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Re-building of rural communities by IDPs in Post-Conflict South Africa

Re-building of rural communities by IDPs in Post-Conflict South Africa
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  Re-building of Rural Communities, by Internally Displaced Person (s) IDPs as a result of forced removal in a Post-Conict Sout !frica" Statement of te problem#Proposal#$b%ective#Plan#Impact and Result  The central proposition of this study is that the politics of racial divide, impacts upon has eect on rural communities’ stabilisation throughout the period of apartheid operations with a profound evidence of inequality. In the aftermath of the conict, its devastation did not only aect the post conict reconstruction of these communities by IDs, but also created adilemma for their social, economic and political integration, dueto lac! of adequate resources as the community leaders lamented.In the process of engagements for a new political dispensation by the new regime after the collapse of apartheid system, it is imperative that previous legislations that were adopted by dierent government departments during the apartheid era were not immediately repelled. "s such, they were perceived by IDs as constrain towards their determination to revive their communities.  The argument is that while policy dierences prevents immediate social communities’ reconstruction, li!ewise lac! of developmental strategies prevented community livelihood provision as observed by rural community representatives. In some quarters among academicians such as Doreen "t!inson, #outh "frica e$pert on rural communities and development, argues that, there were many new strategies, however, poorly implemented. %bviously it shows that, the #outh "frican new political system may have changed hand, however its legacy actually aected the immediate changes e$pected by the #outh "frican people. &or immediate capacity building of rural communities to '  materialise, this requires (nancial and humanitarian aid, both from central government and international community. )onsidering the new chapter within #outh "frican politics, therecould be probability that great deal of money made available torural areas’ reconstruction, that could have supported the argument that lac! of (nance may not, after all have cause delays in the post*conict reconstruction of the rural population, but instead lac! of ability by the new municipalities to utilise the money eectively and e+ciently from the concept of constructive engagements.  The peaceful negotiated settlement may have eventually provides avenue for new #outh "frica however its immediate realisation of communities reconstruction is far from being achieved due to many constrains as mentioned earlier.  The IDs need personnel with speci(c s!ills, such as administration, management of resources, political and economic dynamism for implementation of policies, and strategies for sustainable development including stabilisation programmes. It must be noted that all the above are lac!ing due to e$clusion policy of the system in education and training of the past and to certain e$tend due to political capture and patronage. -i!ewise, it is evidently observed that there may be many competent blac! people who can be appointed as o+cials, but they are !ept out of o+ce due to political patronage.It is true that the end of apartheid era fundamentally provides an important role for the IDs in re*building their communities in the post*conict #outh "frica. It is also true that the rural communities may not have been in position to engage in this !ind of comple$ proects without the intervention of rural sociologist and humanitarian aid from outside the country. "lthough it has been argued that there are many business organisations and government agencies trying to ma!e a dierence in these areas, subsequently, these technically /  s!illed blac!s are frequently stalled by undemocratic and unaccountable political elites. The researcher would li!e to emphasise that this would be the central theme of the proect. That is, the role of IDs in re*building communities, the process of their strategy in terms of policy implementation, consequences of their action and the humanitarian eect on the rural communities. The incapacity of the aected people to socially, economically and politically integrate into a new #outh "frica will also be e$amined.  There e$ist very few literatures on #outh "frica’s internally displaced persons but attention was less focused on post*conict social, political, economic, and humanitarian communities’ restructuring. It is for these fundamental reasons that the researcher have decided to investigate the matter. It isonly in recent time, that literature, boo!s and articles including consultancy reports which were never available to #outh "frica audience both academics and civil societies considering the restriction in education for the non*white. It must be noted that these studies failed on two accounts.  The (rst is that in many "frican literatures, the issue of #outh "frican IDs’ role in re*building their communities in the post*apartheid era was limited or partially not available. 