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Planning Guidelines and Best Management Practices for Aircraft and Airfield Deicing Stormwater Management Systems

and Best Practices CH2MHILL in association with: Gresham Smith & Partners Barnes & Thornburg Dean Mericas, Ph.D. Tara Ajello, PE Tim Arendt, PE Jeff Longsworth, ESQ July 25, 2008 Purpose Provide BMP planning
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and Best Practices CH2MHILL in association with: Gresham Smith & Partners Barnes & Thornburg Dean Mericas, Ph.D. Tara Ajello, PE Tim Arendt, PE Jeff Longsworth, ESQ July 25, 2008 Purpose Provide BMP planning guidelines for the practical, cost-effective control of runoff from aircraft and airfield deicing and anti-icing operations. Provide state-of-the-science technical guidance to airport operators and engineers. Contribute knowledge to emerging federal Effluent Limitation for airport deicing runoff. Project Panel Directed Development of Guidance Document Bernice Malione, Chair Richard Vincent Catherine Wetherell Dan Bergman Port Authority of NY and NJ PDX MassPort DFW Lee Fields Eric Strecker Scott Yarley Robco Ind. Waste Mgmt, Inc GeoSyntec Consultants HNTB Corp. Christine Gerencher George Legarreta Brian D'Amico Jessica Steinhilber Tim Pohle TRB Liaison Representative FAA Liaison Representative USEPA Liaison Representative ACI-NA Liaison Representative ATA Liaison Representative Mike Salamone, Project Officer TRB 1. Introduction 2. for Developing Integrated Runoff Table of Contents 3. for Selection of Individual BMPs 4. BMP Fact Sheets Source Controls Collection/Containment Treatment/Recycling BMP System Components Appendices Guidance Organized with Top Down Structure Drivers Planning Framework for BMP BMP Selection BMP Fact Sheets BMP Drivers Safety Paramount requirement FAA regulations and policies products must meet SAE specifications Limited options are available Environmental Concerns runoff pollutants BOD, toxicity Non-deicing runoff pollutants Regulatory Drivers Clean Water Act program Airport discharge permitting alternatives BMP Drivers - Safety FAA Regulations and Policies Facilities and Controls AC 150/ , Airport Design AC 150/ A, Design of Aircraft Facilities AC 150/ A, Buildings for Storage and Maintenance of Airport Snow and Ice Control Equipment and Materials AC 150/ B, Airport Winter Safety and Operations Aircraft Operations Under Winter Conditions AC B, Ground and Anti-icing Program AC , Ground and Anti-icing Training and Checking AC Pilot Guide Large Aircraft Ground AC , Ground Using Infrared Energy FAA Regulatory and Guidance Library: BMP Drivers - Safety Products Must Meet SAE Specs Type I Aircraft Fluids AMS 1424 /Anti-Icing Fluid, Aircraft Type II, III, and IV Aircraft Anti- Fluids AMS 1428 Fluid, Aircraft /Anti-icing, Non- Newtonian (Pseudoplastic), SAE Types II, III, and IV Airfield Pavement AMS 1431 Compound, Solid Runway and Taxiway /Anti-icing AMS 1435 Fluid, Generic, /Anti-Icing Runways and Taxiways AMS Documents available from: BMP Drivers - Environmental Concerns Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Product BOD 5 Propylene glycol ADF* ~ 960,000 mg/l Ethylene glycol ADF * ~440,000 mg/l Potassium Acetate PDF * ~200,000 mg/l Raw sewage Typical stormwater mg/l mg/l * ACRP lab results Toxicity Additives (corrosion inhibitors, surfactants, thickeners) New generation products are less toxic Non-deicing runoff pollutants Fuels, suspended solids, and oils/greases BMP Drivers - Regulatory Clean Water Act Direct versus Indirect Discharges Permit Program (Direct Discharge) Types of stormwater permits Industrial (includes deicing) Construction Municipal Issues Associated with Permit Development Individual Permit versus General Permit Effluent Limitation Water Quality Standards (including Total Maximum Daily Loads) Planning Framework Applicable to evaluating current and future requirements Useful in assessing efficiency of compliance efforts Planning Framework - Role and Application of Modeling Tools Provide organization and structure for information and knowledge Develop understanding and insight Test theories Support decision-making Identify critical processes and data Understand inter-relationships Evaluate alternatives Limitations No better than available data & information Represent trends well, but not minute detail Modeling Runoff Processes Model Type Processes Represented Hydrological Runoff generation (rain, sleet, snowmelt) Infiltration Evapotranspiration Hydraulic Conveyance Water Quality Deicer usage