmit light from one end to another withoutmuch attenuation or loss.A fiber consists of a glass core and a surrounding layer called thecladding. The core and cladding have carefully chosen indices of refraction to ensure that the photons propagating in the core arealways reflected at the interface of the cladding. The only way thelight can enter and escape is through the ends of the fiber. Atransmitter either a light emitting diode or a laser sends electronic datathat have been converted to photons over the fiber at a wavelength of between 1,200 and 1,600 nanometres.  Construction: An optical fiber is a very thin strand of silica glass in geometry quitelike a human hair. I n reality it is a very narrow, very long glasscylinder with special characteristics. When light enters at one end of the fiber, it travels along the fiber (confined within the fiber) until itleaves at the other end. An optical fiber consists of two parts: the coreand the cladding. The core is a narrow cylindrical strand of glass andthe cladding is a tubular jacket   surrounding it. The core has a(slightly) higher refractive index than the cladding. Light travellingalong the core is confined by the mirror to stay within it even whenthe fiber bends around a corner. A fiber optic cable has an additionalcoating around the cladding called the jacket. The jacket   usuallyconsists of one or more layers of polymer. I ts role is to protect thecore and cladding from shocks that might affect their optical or physical properties. I t acts as a shock absorber. The jacket alsoprovides protection from abrasions, solvents and other contaminants.The jacket does not have any optical properties that might affect thepropagation of light within the fiber optic cable.

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Nov 20, 2017
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