Pedagogy and purpose for ICT in primary education

Pedagogy and purpose for ICT in primary education
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  Pedagogy and purpose for ICT in primary education Rosamund Sutherland, Nick Breeze, Marina Gall, Steve Godwin, SashaMatthewman, Tim Shortis, Pat Triggs Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol, 35 Berkeley Square, Bristol BS8 !  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,t  ,  Abstract :This paper draws on results of a research project InterActive Education:Teaching and Learning in the Information Age. The overall aim of the projectis to examine the ways in which new technologies can be used in educationalsettings to enhance learning. To this end the project centres around the designand evaluation of teaching and learning initiatives for pupils from the age of eight to eighteen. Within this paper we report on our work with primary schoolteachers and pupils, who are developing learning initiatives for English,mathematics and music. Key words : social contexts ,  roles and relationships, research,   curriculum 1.   INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND Learning spills outside the official times and places of pedagogy. (Daviset al. 2000 260)This paper derives from a research project InterActive Education:Teaching and Learning in the Information Age, whose overall aim is toexamine the ways in which new technologies can be used in educationalsettings to enhance learning. The project draws on a range of theoretical perspectives with a particular focus on socio cultural theory with itsemphasis on the crucial role which communication through language andother semiotic systems play in learning (Wertsch, 1991).  Within this paper we focus on case studies of learning within English,mathematics and music education, all of which centre on a set of ‘intended’learning aims, developed by partnerships of teachers and researchers.Within the English case study pupils in Year 4 have been using e-mail as achannel to communicate with a ‘real’, and at first unknown, person. In theseauthentic interactions they have explored and considered the idea of register in language – varying how they write in relation to the audience, purposeand context. Within the mathematics case study Year 6 pupils have beenlearning about shape and space mediated by the use of a dynamic geometryenvironment Cabri Géomètre. Pupils and teachers also work with a host of other technologies, including written language, an interactive whiteboard, paper-and-pencil and concrete objects. Within the music case study Year 6 pupils are learning about composition and musical structure through creatinga piece of music in ABA form using a software package Dance eJay.Students are active constructors of new knowledge and understanding based on what they already know and believe. These existing conceptionsderive from experiences both outside and inside school. The out-of-schooluses of computers strand of the InterActive project suggests that manyyoung people use the computer outside school for writing (68% on a weeklyor more basis) and for electronic communication (54%) (Facer, 2002).Increasingly young people are also using the computer in the home to produce music (19%). These results, together with results from other  projects (Sutherland et al, 2001; Triggs et al, 2002) highlight the ways inwhich ‘aspects of life’ outside school constitute incidental ‘learning events’which are likely to impact on the intentional learning which is the focus of schools. 2.   DESIGNS FOR LEARNING The path of learning can never be determined by the teacher. However the path of learning is dependent on the teacher — along with a host of other contingencies. (Davis et al, 2000)Within the InterActive project as a whole fifty case studies on teachingand learning are being developed across the subjects of English, geography,history, mathematics, modern foreign languages, music and science andacross the primary and secondary sectors. The learning focus relates to anarea of the curriculum which pupils normally find difficult and which theteam believes could be enhanced by the use of particular ICT environments.The work of each subject design team is characterised by: periods of wholeteam work, evaluation in the classroom and feedback to the whole group;   Pedagogy and purpose for ICT in primary education  periods of working in pairs (researcher & teacher) on a particular designinitiative; researchers supporting teachers through classroom visits andfeedback; use of diagnostic assessment as an analytical tool for reflecting onteaching and learning; use of video of classroom processes as an analyticaltool for reflecting on teaching and learning; teachers supporting pupils tofocus their attention on the object of learning.The design process involves working within the constraints of thesituation in a creative and systematic way and thinking as far as possible out-of-the-box. Design is informed in an iterative way by theory, research-basedevidence on the use of computers for learning, teacher’s craft knowledge andthe research team’s expertise. Data collected includes: pre and post initiativediagnostic assessments; pre and post initiative interviews with 6 pupils;video recordings of lessons; pupils written and computer-based work. 2.1Design for English This case study focuses on the work of a teacher of nine-year olds, EmmaScott-Cook, and an English design initiative concerned with developing anawareness of how audience and purpose shapes writing. The aim of theinitiative was to see what impact the experience of authentic communication,using e-mail as a channel, would have on individuals’ writing. The culturalconventions surrounding ICT text are more fluid and open-ended than thosearound letters. Study of a relatively large sample of e-mail texts (Petrie1999) showed that there was considerable variation of register in e-mail andthat this was mainly in response to context. We decided to construct thechildren’s co-correspondent so that the context would suggest use of themore formal end of the style continuum, at least in the early stages. Thewhole activity was embedded in the children’s history work on The Vikingsand the purpose was defined as finding out about the Vikings.The research team set up two e-mail addresses for two Viking settlers:Thor, a Danish jarl and for Freya, a fifteen year old daughter of a Vikingwarrior. Although both Vikings had