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RESPONSIBLE LEADERSHIP AS AN ETHICAL TOOL IN MANAGING NATURAL RESOURCES IN TANZANIA

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RESPONSIBLE LEADERSHIP AS AN ETHICAL TOOL IN MANAGING NATURAL RESOURCES IN TANZANIA
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   TOPIC: RESPONSIBLE LEADERSHIP AS AN ETHICAL TOOL IN MANAGINGNATURAL RESOURCES IN TANZANIA  Table Contents Introdut!on ...............................................................................................................................................31.Explication of Terms........................................................................................................................31.1 Responsible Leadership.....................................................................................................................31.2 Management......................................................................................................................................41.3 Natural Resources..............................................................................................................................2.Tan!ania as a "ub for Natural Resource..........................................................................................2.1 Empirical #ndicators of Mismanagement of Natural Resources.........................................................$2.1.1 %orruption......................................................................................................................................$2.1.2 #nade&uate Transparenc' in Managing Natural Resources.............................................................(2.1.3 )nsustainable Exploitation of Natural Resources...........................................................................*2.2 Effects of Mismanagement of Natural Resources in +frica...............................................................,2.2.1 %limatic %hanges............................................................................................................................,2.2.2 #ncreased Economic #ne&ualit' and -oert'.................................................................................1/3.To0ards an Ethical rame0or for Responsible Leadership in Managing Natural Resources in Tan!ania................................................................................................................................................123.1 trengthening #nstitutional rame0ors..........................................................................................123.1.1 Transparenc' uarantee Mechanism............................................................................................123.1.2 -articipator' +pproach Mechanism..............................................................................................123.2 Transition from %hrematistics to 5ionomics.................................................................................133.3 %ultiation of Moral 6alues in "uman %apital 7uilding.................................................................143.4 Empasi!ing te0ardship in Managing Natural Resources8 + 9rastic hift from hareholding to %are:"olding.........................................................................................................................................14 Conlud!n" Re#ar$s ...............................................................................................................................1 B!bl!o"ra%&' ............................................................................................................................................1$  Introdut!on #rresponsible leadership in managing natural resources 1  in Tan!ania and +frica in generalappears to be hindrance to holistic deelopment and poert' eradication. Though; there isexcessie extraction of minerals; at the same time serices in education; health care and other social amenities that are indispensable for the oerall gro0th are not expanded but reduced. Thisessa' is 0ritten from ethical and ealuatie perspecties; seeing to examine the relationship bet0een natural resources and responsible leadership in managing them for holistic deelopment;and poert' eradication in Tan!anian perspectie. -art one concentrates on explication of e'terms; and second part explores empirical indicators of mismanagement of natural resourcestogether 0ith associated effects. inall'; the stud' 0ill present an ethical frame0or for responsible leadership in management of natural resources. The paper argues for ste0ardship asa shift from shareholding through multinational companies to care:taing inoling sustainabilit'of the entire societ' both present and future generations. 2  This position <ustifies that; if at all;natural resources are to be considered as blessing to entire Tan!anian societ'. There is a need toadopt care:taing logic based on ste0ardship irtues such as sustainabilit'; accountabilit'; careand fairness. %ontrar' to share:holding; in 0hich multinational companies and fe0 people share benefits out of natural resources for personal aggrandi!ement. ()E*%l!at!on o+ Ter#s ()( Res%ons!ble Leaders&!