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PT PLN (Persero) POWER GENERATION AND RENEWABLE ENERGY : ROADMAP AND OPPORTUNITIES. PT PLN (Persero) New and Renewable Division

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PT PLN (Persero) POWER GENERATION AND RENEWABLE ENERGY : ROADMAP AND OPPORTUNITIES PT PLN (Persero) New and Renewable Division PRE-SUBMISSION MEETING HIBAH PEMBIAYAAN BERSAMA ENERGI TERBARUKAN 1 JAKARTA,
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PT PLN (Persero) POWER GENERATION AND RENEWABLE ENERGY : ROADMAP AND OPPORTUNITIES PT PLN (Persero) New and Renewable Division PRE-SUBMISSION MEETING HIBAH PEMBIAYAAN BERSAMA ENERGI TERBARUKAN 1 JAKARTA, 03 FEBRUARY, 2015 AGENDA AGENDA PLN PROFILE IN RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT PROJECTS (GPPP) HYDRO POWER PLANT PROJECTS (HPPP) SOLAR PV PROJECTS BIOMASS POWER PLANT PROJECTS OPPORTUNITIES CHALLENGES O O U S AND C G S ON O RE DEVELOPMENT O AGENDA PLN PROFILE IN RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF NATIONAL ELECTRICITY High electricity load demand projection, with growth of 8.4% per year. Relatively low electrification ratio (national average 78%), with average level of consumption per capita is 754 kwh. The composition of the fossil fuel usage remained high National : 12%. Enormous potential for renewable energy (hydro and geothermal), but the use is still limited. PLN limited investment capabilities Private sector's s role in the development of renewable energy driven by FIT (Feed in Tariff). 4 STATUS PENGEMBANGAN RE RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRESS Hydropower and Geothermal dominated the RE development in Indonesia because of the great potential and economical factors. Hd Hydropower which h has been developed d to the stage of operation are 3,867 MW (excluding own use HPP by a private developer), while geothermal been operating at 1,310 MW. Solar energy (PV): 9 locations have been operating at 3.6 MWp; The 100 island Solar PV program (21 MW) are under construction; The 1,000 islands solar PV program (225 MW) in the evaluation phase. The role of the private sector has indicated to develop 305 MW. Biomass: 61 MW already operating with most schemes as excess power to the grid. Minihidro: 1,394.6 MW will be developed by the IPP with appropriate FIT price MW phase in operation, MW under construction, MW in funding process, MW in PPA process and MW isstill a proposal. Electricity Demand Forecast (High demand growth as of 8.4% annually) Year Demand (TWh) Elec. Ratio ( % ) AGENDA GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT PROJECTS (GPPP) GEOTHERMAL POTENTIAL MAP GEOTHERMAL POTENTIAL MAP 8 LOCATIONS 115 MW 55 LOCATIONS MW 26 LOCATIONS 954 MW 3 LOCATIONS 75 MW 86 LOCATIONS MW 71 LOCATIONS 10,092 MW Source : Geology Agency, MEMR (2010) 27 LOCATIONS MW Preliminary y survey Detailed Survey Ready to be implemented Installed RESOURCE (MW) % RESERVE (MW) % Speculative Hypothetical Possible Probable Proven % % MAP OF GEOTHERMAL DEVELOPMENT GEOTHERMAL PROJECTS IN BIDDING STAGE (940 MW) 1. SEULAWAH AGAM (2x55 MW) 2. PUSUK BUKIT (2x55 MW) 3. SIPOHOLON (1x55 MW) 4. BONJOL (3x55 MW) 5. WAY RATAI (1x55 MW) 6. DANAU RANAU (2x55 MW) 7. G.ENDUT (1x55 MW) 8. G. CEREMAI (2x55 MW) 9. UMBUL TELOMOYO (1x55 MW) 10.SEMBALUN (1x20 MW) 11.MATALOKO (3X5 