Deicer transport pathways Deicer removal by BMPs Deicer removal by decay Receiving water response to deicers Potential Reliability Overall Reliability Approach the Issue of Model Complexity with Caution Complexity Data Limitation Start simple One size does not fit all Increased complexity does not necessarily result in increased reliability Increased complexity always requires more data, time, expertise, and money Complexity BMP Selection Overview and Screening Process BMP categories Aircraft and airfield source reduction Containment/Collection Treatment/recycling System components Screening approach Factors for evaluating BMPs Proven and Demonstrated Application Implementation and Operational Requirements Advantages, Constraints, and Requisite Factors for Success Costs and Savings Demonstrated performance BMP Selection - BMP Categories Aircraft Source Reduction BMPs Reduce the amount of pollutants generated Use deicers with reduced environmental impacts Reduce amounts of deicers required 1. Aircraft product selection 2. Storage & handling of deicers 3. Proactive anti-icing 4. Blending to temperature 5. Forced air/hybrid deicing 6. Infrared deicing technology 7. Physical removal 8. Hangared parking 9. Hot water deicing 10. Enclosed deicing buckets 11. Enhanced weather forecasting 12. information systems 13. Aircraft deicer use tracking 14. Aircraft reduced operations 15. Tempered steam BMP Selection - BMP Categories Airfield Source Reduction BMPs Reduce the amount of pollutants generated Use deicers with reduced impacts Reduce amounts of deicers required 16. Airfield product selection 17. Storage & handling of deicers 18. PDM application technology 19. Heated pavement 20. Physical Removal BMP Selection BMP Categories Collection and Containment BMPs Methods for isolating, collecting, and containing storm water runoff from deicing activities. 21. Centralized deicing facilities 22. Apron collection systems 23. Glycol collection vehicles 24. Block-and-pump systems 25. Airfield drainage planning/ design/retrofit 26. Deicer-laden snow management BMP Selection - BMP Categories System Components Technologies that may be implemented in various locations, and serving different purposes, in a deicing runoff management system. 27. Portable tanks 28. Modular tanks 29. Ponds 30. Permanent tanks 31. Manual and automatic diversion valves 32. Real-time monitoring technology 33. Catch basin inserts/valves BMP Selection - BMP Categories Treatment/Recycling BMPs Alternatives for treating deicing runoff that has been collected and contained, and is not suitable for controlled discharge to receiving waters. 34. POTW discharge 35. Anaerobic fluidized bed reactor 36. Reciprocating subsurface treatment 37. Moving bed bioreactor 38. Sequencing batch reactor 39. Natural treatment systems 40. Membrane filtration 41. Glycol recovery BMP Selection Screening Process Source reduction BMPs Collection/containment BMPs close to the sources Containment/collection BMPs farther downstream if near-source BMPs not adequate to achieve required results Components System Storage, treatment, recycling, and/or disposal BMPs BMP (Fact Sheet #) Matrix of BMP Characteristics Proven an d Demonstrated Application Emerging Technology Industry Application Responsibility fo r Im plem entation Implementation and Operational Requirements Responsibility for Operatio n Ease of Implementation Lab or Requirements Train ing Requirements Source Reduction Aircraft Product selection (#1) N 5 Carriers/FBOs Carriers/FBOs Storage and handling (#2) N 5 Carriers/FBOs Carriers/FBOs Proactive anti-icing (#3) N 4 Carriers/FBOs Carriers/FBOs Blending to temperature (#4) N 3 Carriers/FBOs Carriers/FBOs 3 4 2 BMP (Fact Sheet #) Source Reduction Aircraft Product selection (#1) Storage and handling (#2) Proactive anti-icing (#3) Blending to temperature (#4) Matrix of BMP Characteristics Advantages, Constraints, and Requisite Factors for Success Advantages Constraints Keys to Success No special equipment requirements May offer opportunity to reduce toxicity Addresses sources outside of containm ent areas Saves money on wasted product Reduces delays Reduces Type I use under certain weather conditions Optim izes use of aircraft deicers Reduces overall Type I use with certain weather conditions Must conform with FAA-approved deicing plan Limited choice of products Depends on adoption of BMP by carrier and FBO staff May require extra deicing crew shift Must be incorporated into FAAapproved deicing plan Logistically complicated for FBOs serving