well developed back stories, these werenot shared with the children in advance. In class pupils were told that therewere two Vikings who would answer their questions about Vikings; theycould choose which one they wanted to e-mail. The children had no problems sustaining the fiction that this entailed; in fact their willingness tosuspend disbelief was for some stronger as the correspondence developed.However in their interviews it was evident that they knew they were playinga game of ‘let’s pretend’. E-mails were received and responded to at theUniversity and copies of all messages were kept as data. Pupils mainly usedthe classroom computer to send and receive their e-mails; time was allocatedfor this at the beginning of the morning and afternoon. In advance of the  initiative all pupils had had basic instruction in e-mailing. They hadindividual e-mail addresses and a class password. The focus of the initiativewas deliberately on the use of e-mail; the assumption (a valid one in theevent) was that pupils would gain skill and understanding in operating e-mailin the process of genuine communication. Some of this computer time wasvideo recorded as were two plenary review and discussion lessons. In bothsessions e-mails sent and received were shared (with pupils’ permission).The focus was both on sharing information and on how writer-reader interactions were being negotiated, for example by looking at the differentways people had opened and closed their messages and by asking the class tospeculate about how someone might have felt when they received a particular message.This was conceived as a ‘long, thin initiative’ which would run over several months. Pupils were interviewed and reviewed their correspondenceat intervals throughout the project. From the many insights the data have provided we have chosen to focus on two: factors affecting children’scommitment to and involvement in e-mailing; evidence of children’sstrategies in negotiating a relationship with their reader. Involvement asmeasured by the number of e-mails sent was varied. Procedures to maintaina degree of equity in access to the computer were in place but it is clear thatsome children were more motivated to pursue the correspondence thanothers. As the initial excitement and novelty faded, and even in the face of technical difficulties which meant that feedback was not as fast as planned, aquarter of the class sustained a commitment beyond two exchanges. Thedrive to ‘write back’ was not associated with attainment. The children whowrote frequently, even when they had not received a response, spoke ininterviews about their initial interest in the subject or the activity. Inaddition their e-mails showed a developing sense of the person at the other end. The correspondence was sustained most successfully where this wasmost evident. We can illustrate this with examples from two children in thisgroup.Ben told us he had a Viking game at home and he was interested in thesubject. More important though was his commitment to his teacher: “Iwanted to show Miss that I learned a lot from the computers and theVikings.” At this point he saw ‘The Viking”’as a useful information source.When (for technical reasons) Thor’s response to Ben’s questions wasdelayed, Ben wrote to complain and ask Thor to ‘hurry up’. Weeks later Ben re-read this e-mail and recalled a lesson about how people respond tothe ways they are addressed. “I thought, ‘hurry up?’...I thought I’d better notwrite it to a Viking but to a human being.”. We video recorded Bencomposing a response to Thor immediately after some whole classdiscussion on openings and closings. He was given considerable time on the   Pedagogy and purpose for ICT in primary education computer for this and remained totally absorbed and on task throughout. Re-reading his e-mail later, he reconstructed in some detail the processes of shaping his writing. He spent a great deal of time thinking about how toaddress Thor. “I thought I might have writ ‘hello’...I might have done ‘dear Thor’” Eventually he chose ‘Greetings’, mirroring Thor’s habitual openingto him. “That’s the Viking way. I thought if I was writing to a Viking and Iwrote ‘hello’ they might not have made up that word yet so I thought I’dwrite ‘greetings’”. The effect of Thor as a model was also evident in Ben’sdrive to write at some length, even though he was hampered (as were mostof the children) by the slow speed of his typing. As the e-mail exchangedeveloped Ben, like many of the children, began to include informationabout himself. His commentary on his writing shows that he is well awareof the importance of reciprocity in this relationship and that Thor was becoming real for him. “If I just ask him questions he’ll get a bit bored...Otherwise I’ll know everything about him and he wont even knowhow old I am.” Neither Ben nor Annette, whom we now consider, nor any of the childrenin the class were accustomed to sustaining written communication withanother individual in any form. Even those (few) with access to e-mail athome did not use it. As we have seen with Ben, the e-mail activitycombined with reflection and review, meant that some children very rapidlydeveloped strategies for this kind of writing. Annette proved to be adetermined and enthusiastic communicator. The delays she experienced inreceiving a response (the same technical hitch as Ben) appear to have madeFreya more real for her. On the Tuesday of one week she wrote to Freyausing Thor’s e-mail address - “I heard about your problems...I have acomplaint here...please write back by Friday or I will be angry.” In thesubject space she wrote COMPLAINT. The opening was DEAR FREYA.She did not sign the message. All these were deliberate choices “I did it on purpose. I was angry and I was like shouting at her.” On Friday of the sameweek, still without a reply, Annette wrote.Subject: Are you o.k dear FreyaI am looking forward to your replie.I hope you have no more problem’s.LOVE ANNETTE!Reviewing this Annette recalled: “I just calmed down a bit and I thoughtif I don’t keep shouting at her she might be a little bit OK and start writing back.” Coincidentally with this message Freya’s delayed e-mail was released by the system. Annette, like Ben, was given extended time on the computer and wrote a long reply. Mirroring Freya’s closing, she wrote GOODWISHES, ANNETTE. “I was shouting that bit. I was so pleased she sent a
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