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The Correlation between the Behaviors of Watching Clinical Skills Videos and OSCE Score

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The Correlation between the Behaviors of Watching Clinical Skills Videos and OSCE Score
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  The Correlation between the Behaviors of Watching Clinical Skills Videos and OSCE Score Mujtahiddin Anshori Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu Kesehatan, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta Abstract Clinical skills learning in the skills lab currently faces several problems. In order to improve the effectiveness of clinical skills learning in the skills lab can use the use of other learning methods, one of which uses audiovisual or video learning media. This research aims to acknowledge the relation between the behaviors of watching clinical skills videos with OSCE score. This research uses quantitative research methods with observational research design and cross sectional approach. The number of participant of this study were 12 participants. The data collection in this study uses a questionnaire made by writer, which contains a number of questions to obtain information about the behavior of watching clinical skills videos. The major findings in this research was the correlation coefficient between the behaviors of watching clinical skills videos with OSCE score equals 0.686. From that data, we can conclude that there is a positive and strong correlation. In addition, 12 out of 12 agreed that the use of videos has benefits for them. Keywords: OSCE, Clinical skills, Video, Learning media  1 Introduction One of the assessments in the medical faculty is Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), which is held at the end of each semester after students get all the clinical skills material in the Clinical skills laboratory practice (skills lab) activities. This assessment aims to assess clinical skills. Research shows that OSCE is an effective evaluation tool for assessing the clinical skills of medical students (Sloan, et al., 1995). Students get a theoretical presentation and demonstration of the material that will be tested in OSCE during the skills lab. Skills lab is a learning method or form of learning that is used to provide overall learning to improve  psychomotor abilities (skills), knowledge, and affective (attitudes) using laboratory facilities (Zainuddin, 2001). Skills lab is a student skills training activity that aims to prepare students to be  prepared in clinical skills (Claramita, 2007). Clinical skills learning activities through the skills lab in the Medical Study Program of Universotas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta divided into a small group, each group consist of 6-8 students. The laboratory skills begin with a pre-test and followed by a lecture to add theories that have been previously studied for pre-test. The lecturer demonstrating the steps of procedure on certain clinical skills at a main station by the duty doctor who is an expert in the field and then will  be practiced by each student in a small station under the observation of the instructor. A doctor serves as an instructor in each group's learning in a small station. Demonstration method is a learning method that is considered very effective to help students find answers how to do it, so that students can obtain clear perceptions of the results of their observations and can obtain practical experience, and skills (Nursalam & Efendi, 2008). A study by Hastuti (2010) states that, the demonstration method is one of the skills lab learning methods that are most often used by a number of lecturers in a number of institute. This skills lab activity lasts around 2.5 hours each meeting. Every single clinical skill material in the skills lab is only given once in each meeting in each semester, and it is supplemented by a review of all material at the end of the semester. This is one of the limitations for students to study clinical skills material that is tested in the OSCE. To deepen clinical skills, students usually practice independently but without supervision from a lecturer / doctor, and not a few students do it inappropriately. The limitation of students to  2 understanding the material and deepening their clinical skills not only stops there, the un-uniformity in the presentation of clinical skills steps taught by instructors in one group and in another group often occurs. This certainly can cause confusion among students in determining which steps are appropriate and in accordance with what was tested during the OSCE. Claramita (2007) states that, clinical skills learning in the skills lab currently faces several problems including the limited number of instructors who are competent in teaching the skills provided, the absence of a book on Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) in taking action, the number of practice aids, the number of rooms, methods and learning media is still limited Related to this, Westwood (2008) states that the effectiveness of lecturers is not only centered on one learning method. This means that ideally the lecturer is not focused on just one method. Ratna, et al. (2017) revealed that, in learning activities ideally a lecturer needs teaching aids such as learning media that can support learning success. Media is anything that can channel messages from the sender to the recipient so that it can stimulate feelings, thoughts, attention and interests so that the learning process occurs. In order to improve the effectiveness of clinical skills learning in the skills lab can use the use of other learning methods, one of which uses audiovisual or video learning media. The use of video for learning media has been applied to several medical faculties (Nindya, et al. 2014). Leng, et al. (2007) in Nindya, et al. (2014) revealed that the use of video cases for medical students can help students describe and describe cases in detail, create a chronology of cases in a real way and can improve memory rather than just using a guidance sheet. Dinata (2013) stated that video media could enhance student learning in learning, which is expected to enhance the results achieved. The use of video can build students in exploring data,  building theory, and evaluating theories (Balslev, et al. 2005). Nindya, et al. (2014) mentions that, videos can also be a means of standardizing the steps of working on clinical skills by each instructor. Indeed, there is no standard in the handling of a case, because each case has its own uniqueness. However, standardization is needed so that the assessment of student clinical skills or OSCE can be done as objectively as possible. Through videos, students are presented in a context of real situations that are relevant to the setting of learning. Contextual learning like this will stimulate the process of transferring student knowledge. Contextual learning also influences the  process of storing and recalling the knowledge learned (Nindya et al. 2014).  3 Seeing that video media holds a significant influence in delivering clinical skills learning and has more appeal and makes students able to imagine the context and settings that will occur at the station when the OSCE is implemented. Moreover, the department in university do not provide a proper clinical skills video for students to learning clinical skills. Based on the description above, the authors are interested in conducting research on the relation between the behaviors of watching clinical skills videos between OSCE values. The writer predicts that there is a positive relation  between the behaviors of watching clinical skills videos with OSCE score. Method Material This research uses quantitative research methods with observational research design and cross sectional approach, namely a study by means of data collection of independent variables and dependent variables at the same time, and no follow-up from researchers (Notoadmodjo, 2007). A cross-sectional approach is preferred to examine relationships between variables (Bryman, 2011). Procedure The data collection in this study uses a questionnaire made by writer, which contains a number of questions to obtain information about the behavior of watching clinical skills videos. Every question has four options using Likert scale. Data needed in the context of research is obtained through field surveys. Primary data obtained by researchers directly from respondents using a questionnaire containing questions relating to the behavior of watching video clinical skills. Before the questionnaire was given to the respondent, the respondent was given an explanation of the purpose of the study then it was recommended to sign the approval sheet. Secondary data was obtained from the archives of the results of the OSCE 5 th  semester test results of the Bachelor of Medicine students of the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences of Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta. The data will be analyzed with statistic application using Microsoft excel, to find out the correlation between two variables Participants  4 The number of participant of this study were 12 participants. Participant exclusion criteria was students who repeat the OSCE. Whereas the inclusion criteria were undergraduate Medical Study Program Students at UMY, willing to be a respondent, and have had an OSCE 6 th  semester exam Result Questionnaire Section 1 In this section, the writer wants to assess the behavior of watching videos among the  participants. This section consists of the sub-section. Those are, the frequency of watching the video, attention to the video, and duration of watching the video. This section has 9 questions. All of these questions are positive question or statement. Question 1 “Berapa jumlah video keterampilan klinis   yang anda tonton dalam satu hari?”      Tidak pernah menonton    1-3    4-6    ≥7  Question 2 “Berapa kali Anda menonton setiap satu video keterampilan klinis?”      1    2    3    ≥4  Question 3 “Saya menonton video keterampilan klinis setiap saat belajar”  
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