MW) 12.MERANA/MASAINGI (2X10 MW) 13.SONGA WAYAUA (1x5 MW) 14.BORA PULU (1x55 MW) 15.OKA ILE ANGE (10 MW) PPA DISCUSSION/ RENEGOTIATION 1. JABOI (2x5 MW) 2. SORIK MERAPI (3X80 MW) 3. SARULLA II (2X55 MW) 4. S. SEKINCAU (4X55 MW) 5. C. CISUKARAME (1X50 MW) 6. RAWA DANO (1X110 MW) 7. W. WINDU 3&4 (2X110 MW) 8. T. PERAHU I & II (170 MW) 9. TAMPOMAS (1X45 MW) 10.GUCI (1X55 MW) 11.BATU RADEN (2X110 MW) 12.NGEBEL/WILIS (3X55 MW) 13.IYANG ARGOPURO (1X55 MW) 14.BEDUGUL (1X10 MW) 15.HU U (2X10 MW) 16.SOKORIA (3X5 MW) 17.JAILOLO (2X5 MW) 18.DIENG 2 & 3 (115 MW) PPA SIGNED/PREPARATION EXPLORATION 1. RAJABASA (220 MW) 2. UNGARAN (1X55 MW) 3. IJEN (2X55 MW) 4. ATADEI (1x5 MW) EXPLORATION STAGE 1. MUARA LABOH (220 MW) 2. RANTAU DADAP (220 MW) 3. SUNGAI PENUH (110 MW) 4. HULULAIS (110 MW) 5. ULUMBU (5 MW) 6. KOTA MOBAGU (80 MW) 7. TULEHU (20 MW) READY FOR EXPLOITATION/ FINACING CLOSE 1. SARULLA I (330 MW) 2. LUMUT BALAI (220 MW) 3. ULUBELU 3&4 (110 MW) 4. CIBUNI (10 MW) 5. KARAHA BODAS (140 MW)) 6. LAHENDONG 5&6 (40 MW) Contact us : PT PLN (Persero), Jl. Trunojoyo Blok M I/135, Jakarta Phone : Fac : CONSTRUCTION STAGE (155 MW) 1. PATUHA (120 MW) 2. ULUMBU (5 MW) 3. KAMOJANG 5 (30 MW) PRODUCTION STAGE ( MW) 1. SIBAYAK (12 MW) 2. KAMOJANG (210 MW) 3. WAYANG WINDU (220 MW) 4. GN. SALAK (360 MW) 5. DARAJAT (255 MW) 6. DIENG (60 MW) 7. ULUMBU (5 MW) 8. MATALOKO (1,5 MW) 9. LAHENDONG (80 MW) 10. ULUBELU 1&2 (110 MW) Additional Capacity of Geothermal as of PLN RUPTL (Total 6060 MW) Pengembangan PLTP sesuai RUPTL ( ) MW 1000 IPP/Liswas PLN Most geothermal plants are expected to be commissioned between Exploration and financing are the critical factors. Some of those WKP not yet offered to investors/bidding has not taken place. Strong Regulatory and permits are required Most geothermal (93%) will be developed in Java and Sumatra, 89 % will be developed by IPP. RENCANA TAMBAHAN KAPASITAS PLTP MASUK SISTEM PLN SESUAI RUPTL TAHUN TOTAL SUMATRA JAWA BALI LUAR JBS TOTAL KOMULATIF AGENDA HYDRO POWER PLANT PROJECTS (HPPP) HYDROPOWER POTENTIAL IN INDONESIA HYDROPOWER POTENTIAL IN INDONESIA 75 GW (Hydropower Potential Study 1983) with 3,9 GW IN OPERATION 75 GW (Hydropower Potential Study 1983) ACEH MW SOUTH, CENTRAL & EAST KALIMANTAN MW NORTH SUMATERA MW WEST SUMATERA & RIAU MW NORTH & CENTRAL SULAWESI MW WEST KALIMANTAN MW MOLUCCA 430 MW PAPUA & WEST PAPUA MW SOUTH SUMATERA, JAMBI, BENGKULU & LAMPUNG MW CENTRAL JAVA 813 MW SOUTH, SOUTH-EAST & WEST SULAWESI MW BALI & NUSA TENGGARA 624 MW WEST JAVA MW EAST JAVA 525 MW 12 HYDROPOWER DEVELOPMENT STATUS Construction (1,525.4MW), PPA process (1,819 MW) & Study/Design (2,131 MW) ACEH ( 86.4 MW ) 1. PEUSANGAN 1&2 (86.4 MW) ACEH( 144 MW ) 1. PEUSANGAN IV (85 MW) 2. MEUREBO-2 (59 MW) PAPUA( 56.5 MW ) 1. WARSAMSON (46.5 MW) 2. ORYA-2 (10 MW) WEST SUMATERA ( 52 MW ) 1. MASANG-2 (52 MW) NORTH SUMATERA ( 219 MW ) 1. ASAHAN III (174 MW) 2. WAMPU (45 MW) NORTH SUMATERA ( 90 MW ) 1. SIMANGGO-2 (90 MW) KALIMANTAN ( 313 MW ) 1. KUSAN (65 MW) 2. NANGA PINOH (98 MW) 3. KELAI (150 MW) NORTH SUMATERA ( 589 MW ) 1. BATANG TORU (550 MW) 2. HASANG (39 MW) SOUTH & WEST SULAWESI( 640 MW ) 1. MALEA (90MW) 2. BONTOBATU (100 MW) 3. KARAMA ( 450 MW ) MOLUCCU ( 54 MW ) 1. TALA (54 MW) PAPUA ( 70 MW ) 1. GENYEM (20 MW) 2. BALIEM (50 MW) JAMBI ( 350 MW ) 1. MERANGIN (350 MW) LAMPUNG( 56MW ) 