multiple carriers with different FAA-approved deicing plans May require specialized equipment May undermine recycling efforts Gaining aircraft operator acceptance Incorporation of practices into Standard Operating Procedures Education of em ployees who handle deicers Suitable climate Accurate weather forecasting Suitable flight schedule Predominance of milder temperatures where lower glycol ratios can be used. Ready source of water for blending. equipment designed to facilitate blending Effective training and quality assurance. BMP Selection Evaluating BMPs Performance Metrics Summary of BMP Performance TABLE 3-2 Summary of Reported Mass Balance P erformance Metrics for Source Control and Containment/Collection BMPs Source Controls Airc raf t BMP Pe rformance a Comments % Load Reduction Product selection b (#1) ~15 Based on product literature on the BOD 5 of Type I ADFs currently used in the U.S. Storage and handling (#2) No data Proactive anti-icing (#3) No data Blending to temperature (#4) Very dependent on local climate Forced air/hybrid deicing (#5) High end only attainable under ideal conditions Infrared deicing technology (#6) Based on manufacturer s data of individual aircraft deicings Physical removal (#7) No data BMP Selection Evaluating BMPs Factors for evaluating BMPs Proven and demonstrated technology Implementation and operational requirements Responsibility for implementation Responsibility for operation Ease of implementation Labor requirements Training requirements Advantages, constraints, and requisite factors for success Costs and savings Relative Capital Costs Potential Savings 41 Fact Sheets BMP Fact Sheets Provide a description of the essential characteristics of the deicing runoff management toolbox Facilitate initial consideration and screening. Should be used with a clear understanding of Safety implications Site-Specific challenges Emerging technologies Standardized BMP Fact Sheet Structure 1. Description Purpose Technology Documented Performance 2. Implementation Considerations Applicability Assessment Regulatory Considerations Planning and Design Considerations Integration with Other BMPs Operation and Maintenance Considerations 3. Costs Capital Costs Operations and Maintenance Costs Example Fact Sheet: Forced Air/Hybrid Reported performance Using This Document in Addressing ELG Requirements Reduce/eliminate the use of urea-based pavement deicers Percent capture standard for applied ADF & AAF Effluent limits on discharges from onsite treatment plants Using This Document: Reduce/eliminate the use of urea-based pavement deicers Section 2. for Developing Integrated runoff Explains certification requirements for deicers Explains basis for environmental concerns Section 3. for Selecting Individual BMPS Discusses constraints on source reduction BMPs Fact Sheet #16 Describes available alternatives Identifies implementation considerations Provides comparison of costs Fact Sheet: Airfield Pavement Product Selection BOD content of products Product costs Using This Document: Percent capture standard for applied ADF & AAF Framework for Planning Runoff Control Programs Structured approach to addressing the requirements Mass balance discussion and examples Explains the calculation of performance metrics Runoff System Definition Describes process for identifying/evaluating different system configurations against system objectives for Selecting Individual BMPs Provides overview of the available BMPs Compares BMP performance expectations Fact Sheets Provide details on key aspects of candidate BMPs Fact Sheet: Centralized Facilities Reported costs Example layout Fact Sheets: Other Collection BMPs Using This Document: Effluent limits on discharges from onsite treatment plants Table 3-3 Summary of Performance Metrics for Treatment/Disposal/Recycling BMPs Provides basic characterization and comparison of treatment alternatives Fact Sheets Provide details on key aspects of candidate treatment BMPs Anaerobic fluidized bed reactor Reciprocating subsurface treatment Moving bed bioreactor Sequencing batch reactor Natural treatment systems Membrane filtration Glycol recovery Table 3-3 Summary of Performance Metrics for Treatment/Disposal/Recycling BMPs Additional Materials and Resources Section 5. References Bibliographic database Annotated bibliography Project library ACRP Webinar DVD of this presentation More to come.. CH2MHILL in association with: Gresham Smith & Partners Barnes & Thornburg Questions/Discussion
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