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Socioeconomic Study of Climate Change: An Assessment of Agriculture and Livelihood Sustainability on Paddy Farming in Malaysia

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The changing nature of climatic factor has adverse impacts on agricultural sustainability, food security, and socioeconomic sustainability in many countries. In Malaysia, due to the rapid changes in climatic conditions, agricultural productivity and
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    Socioeconomic Study of Climate Change:  An Assessment of Agriculture and Livelihood Sustainability on Paddy  Farming in Malaysia Md. Mahmudul Alam Chamhuri Siwar Mohd Ekhwan T. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing AG & Co. KG Saarbrücken, Germany May, 2010 ISBN: 978-3-8383-5210-7   Citation Reference:  Alam, M.M., Siwar, C., and Mohd Ekhwan, T. 2010. Socioeconomic Study of Climate Change: An Assessment of Agriculture and Livelihood Sustainability on Paddy Farming in Malaysia,  LAP Lambert Academic Publishing: Saarbrucken, Germany. [Online Link]  This is a pre-publication copy. The published book is copyrighted by the publisher.  ii ABOUT   THE   AUTHORS Md. Mahmudul Alam  is currently a Graduate Research Assistant at the Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI), National University of Malaysia. He obtained a first class BBA (Hons.) degree in Finance & Accounting, and Economics from North South University, Bangladesh. Before joining the National University of Malaysia he worked with Grameenphone Limited, Dhaka, Bangladesh as the Head of CRM Operational Analysis, Commercial Division (Deputy Manager) from June 2006 to April 2009. He is attached to various professional and research organizations at various capacities including member, advisor and research fellow. A large number of his research papers has been published in reputable national and international journals including: The Journal of Developing Areas, International Journal of Business and Management, Journal of Economics and Finance, Journal of Business and Behavioral Sciences, and Challenge  –   The Magazine of Economic Affairs. He is also coauthor of  Microentrepreneurship Development in  Bangladesh: Achievements and Shortcomings  (LAP Lambert). He has also presented papers at many international conferences including the venue at JFK School of Government, Harvard University USA. His research areas include development economics, investment and international economics. Chamhuri Siwar  is Emeritus Professor and Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (National University of Malaysia). He is trained in applied, agricultural and resource economics from the National University of Malaysia, Leeds and Iowa State Universities. His research interests include rural development and policy, poverty studies, sustainable development, environmental economics and  policy. Mohd Ekhwan   T.  received his B.A (Hons) degree in Physical Geography from National University of Malaysia in 1993-1994, MSc degree in Hydrology (with honors) from the Faculty of Science and Engineering, Manchester University, UK in 1996, and PhD in Environmental Hydrology and River modeling from the University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK in 2002. He has published widely including journal papers, books, chapters in books, and proceedings in national and international conferences. He is a member of Malaysian Hydrological Society and editorial board for Journal of Malaysia Water Association and Journal of Akademika. Presently, he is Associate Professor at the School of Social, Development and Environmental Studies, UKM. where he teaches and conducts research on environmental hydrology, river modeling and Geographical Information System for river and catchment management studies.    iii To the Memory of - our beloved parents -  iv T ABLE O F C ONTENTS   List of Tables and Annex Tables List of Illustrations and Annex Illustrations List of Abbreviations Preface Acknowledgement CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 01  Background of the Study 01 Methodology 02 Data Collection 03 Identification of Variables and Model Specification 04 Econometric Models 06 Statistical and Econometric Tools for Analysis 10 CHAPTER II GLOBAL SCENARIO OF CLIMATE CHANGE 11 CHAPTER III SOCIOECONOMIC PROFILE OF FARMING HOUSEHOLDS 18 Background of the Study Area 18 Social Status of Farmers 19 Ethnicity 19 Gender 19 Age 20 Education 21 Marital Status 21 Family Size 21 Economic Status of Farmers 22 Occupation 22 Earning Family Members 23 Earning Ratio and Dependency Ratio 23 Home Ownership 24 Types and Status of Residence 25 Availability of Vehicle 26 Farm Activities and Assets 26 Size of Paddy Farm 26 Ownership of Agricultural Land 27 Distance between Field and Home 27 Availability of Machineries 28 Production of Other Crops 29 Yield of Paddy Production 29 CHAPTER IV VULNERABILITY OF CLIMATE CHANGE 31  Vulnerability of Climate Factors 31 Variation of Seasonal Temperature 31 Variation of Rainfall over Time 31 Variation of Rainfall over Place 32 Vulnerability of Agriculture and Paddy Farming 33 Vulnerability of Agricultural Factors 33 Vulnerability of Agricultural Yield 37 Vulnerability of Socioeconomic Status of Farmers 37 Dependency on Government Subsidy and External Supports 37 Changes in the Source of Agricultural Income 38  v Changes in the Sources of Household Income 39 Savings and Economic Vulnerability 40 Poverty in Paddy Sector 41 Changes in the Preference of Occupation 42   CHAPTER V IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE 43 Impacts on Agriculture and Paddy Farming 43 Over the Period Impacts 43 Variation in Irrigation Cycle 45 Variation in Crop Cycle 46 Decline in Productivity and Changes in Crop Choice   47  Impacts on Socioeconomic Status of Farmers 50 Decline in Income 50 Increases in Income Inequality 51  Negative Impacts on Farmers‟ Hea lth 53 Decline in Involvement with Agriculture 54 Changes in Social Particulars of Farmers 54   CHAPTER VI ADAPTATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE 58 Farmer  s‟ Understanding about Climate Change  58 Farmers‟ Approaches towards Adaptation  59 Available External Supports for Adaptation 63 Required Approaches and Supports for Adaptation 65 CHAPTER VII RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 70  Summary and Discussions 70 Climate Change and Agricultural Sustainability 70 Climate Change and Socioeconomic Status of Farmers 72 Climate Change and Adaptation System 74 Recommendations 76 Policy Options 76 Government ‟s  Policies, Challenges and Actions 77 Farm Level Policies and Strategies 79 Involvement of Other Stakeholders 80 Conclusions 81 Further Research 83 REFERENCES 84   ANNEXURE 90 SUBJECT INDEX 95
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