Scope & Sequence 2014-2016

The teaching programme for 2014/2015/106
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   YEAR 12 & 13 DIPLOMA BIOLOGY PROGRAMME2014/2015/2016 Colour coding: Core TopicsCore sub-topicsCore contentHL TopicsHL sub-topics and contentKey Practicals 1 to 7Field trip studies TOPICCoreAHLOptOptWeekStartEXPERIMENTAL & RESEARCH INVESTIGATIONS &  he k CoreAHLSPECIFIC ASSIGNMENTS & CONTENT   IntroductionDiagnostic EvaluationsScientific ProcessEnzyme Inhibition (1.5)IM: Scientific process accepted as common methodologyLab skillsPractical circus (Fionnuala) CELL BIOLOGY TOPIC 115Introduction 1.1 & 1.5 The evolution of multicellular organisms allowed cell specialisation and cell replacementCell srcins 1.5 There is unbroken chain of life from the first cells on Earth to all cells in organisms alive today Cell Introduction & Cell Theory1.1/1.5NoS: Exceptions to cell theoryOrigin of cells & Endosymbiotic theory1.5Historical and modern ideas - Pasteur NoS: Testing scientific principlesSurface area to volume limiting cell size1.1Sand boxes for surface area to volume ratios (1)Emergent properties1.1Differentiation, specialisation, stem cells1.1NoS: Ethical issues of stem cell research. IM: How is stem cell research controlled around the world?Microscopes, drawings & scale1.1 (1.2)[1] Cell Drawings from Microscopes with scale (1.5)Microscope as a major advance in obtaining knowledgeCharacteristics of living thingsObservations of Paramecium and phototrophic algae (1) Ultrastructure of cells 1.2 Eukaryotes have a much more complex cell structure than prokaryotes Size in biology, ssi unitsIM: A commonly agreed measuring systemProkaryotic cells1.2Binary fission1.2Eukaryotic Cells1.2Recognising & drawing from micrographs (1)Organelle building (2) Membrane structure 1.3 The structure of biological membranes makes then fluid and dynamic Fluid mosaic model1.3PBL - Constructing a model from a theoretical modelNoS: Scientific Models NoS: Models superseding models Membrane transport 1.4 Membranes control the composition of cells by active and passive transport  Active v Passive transport1.4[2] Osmosis Investigation (1.5)NoS: Precise and quantitative dataInv. Thermal Death Point of Cytoplasm (1.5)Dialysis treatment Cell division 1.6 Cell division is essential but must be controlled Cell cycle and ciclins1.6NoS: Accidental discovery of ciclinsOnion Root Tip Squash Preparation & Mitotic Index (1.5)Mitosis model building (1)Mutation & mutagens1.6Smoking and cancer  CONNECTIONS - Nature of Science, Applications, International mindedness, ToK Cell organelles1.2Diffusion, Facilitated diffusion, Osmosis, Endo/Exo-cytosis1.4Mitosis and cytokinesis1.6NoS: Electron microscopes expanding knowledgeMitotic Index & Cancer   Cancer1.6IM: Forms of cancer. Some global statistics. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY TOPIC 221Molecules to metabolism 2.1 Living orgnisms control their composition by a complex web of reactions Essential chemistry for biology - revisionCarbon covalent bonding2.1Organic compounds in life2.1Metabolism: anabolic & catabolic reactions2.1 Water 2.2 Water is the medium of life Water hydrogen bonding2.2NoS: Theories project to propertiesWater properties2.2Thermal expansion of water (ref. Global warming 5.2) (1.5)IM: Water scarcity. Quito?Water properties and biological benefits research Carbohydrates 2.3 Compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are used to supply and store energy Monomers, (dimers) & polymersMono/di/poly-sacharrides2.3Condensation & hydrolysis reactions2.3The glycosidic bondMolecular drawingsGlucose & sugars, glycogen, starch & cellulose2.3Use of molecular visualisation softwareMacromoleculesFatty acids & glycerol, triglycerides2.3Molecular drawingsSaturated, (poly)unsaturated FA's and health2.3Measuring BMI (1.5)NoS, IM: lipids and health - assessment & links Proteins 2.4 Proteins have a wide range of functions in living