1. SEMANGKA(56MW) JAVA( 1,094 MW ) 1. KARANGKATES 4&5 (100 MW) 2. KESAMBEN (32 MW) 3. KALIKONTO (62 MW) 4. MATENGGENG PS (900 MW) SULAWESI ( 437 MW ) 1. SAWANGAN (12 MW) NUSA TENGGARA( 34.5 MW ) 2. BAKARU II (126 MW) 1. WAI RANCANG (16.5 MW) 3. POKO (234 MW) 2. BEH-1 (18 MW) 4. KONAWE-1 (50 MW) 5. WATUNOHU (15 MW) WEST JAVA ( 1,150 MW ) 1. UPPER CISOKAN PS (1,040 MW) 2. JATIGEDE (110 MW) WEST JAVA( 40 MW ) 1. RAJAMANDALA (40 MW) TAHAP KONSTRUKSI NEGOSIASI PPA TAHAP STUDY / DESIGN 13 HYDROPOWER POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIA PLAN 75 (6.3 GW GW (Hydropower up to 2021 Potential and Study ) GW with 3,9 up GW to IN 2027) OPERATION (6.3 GW up to 2021 and 12.9 GW up to 2027) HYDROPOWER DEVELOPMENT PLAN Hydro Power Potential Study (1983) : MW 1,249 Location Review Hydro Power Potential Study (1999) 3 rd Screening : MW -167 Location Hydropower Master Plan Study ( 2011 ) : MW 89 Location Kalimantan Kli Sulawesi 431 MW 3239,6 MW Maluku 156,4 MW Papua 49 MW Sumatera 4.408,4 MW JAWA 4.594,5 5 MW Nusa Tenggara 15 MW 14 HYDROPOWER DEVELOPMENT PLAN ( Add. Capacity : MW MW small Hydro ) In nstalled Capacity (MW W) Java Bali West Indonesia East Indonesia Year FTP II (11 projects with total 1753 MW) o PLN Projects : 3 large hydro power projects with the total 1269 MW (174 MW under construction, 1040 MW Pre construction and 55 MW under study and design) o IPP Projects : 8 large hydro power projects with the total 484 MW (45 MW HEPP under construction) Non FTP II : o 4 PLN s hydropower projects (266.4 MW) under construction o 4 IPP s hydropower projects (1,409 MW) under PPA negotiation o 42 Mini hydro ( PLN & IPP ) projects (190 MW) under construction 15 Minihydro Development Program (PLN 10 years planning/ruptl) 16 MHPP DEVELOPMENT BY IPP ( October 2014 ) REGION / STATUS IPP COMMULATIVE COMMULATIVE NUMBER CAPACITY (kw) CAPACITY (kw) EAST INDONESIA ,170 Operation 20 56, ,840 Construction 11 42, ,540 Financing 6 22, ,240 PPA process 22 98, ,570 Proposal 23 85, ,170 SUMATERA ,042 Operation 11 37, ,625 Construction , ,483 Financing , ,231 PPA process , ,131 Proposal , ,042 JAVA BALI ,405 Operation 17 17, ,870 Construction 13 54, ,260 Financing 12 54, ,860 PPA process , ,786 Proposal , ,405 GRAND TOTAL 313 1,394,617 17 BUSINESS SCHEME MHPP DEVELOPMENT BY IPP Consortium Consortium Member Consortium Member Consortium Member Consortium Member EQUITY Local Government MEMR MOPW M-FORESTRY ETC. Permits Special Purpose Company PPA Lenders EPC Contractor 18 MHPP IPP DEVELOPMENT STATUS Status IPP Number Capacity (kw) Operation ,335 Under Construction ,428 Financing Process ,068 PPA Process ,936 Proposal ,218 Grand Total 314 1,413,985 19 Proposal (Pre FS) 30 WD Technical Verification TIMELINE BEFORE PPA Application for appointment as hydropower developer 30 WD appointment as hydropower developer 30 WD / penalty 1 Submission of certificate of deposit Temporary IUPTL 90 HK Submission of FS and other documents 30 WD / Penalty 2 WD : Working Day PPA Signing Penalty 1 : Revocation of appointment as hydropower developer Prohibition for similar application for 2 years in a row Penalty 2 : Penalty % of the deposit belongs to the government 20 TIMELINE AFTER PPA PPA Signing 15 months/ Penalty 3 Financiali Close IUPTL 3-15 months Tariff Recuction Penalty 15 months Penalty 4 Financing i Date Construction COD 20 