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  [BLANK_AUDIO]All notes have a duration in time, but inWestern musical notation the duration isexpressed as a fractions or multiples of abeat, rather than as a duration inseconds.Beats are related to, or even synonymouswith pulse.And they're clearly related to tempo,whichis often expressed as beats per minute.Rhythm then concerns multiples, orsubdivisions of beats.It can be expressed symbolically inwestern notation,in the form of both rests and notes.So, for instance, all of our westernrhythmic notations are related to thewholenote, as it's called in America, or theSemibreve, as it's called in Britain.Semibreve represent the full duration ofone bar in 4/4 meter.We'll come to meter in a little while, butsuffice itto say, 4/4 is the most common meter thatwe come across.The Semibreve, can of course besubdivided, and these subdivisions havedifferent names.In British nomenclature for example, wespeak of minims, Crotchets, Quavers, etc.There are two minims per Semibreve.This is also known as the half note inAmerican parlance.This is then subdivided into twocrotchets.Crotchets are Quarter notes in the U.S.,and there are four quarternotes in a Whole Note or a Semibreve, asyou might imagine.Crotchets are then further divided intoQuavers, Eighth Notes, andon into Semiquavers, Sixteenth Notes, andso on and so forth.So, if you use the American nomenclature,which is derivedfrom the German by the way, it's very easyto seehow many of a particular rhythm you willhave in awhole note, as all rhythms are expressedin relation to this.So, let's just recap here and look at theactual notation of these rhythms.First of all, we've got the open roundnote symbol, which is the Semibreve orwhole note.This is four beats long in common time,or four, four meter, again more on this  later.Then we've the half note or minim, thecrotchet, the quaver and the semiquaver.We also have the equivalent rhythms inrests.Rests are necessary to indicate where amusician stops playing notes.Most music consists of notes surrounded byspace, of course.Otherwise, musicians would never get thechange tobreathe or rest, and neither would themusic.So, first of all, again, the semibreve, orwhole note rest.The minim, or half note rest, thecrotchet, or quarter note rest.The quaver, eighth note rest, and thesemiquaver, or sixteenth note rest.You can see that the quaver and semiquavernotesare essentially crotchets, with littleflags on their stems.Each flag that you add divides the rhythmby two, so wecould further divide semiquavers intodemisemiquavers,or 32nd notes in American parlance.And these can be further subdividedinto hemidemisemiquavers, or 64th Notes,etcetera, etcetera.Now those flags which we've seen on thequavers andlesser durations, can actually turn intowhat we call beams.We use beams so that we group notes intotwos, fours, eights, etcetera, and thereby easily see a beat'sworth, or sometimes more of shorter notes.This makes it easier to orientateourselves in the flow ofthe music, so we can recognize where thebeat boundaries are.Here's another example.You can see that the number of flags whichwe usein the individual notes, is reflected inthe number of horizontal beams.And that adding one more beam is theequivalent to adding one more flag.That is, we're subdividing the rhythm intotwo.[BLANK_AUDIO]
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