organisms  Amino acids - the monomers2.4Amino Acid Chromatography (2)NoS: Universality of amino acids; exceptionsUniversal genetic code2.4 (2.7)Why universal?Uniqueness of an individual's proteinsUniqueness v universalityThe peptide bond2.4Molecular drawings(Primary structure) Amino acid sequence2.4/7.3Protein structure v function2.4Use of molecular visualisation softwareDenaturing proteins2.4Denaturation of Proteins by Heat and CuSo4 (1.5)Primary protein structure7.3Secondary protein structure7.3Tertiary protein structure7.3Quaternary protein structure (incl. Prosthetic groups)7.3Organic macro-moleculesFood tests for identifying Organic Biochemicals (1.5)Qualitative v quantitive data Enzymes 2.5 Enzymes control the metabolism of the cell  Active sites and enzyme catalysed reactions2.5Denaturing2.5pH, temperature & substrate conc.2.5[3] (Design & Planning) Enzyme Investigations (2)NoS: Accurate, quantitative measurements & replicatesIndustrial enzyme use2.5Research lactose-free milk production (& patent review)Enzymes and activation energy8.1Graphing activation energy modelsEnzyme inhibition8.1Graphing inhibition with substrate conc.Use of inhibitors in medicine(Metabolic pathways and end-product inhibition8.1 Structure of DNA and RNA 2.6 The structure of DNA allows efficient storage of genetic informationDNA Structure (and replication) 7.1 The structure of DNA is ideally suited to its function Nucleotides2.6Crick & Watson - modelling2.6NoS: Modelling as a way to gain knowledge ToK: The story of the DNA model - collaboration and competitionHersey and Chase - DNA for genetic purposes7.12-D DNA modelling on paper  -Water properties and biological benefits2.2  3-D DNA modelling (1.5)Nucleosome structure and super coiling7.1Molecular visualisation of protein/DNA associationsRosalind Franklin, x-ray diffraction & double helixDNA v RNA DNA replication 2.7 Genetic information in DNA can be accurately copied (Cell cycle)1.6Semi-conservative replication2.7NoS: How evidence is collected, to then propose a theoryComplimentaary base pairing2.7 Actions of helicase and DNA polymerase2.7 DNA (Structure and) replication 7.1 The structure of DNA is ideally suited to its function 3' to 5', replication enzymes, (dis)continuous7.1Non-coding DNA7.1ToK 'Junk' DNA PROTEIN SYNTHESIS Genetic information in the nucleus can be translated to make the proteins needed by the cell The Central Dogma of molecular biologyTranscription, RNA polymerase & mRNA2.7The genetic (triplet) code of mRNA, codons2.7Universality of genetic code - allows genetic modification Transcription and gene expression 7.2 Information stored as a code on DNA is copied onto mRNA Gene expression7.2Transcription 5' to 3'7.2Modification and splicing of mRNA7.2Complementary base pairing - DNA, mRNA, tRNA,  Amino Acids2.7 Translation 7.3 Information transferred from DNA to mRNA is translated into an amino acid sequence NoS Digital advances in bioinformaticsInitiation, synthesis and termination7.3Prokaryotes v eukaryotes7.3Free and bound ribosomes7.3mRNA, tRNA, enzymes and amino acids7.3Molecular visualisation software - tRNA & ribosomesPolysomes7.3Visualising polysomes from micrographs METABOLISM, CELL RESPIRATION AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS TOPIC 814Metabolism 8.1 Metabolic reactions are regulated in response to the cells needs Metabolic pathways (incl end product inhibition8.1 THE ENERGY REACTIONS - CELL RESPIRATION AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS Introduction - interconnections, role of ATP Cell Respiration 2.8 Cell respiration provides energy for the functions of life  Anaerobic respiration2.8Anaerobic Respiration - Yeast (Fermentation) (1.5)Applications: Brewing (ethanol) and baking (CO2) Aerobic respiration2.8Respiration rates and respirometers (1.5)NoS: Ethical issues of use of invertebrates Cell respiration 8.2 Energy is converted into a usable form in cell respiration Redox reactions - electron carriers8.2Wk 15Phosphorylation8.2Glycolysis8.2Link reaction8.2Krebs cycle8.2Electron transport chain8.2Chemiosmosis8.2The significance of chemiosmotic theoryStructure v function of mitochondria8.2Annotated diagram of mitochondria Photosynthesis 2.9 Photosynthesis uses the energy in sunlight to produce the energy needed for life Visible light, absorption & action spectra2.9Photosynthetic pigments2.9[4] Chromatography (TLC) for Plant Pigments (1.5)Light dependent reactions2.9Light Intensity and the Rate of Photosynthesis (1.5)NoS: Controlling variablesLight independent reactions2.9 , , .Translation - mRNA, tRNA & amino acids, ribosomes and polypeptidesPBL: Can you hold the Central Dogma of molecular biology in your hands?2.7  Summary of inputs and outputs from light dependent & light independent reactions2.9Limiting factors in photosynthesis2.9Graphing limiting factors Photosynthesis 8.3 Light energy is converted into chemical energy Structure v function of chloroplast8.3Annotated diagram of a chloroplastLight dependent reactions - photolysis of water, photosystems II & 1, ETC, hydrogen carriers, oxygen production, ATP production8.3Hill reaction (1.5)Light independent reactions - carboxylation of RuBP, G3P, TP, using the ATP and H, restoration of RuBP, production of carbohydrates8.3ToK Lollipops and CalvinGlobal Artifical Phpotosynthesis Project PLANT BIOLOGY TOPIC 913Transport in xylem 9.1 Structure and function are correlated in the xylem of plants Stem, root and leaf tissuesPlan diagrams v drawings of xylemTranspiration9.1[7] Investigating transpiration rates with potometers (1.5)Water flow from roots to leaves - properties of water Ref 2.29.1 (2.2) Active uptake of mineral ions from soil9.1 (1.4)Osmosis9.1 (1.4)Xerophytes and halophytes Transport in phloem 9.2 Structure and function are correlated in the phloem of plants Phloem sieve tubes & companion cells - why & how?9.2Plan diagrams v drawings of phloemSources & sinks (photosynthesis products to stores)9.2The wonder of aphid stylets and radioactive CO2Mass flow hypothesis and mechanism9.2 Growth in plants 9.3 Plants adapt their growth to environmental conditions Meristems in stem and root apex, leaves; mitosis & cell division9.3Plant v mammalian hormonesMicropropagation of orchids in Ecuador Exporting bananas from Ecuador by slow boat to Europe!Tropic responses9.3Investigation into a tropic response (1) Auxin and control of growth - gene expression9.3 Reproduction in Plants 9.4 Reproduction in plants in influenced by the biotic and abiotic environment Gene expression in stem apex - photoperiods9.4Pollination, fertilisation and seed dispersal9.4Investigation into local pollinators and seed dispersersMutualism in plants with pollinators9.4Jungle pollinatorsNoS: Significance for whole ecosystems & crop plantsGermination of seeds9.4Conditions necessary for successful germination (1) ECOLOGY TOPIC 412ECOLOGY & CONSERVATION Option C15/25Species, commnities and ecosystems 4.1 The continued survival of living organisms, including humans, depends on sustainable communitiesSpecies and communities C.1 Community structure is an emergent property of an ecosystem Species & species diversity4.1C.4Quadrat plant species diversity estimations (2)Definitions don't work! How to define a species (cf 3.2)Distribution of species - determining factorsC.1Transects (2)PopulationsC.1Quadrat Plant Population Estimations (Chi 2 testing) (2.5) ToK: Random sampling means…? Communities4.1Cotopaxi Ecosystems & Abiotic Factors (1.5)[5] Sealed mesocosmsTemperature v precipitation v altitude - climographsWhat determines the existence of the Páramo? Population Ecology C.5 Dynamic biological processes impact population density and population growth Ecosystems - the biotic and abiotic components, energy flow and nutrient cycling4.1Plant hormones9.3Technology in the local marketC.2Biomes and climate
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