0ost literatures only emphasised and devoted attention on the issue of #outhern "frican migration, the economic and social development in*balance and conict resolution within #outhern "frican region in view of the #outh "frican government destabilisation strategy '  #econdly, a more representative academic e$ercise is lac!ing inthis area due to the limited educational investment on blac! education throughout the period of apartheid era. 1es, there ' 2ennett and 3awatesi, 0 4'5567 beyond wor!ing in conict. 8nderstanding conict and building peace, 9elief and 9ehabilitation :etwor! aper ';, %verseas Development Institute -ondon.#ee, 3enneth )hristie, security and forced migration concerns in #outh "frica in "frican #ecurity 9eview <ol.6, :o ', '55=. "lso see, )asles # and 0.0iller, The "ge of 0igration> International opulation 0ovements in 0odern ?orld, @uildford ress, :ew 1 %93, '55A, pgs. /B*/C. A  could be few blac! educated #outh "fricans including some conscious white people, wor!ing alongside of the liberation movement, rather than e$panding the educational equality thatwas needed for the future national capacity building of the nation, they were busy soliciting for equal human dignity and human security.ven, outside #outh "frica, relevant academic publications on the subect are still presently not readily available, especially on re*building communities by IDs in post*conict #outh "frica.Instead, most of the available publications tend to concentrate their research wor!s on #outhern "frican regional issues and #outh "frica anti*apartheid movement, including politics of liberation. #peci(cally the issue on decolonisation and the #outh "frica military might seems to dominate. / &or instance, )awthra in his publication, used the military framewor! to e$plain how the #outh "frican Defence &orce 4#"D&7, as an instrument of state apparatus transformed the #outh "frican conict from ethnic dominated national disaster into national campaign for liberation movement. A  It must be emphasised that even research and biographies never properly accounted for set of information on #outh "frica’s Internally Displaced ersons and communities’ re*building. In most of these accounts, IDs issues were presentedon personal e$periences by some individual scholars. These / The following wor!s, concentrated on the role of the military and security issues in #outh "frica politics #ee, 2ean %, "partheid Destabilisation and Displacement> The Dynamics of 9efugee )risis in #outhern "frica, Eournal of 9efugee #tudies A 4'7, '55B, gs.’ F=*6A "rendt G, The %rigin of Totalitarianism,C th  edition,Garccurt 2race and Eavan %vich, :ew 1or!, '5=A TaHi #. 0, The :ation #tate, victim @roups and 9efugee, thnic and 9acial #tudies 4'F7 F, '55' olberg ", The formation of :ew #tate as a 9efugee @enerating rocess, The "nnals, F6=, '5;A, pages /F*A; and 9eitHea 0,-andsberg, '55Cretoria’s Gobbesian and the "liens> )hallenges for Development,, Guman 9ights and policy obectives for #outh "frica, retoria, '55C.#ee also, )entre for #outh "frica #tudies 4)#"#7, 9eport on immigrants, 9efugee and Displaced eople, 8niversity of ?estern )ape, 2ellville '55C. A )awthra @, 2rutal &orce the "partheid ?ar 0achine, -ondon International Defence and "id &und for #outhern "frican, '5;6.F  scholars include 2enyani )halo!a who gave an account on IDs and International -aw and "bdullahi 0. "hmednasir on the refugee crisis in "frica. In broad terms, they viewed IDs issue within the political economy tradition. To them, it is a crisis of institution of the state rather than the question of human dignity and communities’ survival in a desperate and comple$ humanitarian situation. arado$ically, it only con(rms how the #outh "frican government reects on the importance of their international obligations towards the crisis generally. F  ?e could shed more light on why limited research was placed on the topic, in comparison to other issues such as economic development and regional security policies. #u+ce to mention three. &irst, the crisis was regarded as internal problem and falsi(ed history of events by #outh "frican government through suppression of information, hampered scholars from "frica and elsewhere to have access to archives. #econdly, the educational system was racially segregated between white ruling elite and non*whites."lthough, institutions such as #tellenbosch and ?itwatersrand were established in the '= th  century, however, higher educationwas monopolised by the political elite condemning non*white into a state of educational bac!wardness C  . The arrival of whitesin #outh "frica in '6C/, promoted the establishment of university education in '6BB that were later rapidly e$panded universities in the '5BB, with little or no opportunity for the non*white. F 2enyani )hala!a 4'55C7 JInternally Displaced ersons in International -awK, unpublished thesis from 9efugee #tudies rogramme Documentation )entre, %$ford."bdullahi "hmednasir 0, 4 '55F7, The 9efugee )risis in "frica, as crisis of the institution of the states, International Eournal of 9efugee -aw,<ol. 6 :o. F %$ford 8niversity ress. C "partheid> The fact International Defence and "id &und for #outhern "frica, in co*operation with the 8nited :ations )entre "gainst "partheid -ondon, Eune '5;A, pages /=*/;C
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