months End ofppa months months Penalty 3 : Penalty % of the deposit belongs to the government Tariff Reduction Penalty (applied for the first 8 year) : Delay start construction up to 3 months, subject to a 1% tariff reduction; Delay start construction of more than 3 months to 6 months, subject to a 2% tariff reduction; Delay start construction over 6 months, subject to a 3% tariff reduction Penalty 4 : (Delay start construction over 15 months) Penalty 1 + The entire deposit certificates submitted and has not been used for physical development belongs to the government 21 22 MHPP FEED IN TARIFF MHPP DEVELOPMENT ISSUES TECHNICAL ASPECT (location and design, hydrology, planning & management of dam, infrastructure safety, reliability & efficiency of assets) ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECT (downstream flow of the dam, erosion & sedimentation, water & air quality, biodiversity & endangered species, trash, etc) SOCIAL ASPECT (Communities affected by the project, relocation & resettlement, communities around the project site, historic buildings, public health, etc) ECONOMIC, FINANCIAL & REGULATION ASPECT (economic & financial feasibility, project benefits, procurement, financing, permit, etc) INTEGRATIVE ASPECT (suitability of demand & development strategy, communication & consultation, governances, integrated project management, planning integration, environmental management & social issues, etc) 23 AGENDA SOLAR PV AND WIND PROJECTS 24 Objectives : To reduce the use of fossil fuel, To increase the electrification ratio. PLN SOLAR PV DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES Background : Indonesia has many remote islands, Electricity in remote islands are still used a lot of HSD Diesel fuel, Transportation of fuel to remote islands are very expensive and complex. Prioritization : For areas with low electrification ratio ( below 60% ) and no other sources of renewable energy, Will not increase the electricity production cost of the existing electricity systems. 25 IMPLEMENTATION PROGRAM FOR SOLAR PV ( ) SOLAR PV PROGRAM TOURISM ISLANDS (6 LOCATION 0.92 MWp) : IN OPERATION FRONTIER ISLAND (8 LOCATIONS 1.34 MWp) IN OPERATION 1000 ISLANDS PROGRAM (861 LOCATIONS) 100 ISLANDS STAGE I (2011) (36 LOCATIONS) 100 ISALNDS STAGE II (2012) (78 LOCATIONS) 1000 ISLANDS (672 LOCATIONS) IPP ISOLATED (LARGER THAN 1 MW) : 71 LOCATIONS TOTAL REGION LOCATIONS CAPACITY (MWp) WEST IND ,8 EAST IND ,5 JAVA BALI 21 6,3 TOTAL ,6 1. The 1000 islands project : 141 locations start in 2012 (PLN Budget) and 402 locations under funding preparation 2. The IPP Solar PV project : more than 5 MW capacity (Regulation under preparation) 3. FIT for Solar PV has been issued 4. PLN standard for Solar PV has been issued. Under reviewed additional location (185 locations), total will be 857 locations 26 PV AND WIND POWER PLANT PROJECTS OF PLN INDONESIA -Average Solar Irradiation between 4 6 kw/m 2. Most higher radiation is in Eastern of Indonesia - Estimating, the radiation can generate energy about 3.7 kwh/day. RIAU&KEPRI Location: TAREMPA ANAMBAS Island Capacity: 200 kwp Status : Operation EAST KALIMANTAN Location: SEBATIK SEBATIK Island Capacity : 300 kwp Status : Operation EAST KALIMANTAN Location: DERAWAN Island Capacity : 170 kwp + Battery Status : Operation on March 2011 NORTH SULAWESI Location : MIANGAS Island Capacity : 30 kwp Status : Operation on Oct 2011 RIAU&KEPRI Location: MORO. KARIMUN Island Capacity: 200 kwp Status : Operation EAST KALIMANTAN Location: BUNYU BUNYU Island Capacity : 150 kwp Status : Construction NORTH MALUKU Location : MOROTAI Island Capacity : 600 kwp Status: Operation on April 2012 NORTH SULAWESI Location : MARAMPIT Island Capacity : 50 kwp Status : Final Construction NORTH SULAWESI Location : BUNAKEN Island Capacity : 335 kwp + Battery Status : Operation on Feb WEST SUMATERA Location: SIMALEPET SIPORA Island Capacity: 40 kwp Status : Operation WEST NUSA TENGGARA Location : GILI TRAWANGAN Capacity : 200 kwp Status : Operation on Feb 2011 SOUTH SULAWESI Location: TOMIA Island Capacity : 75 kwp Status : Operation on May 2011 PAPUA Location: SAONEK RAJA AMPAT Islands Capacity : 40 kwp Status : Operation on Dec WEST SUMATERA Location: TUA PEJAT SIPORA Island Capacity: 150 kwp Status : Operation BALI MALUKU Location: BANDA NAIRA Capacity : 100 kwp Status : Operation on Dec EAST NUSATENGGARA : Wind Turbine Projects Location : NUSA PENIDA Capacity : 3x85 kw Status : Existing owned by PLN Contact us : PT PLN (Persero), Jl. Trunojoyo Blok M I/135, Jakarta Phone : Fac : : Photovoltaic Projects Location: LEMBATA Capacity : 200 kwp Status : Operation on Sept 2011 Contact us : PT PLN (Persero), Jl. Trunojoyo Blok M I/135, Jakarta Phone : Fac : 1000 ISLANDS PV DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM PV Development Program up to 2020 : 620 MW NAD: 44 lokasi, 7.4 MWp Sumbar: 42 lokasi 7.7 MWp Sumut: 27 lokasi 6.1 MWp Riau: 151 lokasi 60.1 MWp Babel: 16 lokasi 35.0 MWp Kalbar: 63 lokasi 40.1 MWp Kaltim: 30 lokasi 24,9 MWp Sulut, Sulteng, Gorontalo: 39 lokasi 30.9 MWp Maluku, Malut: 29 lokasi 33.5 MWp Papua, Pabar: 66 lokasi 44.9 MWp Sumsel, Jambi, Bengkulu: 6 lokasi 3.4 MWp Kalselteng: 96 lokasi 48.7 MWp Lampung: 18 lokasi 25MWp 2.5 Sulselrabar: 17 lokasi 29.7 MWp Jabar, Banten: 3 lokasi 1.1 MWp Jateng DIY: 5 lokasi 0.7 MWp Jatim: 12 lokasi 4.3 MWp Bali: 1 lokasi 0.3 MWp NTB: 15 lokasi 44.5 MWp NTT: 99 lokasi 45.2 MWp 28 PENGEMBANGAN WIND POWER WIND POWER DEVELOPMENT The wind power potential in Indonesia is relatively low because the average wind speed in Indonesia is also low ( 5 m/s). Wind Power development program up to 2020 are 200 MW, and currently still in the procurement process or studies. North Maluku : 1 location, 10 MW South Sulawesi (): 1l location, 70 MW West Java (Sukabumi): 2 locations, 10 & 30 MW Yogyakarta (Samas): 1 location, 50 MW NTT (Sumba & Timor): 2 locations, 10 & 10 MW Bali (Nusa Penida): 1 location, 1 MW 29 AGENDA BIOMASS POWER PLANT PROJECTS 30 PLN PROGRAM ON BIOMASS POWER PLANT (1) Biomass Power Plant using palm shells, bagasse, rice husk, wood chips and municipal waste has great potential in Indonesia, Private role in the development of Biomass PP driven by IPP scheme or Excess Power transaction, PLN is preparing Pilot Plants on small scale Biomass PP (capacity of 500 kw to 1 MW) using wood chips to replace the role of Diesel PP, PLN plan to reduce the fuel consumption of 12% (2013) to only 2% (2022). Small scale renewable energy development including Biomass PP use as an option. Biomass PP Development until 2022 : 363 MW 31 PLN PROGRAM ON BIOMASS POWER PLANT (2) Pilot project Biomass PP Gassification scale 1 MW PLN