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Política energética en la UE: el debate entre la timidez y el atrevimiento(Es)/ Energetic policy in EU: the debate between the shyness and the impudence(Spanish)/ Politika energetikoa EB-ean: lotsa eta ausardiaren arteko eztabaida(Es)

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José M.ª Marín Quemada* POLÍTICA ENERGÉTICA EN LA UE: EL DEBATE ENTRE LA TIMIDEZ Y EL ATREVIMIENTO La elaboración de la política energética en la UE avanza lentamente. Las diferencias, divergencias y disensiones entre los Estados miembros, la ausencia de una política exterior común efectiva y la poca confianza en las acciones conjuntas, contribuyen a ralentizar el proceso, dando lugar a un «no modelo» de política energética insostenible en el largo plazo, dados los retos a los que se enfrenta l
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fghczfm`l/L` ~glètmf` cocziítmf` fghûo, dcjc cotcodczvc fghgcl fgoksotg dc `fts`fmgocv ch`o`d`v dcvdc l` Fghm(vmöo, cl Fgovckg } cl ^`zl`hcotg, zcfgimd`v co lgv tz`t`(dgv } z`tmamf`d`v ~gz lgv Cvt`dgv hmchjzgv ~`z` `fts`z vgjzc l` f`otmd`d, fgvtc } dmv~gomjmlmd`d dc l`v dmvtmot`vascotcv dc cocziè`, fgo so` cv~cfm`l fgovmdcz`fmöo ` l`~zcvczq`fmöo dcl hcdmg`hjmcotc } ` l` vciszmd`d co cl`j`vtcfmhmcotg/^czg, azcotc ` cvt` agzhsl`fmöo tcözmf`, bg} co Cszg(~`, og völg crmvtco dmaczcofm`v ` omqcl h`fzgcfgoöhm(fg, vgfm`l } dc ~czfc~fmöo ~glètmf`, t`hjmío b`} dmqcz(icofm`v co l` ogzh`tmq` dc lgv hczf`dgv motczmgzcv dccocziè`, cotzc lgv dmvtmotgv hgdclgv dc zcisl`fmöo, cocl iz`dg dc fgofcotz`fmöo ch~zcv`zm`l } co cl asofmgo`(hmcotg dc lgv gzi`omvhgv zcisl`dgzcv o`fmgo`lcv/ @cvt`v dmaczcofm`v `fgh~`ð`o dmvtmot`v cvtzsftsz`v dcicocz`fmöo, dmaczcotcv iz`dgv dc motczfgocrmöo cotzczcdcv, `liso`v j`zzcz`v dc cotz`d` hs} ogtgzm`v } ~g(vmfmgocv } `~zgrmh`fmgocv dmaczcotcv co l`v zcl`fmgocv} `fsczdgv 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~zg(~scvt`v, lgv hmchjzgv dcl Fgovckg b`o h`otcomdg codch`vm`d`v gf`vmgocv so fgh~gzt`hmcotg ds`l/ @hcosdg, co l`v zcsomgocv fgoksot`v, lgv hmomvtzgv vchscvtz`o ~`ztmd`zmgv dc dcfmvmgocv dc àhjmtg cszg(~cg } `vshco ~gvtsz`v cszg~cèvt`v co vsv dcfl`z`(fmgocv/ ^czg `l tmch~g, co vsv ~`èvcv, dcamcodco ~gvm(fmgocv hàv `lmoc`d`v fgo lgv cvtzmftgv motczcvcv o`(fmgo`lcv/ L` crmvtcofm` dc :9 hmchjzgv fgo dmvtmot`zcot` ~cz fà~mt`, fgo dmaczcotcv bàjmtgv dc fgovshgcocziítmfg, fgo cvtzsftsz`v dc ~zgdsffmöo } tz`ov~gz(tc ~gfg fgmofmdcotcv c moflsvg fgo ~zmgzmd`dcv ~glètm(f`v fgotz`~scvt`v, og a`fmlmt` lgv `fsczdgv co h`tczm`cocziítmf` psc, f`vm vmch~zc, zcpsmczco v`fzmamf`z mom(fm`lhcotc ~gvtsz`v o`fmgo`lcv co jcocamfmg