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Systems Thinking and Systems Engineering

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Systems Thinking and Systems Engineering Matti Vilkko Tampereen teknillinen yliopisto Systeemitekniikan laitos PL 692, Tampere Orientation Systems Thinking definitions linear vs. relative thinking
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Systems Thinking and Systems Engineering Matti Vilkko Tampereen teknillinen yliopisto Systeemitekniikan laitos PL 692, Tampere Orientation Systems Thinking definitions linear vs. relative thinking Tools: causality, stocks and flows Systems Engineering definition INCOSE (e.g. V-model) What are ST and SE? Where ST and SE can be used? Systems Thinking System Thinking is the attempt to use a thinking approach for problem solving, by viewing problems as parts of an overall system, rather than reacting to specific part, outcomes or events and potentially generating unintended consequences. Connectedness of systems If you wish to understand a system, and so be in a position to predict its behaviour, it is necessary to study the system as a whole. Cutting it up into bits for study is likely to destroy the system s connectedness, and hence the system itself. If you wish to influence or control the behaviour of a system, you must act on the system as a whole. Tweaking it in one place in the hope that nothing will happen in another is doomed to failure that s what connectedness is all about. Dennis Sherwood From: Seeing the Forest from the Trees A Manager's Guide to Applying Systems Thinking, Dennis Sherwood, Nicolas Brealey Publishing, 2002. Linear thinking Goals Problem Decision Results Situation Event-oriented view of the world From: Business Dynamics: Systems Thinking and Modeling for a Complex World, John D. Sterman, Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 2001. Relative thinking Decisions Goals Environment Our decisions alter our environment, leading to new decisions, Relative thinking Decisions Goals Side Effects Environment Goals of Other Agents Actions of Others but also triggering side effects, delayed reactions, changes in goals and interventions by others. These feedbacks may lead to unanticipated results and ineffective policies. Tool #1: Causal relationships Birth Rate R Population B Death Rate - Fractional Birth Rate Average Lifetime Causal Link + Link Polarity Birth Rate Variable Population Variable + or R Loop Identifier: Positive (Reinforcing) Loop - or B Loop Identifier: Negative (Balancing) Loop Tool #2: Stocks and flows Example: A product inventory Production increases the level of the inventory Sales decreases the level of the inventory Modelling example Let s assume a constant capacity The workforce is assumed flexible Modelling example Production is assumed be a function of workforce and productivity Modelling example Workforce is increased if it is under the desired level Modelling example Sales defines the production rate Ref: Vensim\help\models\ModelGuide\2WFINV Modelling example Let s define a target value for the inventory Simple simulation Current Current2 Inventory production sales Time (Month) Current Current2 net hire rate Workforce target workforce Time (Month) Current Current2 target production inventory correction sales Time (Month) Simple simulation Time to adjust workforce variable: Workforce 225 Person Time (Month) Workforce : Current Workforce : sens1 Workforce : sens2 Systems Engineering Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering that focuses on how complex engineering projects should be designed and managed over the life cycle of the project. System Engineering is focusing on the organisation, design, and implementation processes required to develop a system. The goal is to manage the development process in order to ensure the fulfilment of the various requirements Systems Engineering International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE): Survey of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) Methodologies mttc/mbse_methodology_survey_ _revbjae2.pdf Stock and flow structure of a project phase Side effects of corrective measures lead to vicious cycles. Average Employee Skill, Quality Out-of-Sequence Work, Worksite Congestion, Coordination Problems, Morale Problems People Productivity Quality Fatigue, Burnout Work to be Done Work Being Done Work Really Done Overtime Known Rework Rework Discovery Undiscovered Rework Schedule Acceleration Hiring Obsolescence Rate Customer Changes Apparent Progress Original questions What are ST and SE? ST: Thinking paradigm SE: Engineering approach Where ST and SE can be used? ST embedded into SE In system analysis SE embedded into ST In SE management Any other questions?
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