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PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF BIODIESEL PLANT FROM WASTE VEGETABLE OIL (WVO) AND METHANOL WITH CAPACITY OF 15,000 TON/ YEAR By: Salam Noureddin Aridin D Supervisor: 1. Rois Fatoni, ST, MSc, Ph.D 2. Ir. Nur Hidayati, MT., Ph.D CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF ENGINEERING UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH SURAKARTA 2016 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author says thanks to Allah SWT who gives the blessings, so the author can be able to finish the final a project Preliminary design of Biodiesl plant from waste vegetable oil and methanol under Ultrasound Agitations, s. In arranging the report, the author gets supports from several parties. Because of that, the author wants to say thanks to: 1. Allah SWT who has given me His mercy and His blessings. 2. Father Noureddin Aridin, sister Samar Aridin, brothers (Nasser, Mohammed, Firas, Suhail), little niece Salam, and my beloved Yudha Rahman, who always pray and give a boost to the author in order to completing this report. 3. Mr.Rois Fatoni, ST, MSc, Ph.D as supervisor I. 4. Mrs. Ir. Nur Hidayati, MT., Ph.D as supervisor II. The author realizes that in the preparation of plant task, there is still a shortage. Therefore, the author expects the suggestions and criticism from readers, so it can be used as a consideration. The author hopes that this plant design tasks can be useful to the readers. i PELIMINARY DESIGN OF BIODIESEL PLANT FROM WASTE VEGETABLE OIL (WVO) AND METHANOL UNDER ULTRASONIC AGITATION 15,000 TON/YEAR Salam Noureddin Nassereddin Aridin Chemical Engineering Department Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta ABSTRACT Biodiesel is a fatty acid methyl or ethyl esters from vegetable oil or animal fat and is used majorly as fuel in diesel engines vehicles, which is done by esterification process in this research using homogeneous catalyst, the commonly known biodiesel catalysts are homogeneous basic catalysts as Sodium hydroxide and Potassium hydroxide. In this plant design the ultrasonic field induced an affective emulsification and mass transfer so that the mass of ester formation under ultrasonic mixing condition will be higher than that under stirring condition. Emulsification is the first preparation of fat for chemical digestion by specific enzymes. This preliminary plant design represents the study of designing a biodiesel plant capacity of, under Ultrasound agitation in the reactor as the mixing method. Economic analysis of the plant resulted a ROI (Return On Investment) of 26% before cutting the tax to be 21% after tax. POT (Pay Out Time) was calculated to be 2.5 years before tax and 3.5 years after tax. As for BEP (Break Even Point) 53% which means if the plant sell less than 53% there will be no profit. SDP (Shut Down Point) value resulted as 29%, and DCF (Discounted Cash Flow) is 9%. After suggesting to increase the plant capacity to 50% of the original capacity due to low profit and high BEP, According to the economic analysis, this plant has a profit of Rp.183,460,241,614 per year, and of Rp.137,595,181,210 per year after a 25% tax. Percent of Return On Investment (ROI) before tax 80%, after tax 60%. Pay Out Time (POT) before tax is for 1.1 year, and after tax is for 1.5 year. Break Even Point (BEP) value is 28% and Shut Down Point (SDP) value is 16%. Discounted Cash Flow ( DCF) is as much as 26%. According to the previous results, this plant is considered feasible to build in Bontang. ii ABSTRAK Biodiesel adalah asam lemak metil atau etil ester dari minyak nabati atau lemak hewan dan digunakan majorly sebagai bahan bakar di mesin diesel kendaraan, yang dilakukan oleh proses esterifikasi dalam penelitian ini menggunakan katalis homogen, katalis biodiesel umum dikenal adalah katalis dasar homogen seperti Sodium hidroksida dan Kalium hidroksida. Dalam tanaman ini merancang bidang ultrasonik diinduksi emulsifikasi afektif dan perpindahan massa sehingga massa pembentukan ester dalam kondisi pencampuran ultrasonik akan lebih tinggi dari yang di bawah pengadukan condition.emulsification adalah thefirstpreparation dari fatforchemicaldigestion oleh specificenzymes. desain tanaman awal ini merupakan studi merancang kapasitas pabrik biodiesel dari ton / tahun, di bawah USG agitasi dalam reaktor sebagai metode pencampuran. analisis ekonomi tanaman menghasilkan ROI (Return On Investment) dari 26% sebelum pemotongan pajak menjadi 21% setelah pajak. POT (Pay Out Time) dihitung menjadi 2,5 tahun sebelum pajak dan 3,5 tahun setelah pajak. Adapun BEP (Break Even Point) 53% yang berarti jika tanaman menjual kurang dari 53% tidak akan ada keuntungan. SDP (Shut Down Point) nilai hasil 29%, dan DCF (Discounted Cash Flow) adalah 9%. Setelah menyarankan untuk meningkatkan kapasitas pabrik menjadi 50% dari kapasitas aslinya karena keuntungan rendah dan BEP tinggi, Menurut analisis ekonomi, tanaman ini memiliki keuntungan Rp.183,460,241,614 per tahun, dan dari Rp.137,595,181,210 per tahun setelah 25 % pajak. Persen dari Return On Investment (ROI) sebelum pajak 80%, setelah pajak 60%. Pay Out Time (POT) sebelum pajak adalah untuk 1,1 tahun, dan setelah pajak selama 1,5 tahun. Break Even Point (BEP) nilai adalah 28% dan Shut Down Point (SDP) nilai adalah 16%. Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) adalah sebanyak 26%. Menurut hasil sebelumnya, tanaman ini dianggap layak untuk membangun di Bontang. Kata kunci: Biodiesel, USG, Bio-energi, CSTR, gliserol iii Motto In great success comes great responsibility. (Salam Aridin) They held themselves to ALLAH SWT, So ALLAH always remember them. (Mr.Suwardi) The only one who can motivate you, is yourself (Salam Aridin) Nothing is impossible, as long as you believe you can do it. (Salam Aridin) What does not kill us, makes us stronger (Friedrich Nietzsche) iv DEDICATION This work is dedicated for: My beloved mom who passed away long time ago, i believe she is in a better place and i hope she is proud of me up there. My beloved father for always being there, supporting, advising and loving me. My sister and second mom, thank you for being there when nobody was, and thank you for helping when you re not obligated to. My four beloved brothers, i want to say that (YOU MAKE ME STRONGER!). My lovely niece, thank you for bringing the joy in our lives. Myself, for spending 4 years studying abroad and for accepting this challenge. My love and partner in life to be, thank you for the full support and your great spirit through my worst times. My classmates, thank you for understanding me and sharing your special moments with me these four years, you ll always be in my mind, may Allah bless you all. v CONTENT Acknowledgment...i Abstract...ii Motto...iii Dedication...iv Content...v Table of Figures...vii Figure Content...ix CHAPTER I...1 INTRODUCTION Background Site selection for the plant Literature review Use of product Physical and chemical properties of raw materials and product General process overview...21 CHAPTER II...22 PROCESS DISCRIPTION Specification of raw material and products Concept of process Process flow diagram Mas and energy conservation Plant and process tool layout...51 CHAPTER III...53 PROCESS TOOLS SPECIFICATION Specifications of main tools...53 vi 3.2 Specifications of secondary tools...57 CHAPTER IV...87 UTILITIES AND LABORATORIES The supporting Process Laboratory Health and safety at work CHAPTER V MANAGEMENT CHAPTER VI ECONOMIC ANALYSIS Equipments price approximation Basic Calculation Total fixed capital investment (FCI) Working capital (WC) Manufacturing cost (MC) General expenses (GE) Feasibility analysis CHAPTER VII DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION vii FIGURE CONTENTS Figure 1.1 Diagrammatic figure of global fuel production (World Ethanol and biomass Report 2008)...4 Figure 1.2 World consumption of biodiesel (World Ethanol and biomass Report 2008)...5 Figure 1.3 Production and export of biodiesel in Indonesia from (USDA Prodction and export in Indonesia )...7 Figure 1.4 Location of methanol plant in Bontang PT.Kaltim methanol industry (Google maps 2015)...8 Figure 1.5 Schematic representation of the transesterefication of triglycerides with methanol to produce fatty acid methyl ester...10 Figure 1.6 Illustration of biodiesel processor, reactor and transducer (continious process) (Hielscher-Ultrasound Technology 2007)...12 Figure 1.7 Process flow diagram of biodiesel production...21 Figure Qualitative process layout...32 Figure Quantitative process layout (kg/h)...33 Figure 2.1 Mass balance flow diagram...34 Figure 2.2 Plant layout...50 Figure 6.1 Chemical engineering index cost Figure 6.2 Feasibility analysis graph viii TABLE CONTENT Table 1.1 comparative view of minimum biodiesel mandatory program in Indonesia, Table 1.2 Data import of biodiesel in Indonesia...6 Table 1.3 Capacity data of biodiesel in Indonesia (PT.Kreatif Energy Indonesia, Table 1.4 Fatty acid composition (wt%) in WVO and CVO...14 Table 1.5 Comparison between the properties of WVO and WCO...14 Table 1.6 Biodiesel standards DIN V Table 2.1 Standard enthalpy change of formation ΔH f of the reaction components...26 Table 2.2 Standard enthalpy change of formation ΔG f of the reaction components...27 Table 2.3 Mas conservation stream for each component...35 Table 2.4 Mass balance in mixer (M-01)...35 Table 2.5 Mass balance of reactor (R-01)...36 Table 2.6 Mass balance of decanter (H-1.1)...36 Table 2.7 Mass balance of washing tank (H-2.1)...37 Table 2.8 Mass balance of flash drum (D-1.1)...37 Table 2.9 Mass balance of Distillation column (D-2.1)...38 Table 2.10 Total mass balance (overall)...39 Table 2.11 Heat balance for mixer (M-01)...39 Table 2.12 Heat balance for heat exchanger (E-1.1)...40 Table 2.13 Heat balance for heat exchanger (E-1.2)...40 Table 2.14 Heat balance for reactor (R-01)...40 Table 2.15 Heat balance for decanter (H-1.1)...41 Table 2.16 Heat balance for heat exchanger (E-1.3)...41 Table 2.17 Heat balance for washing tank (H-2.1)...41 Table 2.18 Heat balance for heat exchanger (E-1.4)...42 Table 2.19 Heat balance for flash drum (D-1.1)...42 ix Table 2.20 Heat balance for cooler 1 (E-2.1)...42 Table 2.21 Heat balance for cooler 2 (E-2.1)...43 Table 2.22 Heat balance for collecting tank (T-1.3)...43 Table 2.23 Heat balance for distillation column (D-2.1)...43 Table 2.24 Heat balance for cooler (E-2.3)...44 Table 2.25 Heat balance overall...44 Table 2.26 Plant land area to manufacture...48 Table 4.1 Cooling water needed Table 4.2 Water supply to steam (Saturated steam) Table 4.3 Calculating the steam demand for heating Table 4.4 Power consumption for purposes process Table 4.5 Power consumption for lighting Table 5.1 The work schedule for each team Table 5.2 Position classification, number of employees and salaries Table 6.1 Price of equipment is done by using a price index data Table 6.2 Total fixed capital investment Table 6.3 Working capital (WC) Table 6.4 Manufacturing cost of plant Table 6.5 General expenses x
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