dcl fgo( ksotg dc l` SC/ :/ L`v ~zmhcz`v ct`~`v L` cocziè` b` cvt`dg vmch~zc qmofsl`d` ` l`v dmvtmo(t`v ct`~`v dc l` Somöo, ~zgdsfmcodg } gjtcomcodg zc`f(fmgocv } zcvslt`dgv hs} dmqczvgv/ L` fgovtmtsfmöo dc l`Fghsomd`d Cszg~c` dcl F`zjöo } dcl @fczg FCF@-,dcv~sív l` Fgoaczcofm` dc 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hàrmh` camf`fm` cocziítmf`/ Lgv~`èvcv amzh`otcv vc fgh~zghctè`o ` cqmt`z mh~gocz ogz(h`v dmvfzmhmo`tgzm`v, t`otg amvf`lcv fghg zcaczcotcv ` l`~zg~mcd`d dc lgv zcfszvgv cocziítmfgv/ L` F`zt` t`h(jmío ~l`otc`j` so fgh~zghmvg ~`z` vs~zmhmz ~zgizcvm(q`hcotc lgv gjvtàfslgv co cl tzàovmtg dc cpsm~gv } vczqm(^ GLÈTMF@ COCZIÍTMF@ CO L@ SC; C L DCJ@TC COTZC L@ TMHMDC[ ] CL @TZCQMHMCOTG CFGOGHÈ@ DC L@ COCZIÈ@H`}g(Ksomg :>>2/ O/» 24: 19 MFC 0 Zcvglsfmöo dcl Fgovckg, dc = dc ksomg dc 0=2>, zcl`tmq` ` l`v oscq`vlèoc`v dc `ffmöo dc l` Fghsomd`d co h`tczm` dc `bgzzg dc cocziè`/Dm`zmg Gamfm`l oûhczg F 04= dc 02'>1'0=2> ~àimo`v >>>6(>>>3/ Cdmfmöocv~cfm`l co cv~`ðgl; F`~ètslg 0:, Tghg 4, ~àimo` >>>3/ : Fghsomf`fmöo dc l` Fghmvmöo zcl`tmq` ` so` F`zt` Cszg~c` dc l`Cocziè`, FGH 0==0- 61/  fmgv cocziítmfgv, `l tmch~g psc ~zcvt`j` `tcofmöo `l ag(hcotg } ~zgtcffmöo dc l`v moqczvmgocv co cocziè`,cvt`jlcfmcodg so h`zfg cvt`jlc } tz`ov~`zcotc, `l gjkc(tg dc `shcot`z l` vciszmd`d kszèdmf` } a`fmlmt`z lgv motcz(f`hjmgv dc tcfoglgiè` } l` fgg~cz`fmöo/Fgo cvtgv ~zmofm~mgv og cv crtz`ðg psc, ` ~cv`z dcltmch~g tz`ovfszzmdg, co l` SC vc`o `ûo fgzzmcotcv l`v zc(aczcofm`v ` l` F`zt`/ Moflsvg cv azcfscotc cr~lmfmt`z cldcvcg dc zctgh`z vsv ~l`otc`hmcotgv ~`z` motciz`zlgvco l` ~glètmf` cocziítmf`/ Vmo chj`zig, vcisz`hcotct`hjmío dcjmdg `l f`zàftcz ~glètmfg psc vsj}`fc co l`F`zt`, Zsvm` og l` b` z`tmamf`dg } og cv aàfml psc lg b`i`co t`otg ~czvmvt`o l`v dmamfslt`dcv dc cotcodmhmcotg fgol` SC, }` psc cllg lmhmt`zè` vs f`~`fmd`d dc h`omgjz` coso vcftgz, cl dc l` cocziè`, psc cv so ~sotg fzètmfg co l`cfgoghè` zsv` }, ~gz fmcztg, cl ûomfg àhjmtg co psc vsmoalscofm` motczo`fmgo`l b` fzcfmdg/ ^czg, vmo Zsvm`, l`F`zt` ~mczdc jsco` ~`ztc dc vs vmiomamf`dg, vcisz`hco(tc t`hjmío ~gzpsc og mofls}c fgo l` dcjmd` camf`fm` `l(isogv ~zgdsftgzcv psc vgo asod`hcot`lcv co cl vshm(omvtzg cocziítmfg dc Cszg~`, fghg vgo lgv dc GzmcotcHcdmg, Àazmf` g L`tmog`hízmf`/Dsz`otc `pscllgv `ðgv, Cszg~` vc agzt`lcfè` fgo osc(qgv } hàv `h~lmgv tz`t`dgv, H``vtzmfbt 0==:-, Àhvtcz(d`h 0==9- } Om{` :>>0- psc, `l tmch~g psc fcotz`j`ol` ~zmgzmd`d hcdmg`hjmcot`l, ~zg~mfm`j`o dmzcft` g modm(zcft`hcotc, } ` hcosdg vmo fmt`zlg, l` fgotmosmd`d dc lgvbmdzgf`zjszgv, i`v o`tsz`l } ~ctzölcg, fghg ascotcv aso(d`hcot`lcv co cl hmr cocziítmfg/ Dcv~sív dc l` F`zt`,vcisz`hcotc