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The Chronicle of The Kings of Alba: The Identity of Stanmoir, Cluiam and stagna Derrani

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The Chronicle of The Kings of Alba: The Identity of Stanmoir, Cluiam and stagna Derrani
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  The Chronicle of The Kings of Alba: The Identity of Stanmoir  , Cluiam  and  stagna Derrani   Mick Deakin 5 th  October 2019 Some late tenth-century material in The Chronicle of The Kings of Alba reports that, Cináed mac Maíl-Choluim ‘… predaverunt Saxoniam ad Stanmoir, et ad Cluiam, et ad   stagna Derrani …’   “… Cináed son of Máel Coluim, and his army, plundered England as far as Stanmoir,  as far as Cluiam  as far as the pools of the  Derrani …”  The raid is thought to have taken place circa 972 and whilst there is no reason to doubt that Stainmore, a remote moorland area bordering Cumbria, County Durham and North Yorkshire, is represented by Stanmoir  , there is little consensus regarding the identification of the other two places mentioned. I would suggest that Cluiam   ‘ Cluia ’ might be Cleveland , a district that lies entirely to the south of the River Tees. Transposition between the vowel cluster - ui - and a misreading of - u - for - v - would give Cliva . The name Cleveland is derived from OE clif  , genitive pl. clifa  + land   and means ‘Cliff district’. We might note in passing here that in 1070, Máel Coluim mac Donnchada,   came with his army down through Cumbria and across Stainmore to waste Cleveland, then marched north to Wearmouth in Durham. A natural assumption from this chain of thought, would suggest that Cináed, after passing over Stainmore, would follow the Tees Valley, plundering the settlements along this route -we know from the tenth-century archaeology of the area that some of the lower Tees Valley settlements had become home to high status and wealthy mercantile traders. We might therefore look for the ‘pools of the  Derrani ’ along this assumed route. The River Tees had been the northern-most political boundary between Deira and Bernicia and here we might note David Stocker  ’s argument that  the numerous hogback and other monuments found in the area, should be viewed as representing a rising sense of ‘Deiran nationalism’ . I would suggest therefore, that  Derrani  may be a group name referring to the Deirans and that the ‘pools   of Deira’ may refer to the town of Yarm , situated on the south bank in a loop of the River Tees. Victor Watts considers Yarm (  Iarun  1086, Yarum 1198), to be a very early place-name derived from OE *  gear  , dative pl.*  gearum   meaning ‘(settlement at) the fish pools  [Yairs] ’. Yarm was situated in a rich and productive agricultural area; it later became the most important port on the River Tees. An account rendered to the Exchequer in 1205/06 shows that Yarm was rated at £42 17s 10p, compared with Dover at £37 6s 1d and Barton on Humber at £33 11s 9d. It is worthy of mention also, that opposite to Yarm, on the east bank of the Tees is Egglescliffe (  Eggescliva  1155,  Ecclesclive  1197), a potential indicator to an early church site. The Hambleton Drove Road intersected at Yarm, on its way south to Thirsk, and it has been suggested this road [part of which] described as the  Regalis   Via  in the Rievaulx Chartulary, overlay an ancient track which ran down the east side of the country connecting Scotland with  the south of England. The army of Cináed and later, that of Máel Coluim may have used part of this track from the Tees through Durham, or the Roman road Margary 80a crossing at Middleton One Row, on the return journey to Scotland, after their raids in 972 and 1070 respectively. Bibliography Haldane, A.R.B. The Drove Roads of Scotland  . Edinburgh: (Thomas Nelson, 1952) Halstead, Robert. The Stone Sculpture of Anglo-Scandinavian Yorkshire in its Landscape Context. E-Theses, http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/14288/1/Halstead_R_Fine%20Art%2C%20History%20of%20Art%20and%20Cultural%20Studies_PhD_2016.pdf  (retrieved 24 September 2019) Hudson, B.T. The Scottish Chronicle, Scottish Historical Review 77   (1998), pp129-161 O’ Donoghue, Heather, Vohra, Pragya, Eds. The Vikings in Cleveland (  University of  Nottingham 2014) Reid, Ann Elizabeth  , Settlement and Society in north-east Yorkshire A.D. 400-1200. Durham E-Theses, http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/6845/1/6845_4150.PDF?UkUDh:CyT (retrieved 29 September 2019) Watts, Victor, Ed. The Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names  (Cambridge University Press, 2004) Yates, Catherine, The Tenth-Century Hogback Stones of Northern England in Their  Political and Social Context   ( Dissertation, https://www.academia.edu/13218007/The_Tenth-Century_Hogback_Stones_of_Northern_England_in_Social_and_Political_Context, Retrieved August 2018) Mick Deakin Chesterfield Mickdeakin937@mickdeakin937.plus.com 
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