% +ccording to 9eon Rossou0; =responsible leadership is constant personal andinstitutional reflections of the short and long term impact of their personal and institutional 1 The term natural resources in this thesis are limited to all minerals. 2 hare:holder and %are:holder are terms borro0ed from %hristoph tuecelberger as deeloped in We  All are Guests on Earth: A Global Christian Vision for Climate Justice and  Responsible Leadership: Global and Contextual Ethical Perspective The usage of share:holder referred to multinational companies operating in +frica 0hose moties are drien b' profit maximi!ation and not the 0elfare of the entire societ'. This is referred to care:holding. hare:holders mae contracts 0ith local leaders; and these contracts seem to exclude the benefits of those at the bottom of the p'ramid. ince the exploitation of natural resources has not reall' created <obs for the local population; contributed to local economies; or improed the infrastructure as expected. This is an indication of irresponsible leadership.  decisions on societ'.> 3  This ie0point focuses on the importance of building sustainableorgani!ations that do not compromise the natural; social; economic and enironment or thelielihood of the future generations. Responsible leadership is as a e' factor for performance;success; credibilit' and sustainabilit' of each organi!ation. These ie0points pertains ethicalalues 0hich are essential in managing our natural resources namel'8 accountabilit'; integrit';fairness; care; ste0ardship; and care taing of natural resources. These ethical alues are opposedto leadership as mastership or domination oer natural resources but rather as responsiblemanagement and ste0ardship.The functional definition of responsible leadership on management of natural resources isthat of ste0ardship. The paper argues for this position. The concept of ste0ardship finds itsgenesis in the ree term oi!onomos . #t is a root from 0hich the 0ord economics is deried.5ios means the house and the household. The oi!onomos is houseeeper 0ho eeps the housein order. 4  #t is =the management of the household oer the long run.>   The term ste0ardship inmanaging natural resources constitutes care:holding 0here natural resources are managed not to&uench the greed' needs of the managers but to proide basic needs to the people 0ho are liingand those not 'et born. This ie0 is beautifull' articulated b' Mahatma andhi =The Earth hasenough resources for eer'one?s need but not for eer'one?s greed.> $  Responsible leadershipcalls pro:actie particularl' in protecting the dignit' and fostering the rights and duties of humans as 0ell as the relatie dignit' of sub:man species. 3 %ited from Msafiri =Responsible Leadership and oernance as Effectie Tool in Responding to %limate %hange %hallenges8 +n #nter:aith and 6alue 7ased +pproach;> 4. 4 tucelberger and Mugambi;  Responsible Leadership ; 4. 5 9al' and %obb;  "or the Common Good# 13*. 6 @uoted from Msafiri =Responsible Leadership and oernance as Effectie Tool in Responding to %limate %hange %hallenges8 +n #nter:aith and 6alue 7ased +pproach;> 4(.  (), Mana"e#ent Management is the force 0hich lead; guides and directs an organi!ation in theaccomplishment of a pre:determined ob<ectie. (  Management operates through arious functions;often classified as planning; organi!ing; staffing and controlling. #n this essa'; the termmanagement is used in the sense of ste0ardship and responsible goernance 0hich includescareful and sustained use of natural resources in responsible manner. This ind of managemententails ste0ardship irtue in la'ing out the planning; organi!ing and controlling the use of theresources for the good of the present entire societ' and future generations. ()- Natural Resoures 7iosphere *  is filled 0ith natural substances. + natural substance becomes a natural resource0hen humans find a useful application. Thus; natural resources attain the status of ital AlifeBresources. The resources attained are8 land; 0ater and air. ,  enerall'; natural resources are theuseful ph'sical; biological; geological and enironment endo0ments and riches or materialsfound on or belo0 the earth?s crust. 1/  The' include flora; fauna; a&uatic life; land and mineraldeposits such as gold; diamonds; oil; natural gas and man' more. ,)Tan.an!a as a Hub +or Natural Resoure Tan!ania is rich in natural resources ranging from gold; Tan!anite; and diamond and so forth.+lso; the countr' is rich in natural gas potentials and productions lie = $on%oson%o > in Cil0aand  &na'i (a)  in Mt0ara. Dildlife resources mae Tan!ania to be one of the premier tourist paradises in the 0orld. The countr' has t0ele national pars including elengenti; thirt' four game reseres and thirt' eight game controlled areas. 11  Regarding 0ater as a natural resource;there are rier basins such as Rufigi; -angani; Ruu; reat Ruha; Malagarasi; agera; Mara;Ruuma; and )galla Rier 7asins. orests and 0etlands constitute 3*.* million hectares. The 7 Ericson;  Philosoph) of &ana%ement  ; (/. 8 7iosphere is the global sum of all ecos'stems. #t 0as coined b' Eduard uess in 1*(; 0hich he definedas the place of Earth?s surface 0here life d0ells. http8en.0iipedia.org0ii7iosphere; +ccessed on 21/42/1. 9 5dum;  "undamentals of Ecolo%) ; (4. 10 En.0iipedia.org0ii"uman Resource
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