lgv dgfshcotgv hàv fgh~lctgv } psc hc( kgz b`o zcalck`dg lgv `q`ofcv co cl dmvcðg tcözmfg dc so`~glètmf` cocziítmf`, ~gz fmcztg, cvf`v`hcotc `fc~t`d`co l` ~zàftmf` ~gz lgv Cvt`dgv, b`o vmdg cl Lmjzg Jl`ofg Fghmvmöo dc l`v Fghsomd`dcv Cszg~c`v, 0==3- 6 , psc~zg~sio`j` cotzc vsv gjkctmqgv l` motciz`fmöo dc lgvhczf`dgv o`fmgo`lcv cotzc vè } zcfghcod`j` qmq`hco(tc vs lmjcz`lm{`fmöo, zcfgogfmcodg ` l` qc{ l` dcjmlmd`d~glètmf` } cfgoöhmf` psc mh~lmf`j` l` dc~codcofm` dclcrtczmgz/ Dcvdc cl Lmjzg Jl`ofg, vc movt`j` `l dmàlgigfgo lgv ~`èvcv ~zgdsftgzcv vs~gomcodg psc l` `fts`fmöodc so` Cszg~` somd` zcvslt`zè` hàv camf`{ psc lgv fgo(t`ftgv jml`tcz`lcv/ ^gz t`otg, co 0==3 }` vc dcamoè`ofghg gjkctmqgv cocziítmfgv ~zmgzmt`zmgv l` gjtcofmöo dcso `dcfs`dg h`zfg dc fgh~ctcofm` motczo`, l` vciszm(d`d dc lgv `j`vtcfmhmcotgv }, }` co fgbczcofm` fgoH``vtzmfbt, l` ~zgtcffmöo dcl hcdmg`hjmcotc/L` qslocz`jmlmd`d dc l` dc~codcofm` crtczmgz, vcð`l`d`co `pscl Lmjzg Jl`ofg, vc ~czamlö fgo hsfbg hàv dct`llcco cl Lmjzg Qczdc dcl `ðg :>>> ¥B`fm` so` cvtz`tcim` cs(zg~c` dc vciszmd`d dcl `j`vtcfmhmcotg cocziítmfgµ Fg(hmvmöo dc l`v Fghsomd`dcv Cszg~c`v, :>>>- 4 , psc vcð`(l`j` tzcv ~sotgv dc fgovcovg; b`jè` psc `fts`z ~`z` pscl` SC og vc qmcz` `acft`d`, vmog tgdg lg fgotz`zmg, ~gz vs`h~lm`fmöo b`fm` cl Cvtc, vc fgovt`t`j` l` lmhmt`d` f`~`(fmd`d dc `fts`fmöo dc lgv ~`èvcv hmchjzgv zcv~cftg dcl`v fgodmfmgocv dc l` gaczt` dc cocziè`, cv~cfm`lhcotc~gz l` qè` jml`tcz`l }, ~gz ûltmhg, vc zcfgogfè` cr~lèfmt`(hcotc l` mh~gvmjmlmd`d dc fsh~lmz fgo Emgtg v`lqg psc vctgh`z`o hcdmd`v z`dmf`lcv, szicotcv } f`z`v/ @dmfmgo`l(hcotc ` cvtgv dgfshcotgv, } ~gz `pscll` hmvh` í~gf`,vc ~zgdskczgo dcvdc Jzsvcl`v dmvtmot`v dmzcftmq`v vgjzc~zcfmgv, ogzh`v dc hczf`dg motczmgz } dc tzàovmtg motz`fg(hsomt`zmg, vm jmco cl dgfshcotg asod`hcot`l ~`z` cotco(dcz lgv motcotgv dc l` í~gf` ~gz gzdco`z l` ~glètmf` cocz(iítmf` asc, vmo dsd`, cvtc Lmjzg Qczdc dc :>>>/Og gjvt`otc, l`v dmamfslt`dcv dc cotcodmhmcotg dclhghcotg cotzc lgv ~`èvcv hmchjzgv bmfmczgo psc cl Lm(jzg Qczdc og fgotsqmcz` so mh~cz`tmqg ll`h`hmcotg `lcvt`jlcfmhmcotg dc so` ~glètmf` cocziítmf` fghûo, vmco(dg ûomf`hcotc ~gvmjlc fgovcovs`z cotgofcv so` vczmcdc gzmcot`fmgocv psc vczè`o dcj`tmd`v co lgv `ðgv vm(ismcotcv/ 12 CFGOGHÈ@ DC L@ COCZIÈ@H`}g(Ksomg :>>2/ O/» 24: K GVÍ H/« H  @ZÈO P SCH@D@ MFC 6 FGHMVMÖO DC L@V FGHSOMD@DCV CSZG^C@V 0==3-, ¥Lmjzgjl`ofg/ So` ~glètmf` cocziítmf` ~`z` l` Somöo cszg~c`µ FGH'=3'>12:amo`l/ 4 FGHMVMÖO DC L@V FGHSOMD@DCV CSZG^C@V :>>>-, ¥LmjzgQczdc/ B`fm` so` cvtz`tcim` cszg~c` dc vciszmd`d dcl `j`vtcfmhmcotgcocziítmfgµ FGH :>>>- 91= amo`l/
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