is testing the development model of Biomass PP small scale Gassification (0.5 to 1 MW) : Demonstration Plant in Bangli is in the development process. Biomass PP planned for areas which still operates Diesel PP. Using thermal conversion technology (gassification) which has good efficiency, high reliability and ease of operation. Sources of raw materials is from energy forests managed by local communities (Community Base Development). Cooperation program with the Local Government / Ministry of Forestry in the provision i of land / feedstock. 32 BIOMASS POWER PLANT PROJECTS SUMATERA UTARA SUMATERA UTARA SUMATERA UTARA SUMATERA UTARA RIAU Harga Rp/kWh : Rp Kapasitas : 6 MW Jenis Kontrak : Excess Power Harga Rp/kWh : Rp Kapasitas : 9 MW Jenis Kontrak : Excess Power Harga Rp/kWh : Rp Kapasitas : 10 MW Jenis Kontrak : Excess Power Harga Rp/kWh : Rp Kapasitas : 10 MW Jenis Kontrak : Excess Power Harga Rp/kWh : Rp. 787 Kapasitas : 5 MW Jenis Kontrak : Excess Power RIAU Harga Rp/kWh : Rp. 650 Kapasitas : 2 MW Jenis Kontrak : Excess Power RIAU Harga Rp/kWh : Rp. 764 Kapasitas : 5 MW Jenis Kontrak : Excess Power RIAU Harga Rp/kWh : Rp. 764 Kapasitas : 2 MW Jenis Kontrak : Excess Power BANGKA Harga Rp/kWh : Rp. 766 Kapasitas : 5 MW Jenis Kontrak : IPP JAWA BARAT Harga Rp/kWh : Rp. 820 Kapasitas : 6 MW Jenis Kontrak : IPP JAWA BARAT Harga Rp/kWh : Rp. 820 Kapasitas : 6.5 MW Jenis Kontrak : IPP BALI Harga Rp/kWh : Rp. 820 Kapasitas : 2 MW Jenis Kontrak : IPP BELITUNG Harga Rp/kWh : Rp. 787 Kapasitas : 7 MW Jenis Kontrak : IPP Contact us : PT PLN (Persero), Jl. Trunojoyo Blok M I/135, Jakarta Phone : Fac : Contact us : PT PLN (Persero), Jl. Trunojoyo Blok M I/135, Jakarta Phone : Fac : PROGRAM ON BIOMASS POWER PLANT IPP Increasing participation of the private developers, both as a IPP developers and/or excess power. The technology used is generally Combustion and Gassification Facilitating private developers in the development of Biomass PP and Biogas PP, which PLN will be the Offtaker or Buyer. Until now 92.5 MW Biomass PP has contracted and operates, and another 54 MW Biomass PP under construction. 34 BIOMASS PP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ( IPP & Excess Power ) Biomass PP Development Summary 2014 Status COD Number Capacity (MW) (estimated) Operation Construction PPA process FS Proposal Grand dttl Total AGENDA OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES ON RE DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES Huge of renewable energy resources availability. High electricity demand growth rate. Availability of commercially proven technology. Supported by government policy and PLN. In line with the international perspective of clean energy. CHALLENGES Availability of renewable energy resources and the electricity demand are not always match. Readiness rudimentary regulation while RE is highly dependent on many regulations, because it involves many stakeholders (ministries, local governments) that could potentially inhibit each other RE development costs relatively more expensive. RE relatively newer technology and more complex, especially Solar PV, Wind and Biomass. Risk factors are higher because of the nature, location, etc. The availability of competent human resources are still limited. 37 Thank You 38
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